Sustainable Seafood Distribution & Consultant
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Sustainable Seafood Distribution & Consultant

on

  • 2,894 views

An economic analysis of sustainable seafood distribution and consultancy industry in the Bay Area, May 2010.

An economic analysis of sustainable seafood distribution and consultancy industry in the Bay Area, May 2010.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,894
Views on SlideShare
2,894
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
52
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Sustainable Seafood Distribution & Consultant Document Transcript

  • 1. Fresh Blue Fish Sustainable Seafood Distribution & Consultant Competitive Market Analysis: Jos Hill SUS620: Macro & Ecological Economics April 2010
  • 2. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction………………………………...………………………………………………………3 Fresh Blue Fish……………………………………………………………………………3 Definitions of key terms…………….……………………………………………………..3 Industry analysis…………………….……………………………………..………………………4 Industry structure…………………………….……………………………………………4 Industry trends: seafood supply……...……………………………………………………5 Industry trends: demand for seafood….………………………...…………………………5 Industry trends: restaurant preferences……………………………………………………6 Industry trends: sustainable seafood………………………………………………………6 Industry trends: sustainable seafood in the Bay Area…….…………………………….…8 Competition Analysis………………………………………………...………………………….…9 Rivals…………………………………………………………..…………….……………9 Market differentiation……………………………………………………………...…….10 Substitutes………………………………………………………………………….……11 Barriers to entry………………………………………………………………………….11 Threat of new entrants……………………………………………...……………………12 Customers and pricing………………………………………………..………………….12 Suppliers………………………………………………………………...…….…………13 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..…………13 Resources………………………………………………………………………………....………14 References……………………………………………………………………….….……14 Interviewees…………………………………………………………………..…………19 Jos Hill 2
  • 3. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant INTRODUCTION Overfishing has become a serious issue placing both the future supply of seafood and the health of our planet at risk (Pauly, 2009; Pauly et al, 2005; Mora et al., 2009). As our consumption of fish has doubled in the past thirty years (Delgado et al., 2003) scientists estimate that populations of large commercial fish, such as bluefin tuna and cod have been reduced by a staggering 90 percent (Pauly, 2009). The effects of overfishing on the seafood industry are starting to show as fish become sparser and the cost of fishing rises (Pauly, 2009; Pauly et al, 2005). A study conducted by the World Bank and the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization estimated the current economic opportunity loss of overfishing to total $50 billion annually (WB and FAO, 2009). Reducing overharvesting now can enable fish stocks to recover and enable a higher and sustained level of fishing potential and economic output in the future. Fresh Blue Fish This paper assesses the market potential of “Fresh Blue Fish” (FBF): a sustainable and local seafood distribution and consulting business serving the Bay Area, California. FBF will generate the same kind of connection to local fishermen as the local farming market movement has to local farmers and support the local community. Trust-based relationships will be established with local fishers who will be encouraged to use sustainable fishing methods. FBF customers are restaurants who want to serve sustainable seafood. The consultancy arm of the business will assist restaurants in developing suitable marketing campaigns to establish a sustainable seafood menu and educate diners about sustainable seafood. Definitions of key terms 1. The Monterey Bay Aquarium sustainable seafood rating system (MBA, 2010): • Best Choices: Seafood in this category is abundant, well managed and caught or farmed in environmentally friendly ways. • Good Alternatives: These items are an option, but there are concerns with how they are caught or farmed-or with the health of their habitat due to other human impacts. • Avoid: Take a pass on these items for now. They are caught or farmed in ways that harm other marine life or the environment. 2. Local means seafood caught and delivered between Morro Bay and Point Arena. Jos Hill 3
  • 4. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant 3. Ecologically sustainable seafood means seafood that is caught or farmed in ways that maintain or increase production potential in the long term without jeopardizing the structure or function of affected ecosystems (FishWise, 2010). 4. Ultra-fresh seafood means higher freshness than an average retailer providing fresh seafood. 5. High quality seafood means seafood that is caught using sustainable fishing methods such as hook and line. Because of the way fish are killed, fishing methods that are kinder to the environment also provide seafood that tastes better than do less sustainable methods, which can cause fish to die in a state of stress. INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Industry structure The basic structure of the industry includes the commercial fishers who sell to importers and brokers. In turn the importers sell to local distributors who provide the seafood to the retail industry such as grocery stores and restaurants (see figure 1a). Small-scale distributors who focus on locally caught fish are slowly increasing in number in the US (personal communications: Seafood Distributor, March 26; Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13 and Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 19, 2010) and often acquire seafood directly from the fishermen with whom they have built a relationship (see figure 1b). Cutting out the brokers reduces costs, however, the local system does not have the economies of scale that larger distributors enjoy. Jos Hill 4
