0
OBJECTIVES
• Why we ask occupation while taking nursing
history ?
• “Prevention is better than cure”.
• Occupational healt...
Defining occupational health
• OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SHOULD AIM AT THE
PROMOTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE
HIGHEST DEGREE OF PH...
Global Burden of Occupational
Injury and Disease/Year
Injuries Diseases Total
Fatal 100,000 700,000 800,000
Non-Fatal 99,0...
Estimated Annual Incidence of Occupational
Injury & Disease Worldwide, (WHO)
# New Cases/year
Injuries 100,688,000
Disease...
Health of the workers
OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
1
•Man and physical, chemical and
biological agents
2
•Man and machine
3
•Man and man
7/14/20137
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
Physical
hazards
Chemical
hazards
Biological
hazards
Mechanical
hazards
Psychological
hazards
8
OCCUPATIONAL
DISEASES
9
DISEASE DUE TO PHYSICAL AGENT
• Heat: heat hyperpyrexia, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat
cramps, burns and local effec...
1. Gases:CO2, CO, HCN, CS2, NH3, N2, H2S, HCL, SO2
2. Dusts (pneumoconiosis)
 Inorganic dust: coal dust: antracosis
silic...
3. Metals and their compounds:
lead ,mercury, cadmium, manganese, beryllium,
arsenic,chromium, etc.
4. Chemicals: acid, al...
DISEASE DUE TO BIOLOGICAL AGENT
Brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, tetanus,
actinomycosis, hydatidosis, psittacosis, enc...
OCCUPATIONAL CANCER
• Cancer of the skin, lungs, bladder
OCCUPATIONAL DERMATOSIS
• Dermatitis, eczema
DISEASE OF PSYCHO...
PNEUMOCONIOSIS
15
• Dust within the range of 0.5 to 3 micron is a
health hazard producing, after a variables
period of exp...
Hazardous effects of dust on lungs depend
upon a number of factors such as:
Chemical composition
Fineness
Concentration of...
• Silicosis
• Anthracosis
• Byssinosis
• Bagassosis
• Asbestosis
• Farmers lungs
17
LEAD POISONING
• Lead is a toxic metal for human body.
• It is used widely in industry.
• Non occupational sources
• Mode ...
Preventive measures
• Substitution of lead with less toxic materials.
• Isolation of all processes which gives rise to
lea...
OCCUPATIONAL CANCER
• Skin cancer:(75% of total) gas workers, oil refiners,
tar distillers, oven workers, road workers,etc...
Control of industrial cancer
1. Elimination or control of carcinogens
2. Medical examinations
3. Inspections of factories
...
OCCUPATIONAL DERMATITIS
1. Physical: heat , cold, moisture, friction, x-ray
and other rays.
2. Chemical : acid, alkalies, ...
Prevention of occupational dermatitis
• Its largely preventable if proper control measures are
adopted
1. Pre-selection
 ...
RADIATION HAZARDS
various sources
effects of radiation
Preventive measures
• Shielding of workers
• Monitoring the employe...
HEALTH PROBLEM DUE TO
INDUSTRIALIZATION
25
• Environmental sanitation problems
• Communicable disease
• Food sanitation
• Mental health
• Accidents and social proble...
MEASURES FOR HEALTH
PROMOTION OF WORKERS
27
• Nutrition
• Communicable disease control
• Environmental sanitation
• Mental health
• Measures for women and children
• ...
PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL
DISEASE
29
MEDICAL MEASURES
Pre-placement examination
Periodical examination
Medical and health care services
Notification
Super...
ENGINEERING MEASURES
Design of building
Good housekeeping
General ventilation
Mechanization
Substitution
Dust-enclos...
LEGISLATION
The Factory Act-1948
The Employees state insurance act-1948
32
Occupational health and_safety
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Transcript of "Occupational health and_safety"

  1. 1. OBJECTIVES • Why we ask occupation while taking nursing history ? • “Prevention is better than cure”. • Occupational health is directly proportional to the development of country
  2. 2. Defining occupational health • OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SHOULD AIM AT THE PROMOTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND SOCIAL WELL BEING OF WORKERS IN ALL OCCUPATIONS. • Prevention among those who have depart from health due to working conditions • Protection of those who have risk to health in their working conditions
  3. 3. Global Burden of Occupational Injury and Disease/Year Injuries Diseases Total Fatal 100,000 700,000 800,000 Non-Fatal 99,000,000 10,300,000 109,300,000 100,000,000 11,000,000 111,000,000 *From Leigh, et al., Epidemiology 10(5):626-31, September 2011
  4. 4. Estimated Annual Incidence of Occupational Injury & Disease Worldwide, (WHO) # New Cases/year Injuries 100,688,000 Diseases Pesticide poisoning 109,000 Other poisoning 122,000 Cancer 191,000 Mental disorders 318,000 Pneumoconioses 453,000 Noise-induced hearing loss 1,628,000 Skin disorders 1,895,000 Chronic respiratory disease 2,631,000 Musculoskeletal disorders 3,337,000
  5. 5. Health of the workers
  6. 6. OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 1 •Man and physical, chemical and biological agents 2 •Man and machine 3 •Man and man 7/14/20137
  7. 7. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS Physical hazards Chemical hazards Biological hazards Mechanical hazards Psychological hazards 8
  8. 8. OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES 9
  9. 9. DISEASE DUE TO PHYSICAL AGENT • Heat: heat hyperpyrexia, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat cramps, burns and local effects such as prickly heat. • Cold: trench foot, frost bite, chilblains. • Light: occupational cataract, miner’s nystagmus. • Pressure: caisson disease, air embolism, blast(explosion) • Noise: occupational deafness • Radiation: cancer, luekaemia, aplastic anaemia, pancytopenia. • Mechanical factors: injuries, accidents. • Electricity: burns.
