• Why we ask occupation while taking nursing
• “Prevention is better than cure”.
• Occupational health is directly proportional to
the development of country
Defining occupational health
• OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SHOULD AIM AT THE
PROMOTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE
HIGHEST DEGREE OF PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND
SOCIAL WELL BEING OF WORKERS IN ALL
• Prevention among those who have depart from health
due to working conditions
• Protection of those who have risk to health in their
Global Burden of Occupational
Injury and Disease/Year
Injuries Diseases Total
Fatal 100,000 700,000 800,000
Non-Fatal 99,000,000 10,300,000 109,300,000
100,000,000 11,000,000 111,000,000
*From Leigh, et al., Epidemiology 10(5):626-31, September 2011
Estimated Annual Incidence of Occupational
Injury & Disease Worldwide, (WHO)
# New Cases/year
Pesticide poisoning 109,000
Other poisoning 122,000
Mental disorders 318,000
Noise-induced hearing loss 1,628,000
Skin disorders 1,895,000
Chronic respiratory disease 2,631,000
Musculoskeletal disorders 3,337,000
DISEASE DUE TO PHYSICAL AGENT
• Heat: heat hyperpyrexia, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat
cramps, burns and local effects such as prickly heat.
• Cold: trench foot, frost bite, chilblains.
• Light: occupational cataract, miner’s nystagmus.
• Pressure: caisson disease, air embolism, blast(explosion)
• Noise: occupational deafness
• Radiation: cancer, luekaemia, aplastic anaemia, pancytopenia.
• Mechanical factors: injuries, accidents.
• Electricity: burns.
1. Gases:CO2, CO, HCN, CS2, NH3, N2, H2S, HCL, SO2
2. Dusts (pneumoconiosis)
Inorganic dust: coal dust: antracosis
asbestos: asbestosis, cancer lung
Organic(vegetable dust): cane fiber: bagassosis
hay or grain dust: farmers’
DISEASE DUE TO CHEMICAL AGENT
3. Metals and their compounds:
lead ,mercury, cadmium, manganese, beryllium,
4. Chemicals: acid, alkalies, pesticides
5. Solvents: carbon bisulphide, benzene, trichloroethylene,
DISEASE DUE TO BIOLOGICAL AGENT
Brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, tetanus,
actinomycosis, hydatidosis, psittacosis, encephalities,
• Cancer of the skin, lungs, bladder
• Dermatitis, eczema
DISEASE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ORIGIN
• Industrial neurosis, hypertension, peptic
• Dust within the range of 0.5 to 3 micron is a
health hazard producing, after a variables
period of exposure, a lung disease known as
• which may gradually cripple a man by
reducing his working capacity due to lung
fibrosis and other complication.
Hazardous effects of dust on lungs depend
upon a number of factors such as:
Concentration of dust in air
Period of exposure
Health status of the person exposed
• Lead is a toxic metal for human body.
• It is used widely in industry.
• Non occupational sources
• Mode of absorption
• Body stores
• Distribution in the body
• Clinical picture
• Substitution of lead with less toxic materials.
• Isolation of all processes which gives rise to
lead dust and fumes.
• Local exhaust ventilation
• Personal protection, personal hygiene and
good house keeping.
• Periodic examination of workers and health
• Medical management- saline stomach wash
• Skin cancer:(75% of total) gas workers, oil refiners,
tar distillers, oven workers, road workers,etc.
• Lung cancer: gas industry, nickle and chromium
work, mining of radio active substance, asbestos
• Bladder cancer: dye stuff, dyeing industries, rubber,
gas and electrical cable industry.
• Leukemia: benzol, roengent rays and radioactive
Control of industrial cancer
1. Elimination or control of carcinogens
2. Medical examinations
3. Inspections of factories
5. Licensing of establishment
6. Personal hygiene measures
7. Education of workers and management
1. Physical: heat , cold, moisture, friction, x-ray
and other rays.
2. Chemical : acid, alkalies, dyes, solvents,
grease, tar, pitch, chlorinated phenols.
3. Biological: virus, bacteria, fungi and other
4. Plant products: leaves, vegetables, fruits,
flowers, vegetable dust.
Prevention of occupational dermatitis
• Its largely preventable if proper control measures are
pre medical exam
suspected and with known predisposition should
2. Protection : clothes, gloves, boots, aprons, etc.
3. Personal hygiene
4. periodic inspection: medical check ups for early
detection and treatment
effects of radiation
• Shielding of workers
• Monitoring the employees
• Protective clothing
• Adequate ventilation
• Replacement and periodic examination
• Avoidance of pregnant women to work
Medical and health care services
Supervision of working environment
Maintenance and analysis of records
Health education and counseling
Design of building
Dust-enclosure and isolation
Local exhaust ventilation
Statistical monitoring and research