  • 5. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant Producers Producers Producers (fishers)) (fishers)) (fishers)) Local fishers Importers & Brokers Fresh Blue Fish Local Local Distributors Distributors Local Local Retail Local Retail Local Retail Local Retail Restaurants (grocery stores, (grocery stores, (grocery stores, (grocery stores, restaurants etc) restaurants etc) restaurants etc) restaurants etc) Figure 1a: Seafood industry structure. Figure 1b: FBF business structure. From personal communications: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 19, 2010. Industry trends: seafood supply The seafood industry is typically very dynamic, fragmented and operates at an international level (personal communications: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 19, 2010; Roheim and Anderson, 1992). The US is the largest importer of fresh and chilled fish fillets with 28.86 percent of the global market (Parker, 2006). The US market is served by some 2500 importers / brokers with the 50 largest making one third of the segment revenue (Hoovers, 2010a). According to the 2002 Census, there are 289 fish and seafood distributors in California, which employ 3,820 people and generate $1,622,579 000 in sales annually. The sustainable seafood movement is only a decade old (McGovern, 2005) so there are no figures on what portion of these sales are from a certified sustainable source. However, from discussions with industry professionals it appears to be only a tiny fraction because sustainable seafood is still an emerging market (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5; Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 19 and Seafood Distributor, April 21, 2010). Demand is driven by trends in seafood consumption. Small companies are able to compete effectively by specializing in niche markets that include a focus on high quality service, local markets and in providing ultra-fresh and high quality seafood (Hoovers, 2010a and b; personal Jos Hill 5
  • 6. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant communications: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 19, Seafood Restaurateur, March 26 and Seafood Distributor, April 21, 2010; Wessells et al., 1999). FBF will specifically target this niche market. Industry trends: demand for seafood The general public has become more concerned about the nutritional quality of their food over the last three decades (NRC 2010). The US Department of Health and Human Services recommends seafood as part of a healthy diet because it contains omega-3 fatty acids, which can contribute to healthy hearts and proper development in children. Heavy industry subsidies have also reduced the price of seafood (Jacquet and Pauly, 2007). In response to the healthcare campaign and reduced price of seafood there has been a significant per capita increase in consumption over the last few decades (figure 2) (NOAA, 2005; Jenkins et al., 2009; EPA, 2010). The US currently imports 84 percent of its seafood, which is up from 63 percent only a decade ago (NOAA, 2008). Scientists estimate that with population growth, global demand for fish is likely to grow by approximately 35 million metric tons by 2030 (Mora et al., 2009). To give some perspective, this increase is 43 percent of the maximum reported catch in the late 1980s (Pinstrup- Andersen et al., 1997; Delgado et al., 2003). Jos Hill 6
  • 7. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant Figure 2: US fish consumption per capita (NOAA, 2005). Industry trends: restaurant preferences A study conducted prior to the beginning of the sustainable seafood movement demonstrated that the consumer’s number one seafood quality preference was freshness (Wessells et al., 1999) and according to industry workers this has not changed. Trust-based relationships are extremely important in the seafood industry. Restaurateurs prefer to deal with distributors they can trust to provide them with high quality and fresh seafood. Support of the local community and sustainable fisheries are currently secondary preferences after service and quality (personal communication: Seafood Restaurateur, March 26; Seafood Restaurateur, March 29; Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5; Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 19 and Seafood Distributor, April 21, 2010). Industry trends: sustainable seafood The sustainable seafood movement began in the late 1990s (McGovern, 2005; Safina, 1998) with the development of certification and ranking initiatives designed to assist customers and retailers to select sustainable seafood products (Roheim, 2009). With the recent success of the film “The End of the Line” in 2009, consumers around the globe are becoming more aware of the fishery crisis and while demand for sustainable seafood is currently low, it is increasing. Forward- thinking businesses will move into this market space (personal communication: Seafood Jos Hill 7
  • 8. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant Sustainability Consultant, April 5; Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13 and Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 19, 2010). To meet demand for sustainable seafood, businesses are encouraged to use environmentally sustainable products that are distinguished with an eco-label with the expectation of capturing a specific market share of concerned consumers (Jacquet and Pauly, 2007). A local example of a rating system is the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch Program that ranks seafood into three categories (MBA, 2010). Another example is the Marine Stewardship Council’s (MSC) certification program, which requires fisheries to conduct stock assessments and ongoing monitoring in order to acquire the MSC eco-label (MSC, 2010). While large grocery stores, such as Walmart and Whole Foods, have pledged to supply MSC-certified seafood (Walmart, 2008; Whole Foods, 2010), the restaurant sector has been slower to follow this trend (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5 and Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). Unfortunately, there is poor consensus among conservation groups as to what constitutes sustainable seafood (Roheim, 2009), which makes identifying suitable products a challenging issue for the seafood industry and consumers to navigate. The lack of agreement provides an opportunity for businesses to advertise products that are less damaging to the environment than average as sustainable. This means that businesses that aim to supply sustainable products need to engage in careful marketing to differentiate their product (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5; Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13 and Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 19, 2010). To make matters more complex, seafood retailers face significant challenges in acquiring sustainable products because mislabeling is a common practice in the industry (Kangun et al., 1991; Martinez-Ortiz, 2005; Jacquet and Pauly 2007; personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5 and Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). Unfortunately certification initiatives like MSC are not a panacea because small fishing businesses cannot afford the certification cost. It is important to encourage small operations because the trend for overfishing correlates with the growth of large fishing corporations (Jacquet and Pauly, 2007). One solution to these challenges is to encourage people to eat local seafood from fishers who they trust are using the right methods. The “localvore”, “know your farmer” and “slow food” (Petrini 2003) trends have been increasing in the Bay Area as environmentally and nutritionally savvy consumers demand high quality and sustainable food (Martin, 2007). However, to date this Jos Hill 8
  • 9. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant movement has largely focused on vegetables and meat (USDA, 2010). The Santa Barbara Commercial Fishermen group recently launched a campaign “know your fisherman” to expand this trend to include seafood (personal communication: Fishery Scientist, March 26, 2010) and fishery scientists have advised conservation organizations to adopt a “slow fish” campaign to emphasize the need to slow the rate of fishing (Chuenpagdee and Pauly, 2005). Industry trends: sustainable seafood in the Bay Area There are 50 seafood distributors within a 50-mile radius of central San Francisco. A small number of these businesses have a number of products listed as sustainable on their inventory; however, only two businesses are pursuing this market seriously. The reasons the sustainable market is so low include low demand for sustainable products coupled with the lack of economic incentives to make the switch. Sourcing sustainable products is time consuming and costly in part because sustainable fisheries are more scarce but also because of the product labeling fraud in the industry (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5 and Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13 and Seafood Distributor, April 21, 2010). In general, restaurateurs who want to supply properly sustainable seafood currently require the assistance of a specialist consultant to help them secure sustainable products because distribution businesses are currently not able to perform this service to the required standard (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5; Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 7 and Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). Table 1 illustrates the Bay Area-based mission-driven businesses that specifically focus on sustainable seafood and the services they provide. All these businesses except the Monterey Fish Market have been founded in the past six years, however the latter only began to focus seriously on sustainability issues since 2005 (personal communications: Seafood Distributor, April 21, 2010). This indicates a trend for this new market to grow. Jos Hill 9
  • 10. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant Table 1: Bay Area-based sustainable seafood businesses. Business type Year founded Monterey Fish Seafood broker & distributor 1979 Market (developed a sustainability focus in 2005) FishWise Consultancy to help retailers, distributors and producers sell sustainable seafood (national) 2002 CleanFish Seafood broker & distributor 2004 FISH Sustainable seafood restaurant, local distributor and sustainability consultant 2004 Tataki Sushi Sustainable seafood restaurant and 2008 sustainability consultant I Love Blue Sea Sustainable seafood retailer 2010 In conclusion, there is an emerging market for sustainable seafood (Bittman, 2010) and customer demand is on the increase (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, 5 April; Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 7, Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13 and Seafood Distributor, April 21, 2010). However, restaurants need a distributor they trust because transparency is a serious issue and there is fraud at every level of the supply chain (Bittman, 2010; personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5, 2010). California is fortunate to have some of the better-managed fisheries in the US (personal communication: Fishery Manager, February 3; Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5; Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). This lack of trustworthy distributors coupled with the potential for a sustainable supply of seafood in California presents an opportunity to establish FBF in the Bay Area. COMPETITION ANALYSIS Rivals Rivals are businesses who advertize sustainable seafood products and consultants who can advise restaurants on which products are sustainable and labeled correctly. There are only two businesses offering consultancy services in the Bay Area. The first is the proprietor of the FISH Jos Hill 10
  • 11. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant (2010) restaurant who runs a values-driven business) and the second is FishWise (2010) which focuses on advising retailers, distributors and producers on a national scale. These businesses are mission-driven and welcome new entrants into the industry to help increase the demand for sustainable seafood products (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5 and Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). There are also a number of non- profits, which provide high-level advice on sustainable fisheries and marketing, such as the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF, 2010) and the Monterey Bay Aquarium (MBA, 2010). However, these organizations are not resourced to commit the time to help restaurateurs consistently source suitable products. Rival distributors are also small-scale businesses, which serve a niche market. Table 2 illustrates the business attributes of identified rivals in the Bay Area. With 3946 restaurants within San Francisco, the current market share taken by these two businesses is very low (SFCED, 2010). As the sustainability movement grows, the demand for sustainable seafood from restaurants is likely to increase significantly. Table 2: Services provided by potential rival distributors in the Bay Area compared to FBF. Personalized, Competitive Ultra- Local Variety Strictness Market share trust-based Pricing fresh of with (San Francisco relationship product sustainability Restaurants available supplied) Fresh YES YES YES YES LOW HIGH Potential to Blue Fish serve 1-3+% as demand grows Monterey YES YES YES YES LOW MEDIUM 3.8% Fish Market FISH YES NO YES YES LOW HIGH 0.38% Wholesale Market differentiation The seafood distribution industry has some characteristics of perfect competition because there are multiple small to medium-sized businesses largely conducting the same activity. However, Jos Hill 11
  • 12. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant there is a niche for monopolistic competition where businesses may focus on providing ultra- fresh and high quality products or with a focus on sustainability. The tactic employed by CleanFish, a national sustainable seafood importer and broker, includes providing marketing material to restaurants to build customer demand from the bottom up. CleanFish provides interested restaurants with a list of distributors who sell their sustainable products (personal communications, Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 19, 2010). FishWise works with retailers, distributors and producers on a national scale to provide the technical knowledge and assistance needed for businesses to make the transition to a sustainable seafood industry. Forward thinking businesses will acknowledge the supply crisis and will ensure they carve out a niche that enables their business to continue into the long term by supporting sustainable fisheries. Because restaurateurs have indicated a strong preference for ultra-fresh seafood and trust-based relationships with distributors; supporting the local fishing industry is a good option to support the local economy and small-scale sustainable fisheries, avoid mislabeling by purchasing directly from the fishers and provide ultra-fresh product to local markets. Another growing advantage to sustainable seafood suppliers is the ability to acquire promotional support from non-profit groups. Fish Choice (2010) runs a free database of sustainable seafood that helps customers source these products and Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch program (MBA, 2010) promotes business partners who support sustainable fisheries. Substitutes The main substitutes are distributors that do not supply sustainable seafood. Forces pushing restaurateurs to purchase non-sustainable seafood may include price, convenience and selection. Some of the most popular seafood choices include salmon and shrimp (Wessells et al., 1999); yet shrimp is rarely sustainable and much of the salmon we eat is farmed which is, arguably, not a sustainable choice as is often claimed (Jacquet and Pauly, 2007; Jenkins et al., 2009; Roheim, 2009). Restaurateurs often feel they will miss out on revenue and risk cash flow issues if they do not supply these types of seafood and a further disincentive is the challenge to access a supply of sustainable seafood products (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5 and Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). Barriers to entry The industry is not capital-intensive so capital barriers to entry are small. The key to succeeding in this niche market will include access to sustainable supply from local fishers and access to Jos Hill 12
  • 13. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant distribution channels. Building relationships with fishers to determine and secure supply is the first essential step to market entry. The second step is to source local restaurateurs who want to sell local products and who want to move towards supporting sustainable fisheries. Part of the challenge will be increasing demand at the consumer level. Another challenge will be increasing the source of sustainable seafood as the demand increases. On entering this niche FBF will require a carefully defined description of what is accepted as sustainable seafood. to. It will be important to ensure consistency in business communications and be prepared to defend this position because of the lack of industry consensus on this topic. Threat of new entrants Demand for sustainable seafood is increasing. This trend has been pushed by recent media on the subject, such as the film adaptation of Clover’s (2004) book “The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat”. At present, much of this demand is largely being met by businesses that propagate questionable claims about the sustainability of their seafood (Pauly, 2005; Roheim, 2009; personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5 and Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). Those in the sustainable industry welcome new entrants and are enthusiastic to see them succeed (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5 and Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). In conclusion, there is the potential for a much larger market within this niche. At this stage the potential growth in the industry presents less of a threat and more of an opportunity that will support public awareness about sustainable seafood. Customers and pricing In a general sense, the demand for seafood in the US is elastic (Roheim and Anderson, 1992) because there are many other sources of protein available. The price of seafood products has decreased in recent years due to the industry being heavily subsidized (Jacket and Pauly, 2007; WB and FAO, 2009). The ability to keep prices competitive is potentially important to be able to compete with non-sustainable products, especially as the majority of restaurants currently do not focus on sustainability. Many distributors commonly participate in price wars with each other to win business (personal communication: Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). However, if the supply of sustainable seafood can be combined with ultra-freshness, and therefore a superior product, there is significant potential for niche pricing above market-rates. Careful marketing can be used to drive up demand (personal communication: Seafood Sustainability Consultant, April 5 and Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). Jos Hill 13
  • 14. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant A study of consumer preferences in 1999 revealed that taste was more important than whether the species was sustainably sourced (Wessells et al., 1999). More recent studies by the Monterey Bay Aquarium show that 76 percent of visitors to the aquarium changed their purchasing habits to more sustainable options after they had received education on the subject. Consumers also expressed frustration that restaurateurs could rarely tell them where their seafood came from or the fishing methods that were used. This makes it difficult for customers to follow the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s guidelines because they provide advice based on the species and catch-type rather than link a restaurant’s supply to a specific source that is known to be sustainable (Kemmerly and Macfarlane, 2008). Customers who care about the sustainability of their seafood may be happy to pay a higher price to avoid the frustration they have experienced with the ranking systems to date. Suppliers Supply of sustainable seafood is limited because we need to reduce fishing rates to let stock recover. Target suppliers are small-scale local fishermen who use sustainable methods. The key to ensuring a supply of ultra-fresh, sustainably caught product is to develop personal relationships with these fishing businesses (personal communication: Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). Local fishers may be encouraged to stick to fully sustainable practices, if they are paid a slightly higher than market rate for their product. FISH pays approximately one third higher for seafood from local fishermen in return for an understanding that fishing methods will be sustainable (personal communications, Seafood Restaurateur and Distributor, April 13, 2010). CONCLUSION The sustainable seafood movement is in its infancy but is set to grow as overfishing takes its toll and consumers become more aware. Businesses that fill this important niche early by forging strong relationships with sustainable seafood suppliers, will likely survive into the long term. The confusion created by the lack of industry agreement with regard to sustainability guidelines and the labeling fraud within the industry make it challenging for seafood consumers to identify a reliable source of sustainable product. Fortunately, restaurateurs value ultra-fresh seafood and quality service from distributors. This situation creates a sound opportunity for Fresh Blue Fish to forge strong relationships with suppliers to provide ultra-fresh, sustainably caught local seafood to restaurants in the Bay Area; and to offer marketing and consultancy services that help interested restaurateurs to differentiate their product. Jos Hill 14
  • 15. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant RESOURCES Bittman, M. (2010). On eating sustainable fish: Interview with Casson Trenor. Diner’s Journal. The New York Times. April 7. Retrieved from http://dinersjournal.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/07/on-eating-sustainable-fish/ Chuenpagdee, R. and Pauly, D. (2005). Slow fish: Creating new metaphors for sustainability. In: overcoming factors of unsustainability in fisheries: Selected papers on issues and approaches. FAO fisheries report, 782, pp. 69–82. International workshop on the implementation of the international fisheries instruments and factors of unsustainability and overexploitation in fisheries. Clover, C. (2004). The end of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Edbury Press, UK. Compass Group (2009). Compass Group announces results of landmark policy to purchase sustainable seafood. Retrieved from http://www.cgnad.com/default.asp?action=article&ID=421 Delgado, C. L., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M. W., Meijer, S. and Ahmed, M. (2003). Outlook for Fish to 2020: Meeting Global Demand. International Food Policy Research Institute & The WorldFish Center. Washington DC. Economic Census (2002). Wholesale Trade California. US Census Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/econ/census02/data/ca/CA000_42.HTM Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) (2010). www.edf.org Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) (2008). How we come up with our eco-Ratings. Retrieved from http://www.edf.org/page.cfm?tagID=13201 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2010). Fish Consumption report. Retrieved from Jos Hill 15
  • 16. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe/index.cfm?fuseaction=list.listBySubTopic&lv=list.listByChapter&ch=4 7&s=287 FISH (2010). www.331fish.com Fish Choice (2010). Environmental solutions for seafood buyers. Retrieved from www.fishchoice.com FishWise (2010). http://fishwise.org FishWise (2010). What is sustainable seafood? Retrieved from http://fishwise.org/our- methods/faqs Hoovers (2010a). Seafood Processing and Distribution Industry Report. Hoover’s Inc. Retrieved from http://www.hoovers.com/seafood-processing-and-distribution/--ID__398--/free-ind-fr- profile-basic.xhtml Hoovers (2010b). Commercial Fishing Industry Report. Hoover’s Inc. Retrieved from http://www.hoovers.com/commercial-fishing/--ID__397--/free-ind-fr-profile-basic.xhtml Jacquet, J. L. and Pauly, D. (2007). The Rise of Seafood awareness campaigns in an era of collapsing fisheries. Marine Policy 31: 308-13. Jenkins, D. J. A., Sievenpiper, J. L., Pauly, D., Sumaila, U. R., Kendall, C. W. C. and Mowat, F. M., (2009). Are dietary recommendations for the use of fish oils sustainable? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 180: 633. Johnson, P. (2007). Fish forever: the definitive guide to understanding, selecting and preparing healthy, delicious and environmentally sustainable seafood. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New Jersey. Kangun, N., Carlson, L. and Grove, S. J. (1991). Environmental advertising claims: a preliminary investigation. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 10(2): 47–59. Kemmerly, J. D. and Macfarlane, V. (2008). The Elements of a Consumer-Based Initiative in Contributing to Positive Environmental Change: Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch Jos Hill 16
  • 17. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant Program. Zoo Biology 0:1-14. Martin, A. (2007). If it’s fresh and local, it is always greener? New York Times, December 9. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/09/business/yourmoney/09feed.html Martinez-Garmendia, J. and Anderson, J. (2005). Conservation, markets, and fisheries policy: The North Atlantic bluefin tuna and the Japanese sashimi market. Agribusiness 21(1):17–36. Martinez-Ortiz, J. (2005). White fish handbook of Ecuador: 45 species of commercial interest. Quito: Asoexpebla. MBA (Monterey Bay Aquarium) (2010). Seafood Watch Seafood Ratings. Retrieved from http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/sfw_recommendations.aspx McGovern, D. (2005). The sustainable seafood movement: Transforming the global seafood industry. IntraFish Industry Report. October. Mora, C., Myers, R. A., Coll, M., Libralato, S., Pitcher, T. J, Sumaila, R. U., Zeller, D., Watson, R., Gaston, K. J. and Worm, B. (2009). Management Effectiveness of the World’s Marine Fisheries. PLoS Biology 7(6). Munro G. R., Sumaila U. R. (2002). Subsidies and their potential impact on the management of the ecosystems of the North Atlantic. In: Pitcher T., Sumaila U.R., Pauly D., editors. Fisheries impacts on North Atlantic ecosystems: evaluations and policy explorations. University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre Research Report 9(5): 10–27 MSC (2010). Marine Stewardship Council. Get certified! Fisheries. Retrieved from http://www.msc.org/get-certified/fisheries National Research Council of the National Academies (NRC) (2010). Certifiably sustainable? The role of third-party certification systems. Workshop Report. Committee on Certification of Sustainable Products and Services. Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Policy and Global Affairs Division. Washington, DE: National Academies Press: 121. National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (2005). Fisheries of the United States. Jos Hill 17
  • 18. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant Retrieved from http://earthtrends.wri.org/updates/node/157 National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (2008). Seafood Consumption Figures Released for 2007. Retrieved from http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/fishnews/2008/07282008.htm#anchor2 Pauly, D. (2005). Review of ‘The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the World and What We Eat’’. The Times Higher Education Supplement. April 22. Pauly, D., Watson, R. and Alder, J. (2005). Global trends in world fisheries: impacts on marine ecosystems and food security. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences: 360(1453): 5-12. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636108/ Pauly, D. (2009). Aquacalypse Now: The end of fish. The New Republic. September 28. Retrieved from http://www.tnr.com/article/environment-energy/aquacalypse-now Petrini, C. (2003). Slow food: the case for taste. New York: Columbia University Press. Parker, P. M. (2006). The world market for fresh and chilled fish fillets: A 2006 global trade perspective. ICON Group Ltd. San Diego, USA. Pinstrup-Andersen, P., Pandya-Lorch, R., Rosegrant, M. W. (1997). The world food situation: recent developments, emerging issues, and long-term prospects. 2020 Vision Food Policy Report. Washington (D. C.): International Food Policy Research Institute: 36. Roheim, C. A. (2009). An evaluation of sustainable seafood guides: Implications for environmental groups and the seafood industry. Marine Resource Economics, 24: 301-310. Roheim, C. and Anderson, J. L. (1992). Innovations and progress in seafood demand and market analysis. Marine Resource Economics: 7: 209-228. Safina, C. (1998). What’s a fish lover to eat? The Audubon Guide to Seafood. Audubon 100: 63- 6. Jos Hill 18
  • 19. Fresh Blue Fish: Sustainable Seafood Distributor & consultant SFCED (2010). San Francisco Economic Indicators report. San Francisco Center for Economic Development. Retrieved from http://www.sfced.org/assets/files/Economic%20Indicators/SF_Economic_Indicators_3.10.2010.p df Slow Food SF (2010). www.slowfoodsanfrancisco.com Trenor, C. (2008). Sustainable sushi: a guide to saving the oceans one bite at a time. North Atlantic Books. Berkeley, California. USDA: United States Department of Agriculture (2010). Growing a healthier you. Retrieved from http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/KnowYourFarmer.htm US department of Health and Human Services. (2004). What You Need to Know About Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/Product- SpecificInformation/Seafood/FoodbornePathogensContaminants/Methylmercury/ucm115662.htm Walmart (2008). WAL-MART Stores, Inc. is offering sustainable seafood. Fact sheet. Retrieved from http://walmartstores.com/media/factsheets/fs_2248.pdf Wessells, C. R., Johnston, R.J. and Donath, H. (1999). Assessing consumer preferences for eco- labeled seafood: the influence of species, certifier, and household attributes. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 8(5):1084–9. Wholefoods (2010). Certified sustainable seafood. Retrieved from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/values/certified-sustainable.php World Bank and FAO (2009). Sunken billions: The economic justification for fisheries reform: Case study summaries. Retrieved from http://go.worldbank.org/MGUTHSY7U0 Jos Hill 19