  10. 10. 1. Gases:CO2, CO, HCN, CS2, NH3, N2, H2S, HCL, SO2 2. Dusts (pneumoconiosis)  Inorganic dust: coal dust: antracosis silica: silicosis asbestos: asbestosis, cancer lung iron: siderosis  Organic(vegetable dust): cane fiber: bagassosis cotton dust:byssinosis tobacco: tobacossis hay or grain dust: farmers’ lung 11 DISEASE DUE TO CHEMICAL AGENT
  11. 11. 3. Metals and their compounds: lead ,mercury, cadmium, manganese, beryllium, arsenic,chromium, etc. 4. Chemicals: acid, alkalies, pesticides 5. Solvents: carbon bisulphide, benzene, trichloroethylene, chloroform, etc.
  12. 12. DISEASE DUE TO BIOLOGICAL AGENT Brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, tetanus, actinomycosis, hydatidosis, psittacosis, encephalities, fungal infection. 13
  13. 13. OCCUPATIONAL CANCER • Cancer of the skin, lungs, bladder OCCUPATIONAL DERMATOSIS • Dermatitis, eczema DISEASE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ORIGIN • Industrial neurosis, hypertension, peptic ulcer.
  14. 14. PNEUMOCONIOSIS 15 • Dust within the range of 0.5 to 3 micron is a health hazard producing, after a variables period of exposure, a lung disease known as pneumoconiosis, • which may gradually cripple a man by reducing his working capacity due to lung fibrosis and other complication.
  15. 15. Hazardous effects of dust on lungs depend upon a number of factors such as: Chemical composition Fineness Concentration of dust in air Period of exposure Health status of the person exposed
  16. 16. • Silicosis • Anthracosis • Byssinosis • Bagassosis • Asbestosis • Farmers lungs 17
  17. 17. LEAD POISONING • Lead is a toxic metal for human body. • It is used widely in industry. • Non occupational sources • Mode of absorption • Body stores • Distribution in the body • Clinical picture 18
  18. 18. Preventive measures • Substitution of lead with less toxic materials. • Isolation of all processes which gives rise to lead dust and fumes. • Local exhaust ventilation • Personal protection, personal hygiene and good house keeping. • Periodic examination of workers and health education • Medical management- saline stomach wash if ingested.
  19. 19. OCCUPATIONAL CANCER • Skin cancer:(75% of total) gas workers, oil refiners, tar distillers, oven workers, road workers,etc. • Lung cancer: gas industry, nickle and chromium work, mining of radio active substance, asbestos industry • Bladder cancer: dye stuff, dyeing industries, rubber, gas and electrical cable industry. • Leukemia: benzol, roengent rays and radioactive substance. 20
  20. 20. Control of industrial cancer 1. Elimination or control of carcinogens 2. Medical examinations 3. Inspections of factories 4. Notifications 5. Licensing of establishment 6. Personal hygiene measures 7. Education of workers and management 8. research
  21. 21. OCCUPATIONAL DERMATITIS 1. Physical: heat , cold, moisture, friction, x-ray and other rays. 2. Chemical : acid, alkalies, dyes, solvents, grease, tar, pitch, chlorinated phenols. 3. Biological: virus, bacteria, fungi and other parasites. 4. Plant products: leaves, vegetables, fruits, flowers, vegetable dust. 22
  22. 22. Prevention of occupational dermatitis • Its largely preventable if proper control measures are adopted 1. Pre-selection  pre medical exam  suspected and with known predisposition should kept away 2. Protection : clothes, gloves, boots, aprons, etc. 3. Personal hygiene 4. periodic inspection: medical check ups for early detection and treatment
  23. 23. RADIATION HAZARDS various sources effects of radiation Preventive measures • Shielding of workers • Monitoring the employees • Protective clothing • Adequate ventilation • Replacement and periodic examination • Avoidance of pregnant women to work 24
  24. 24. HEALTH PROBLEM DUE TO INDUSTRIALIZATION 25
  25. 25. • Environmental sanitation problems • Communicable disease • Food sanitation • Mental health • Accidents and social problems • Morbidity and mortality
  26. 26. MEASURES FOR HEALTH PROMOTION OF WORKERS 27
  27. 27. • Nutrition • Communicable disease control • Environmental sanitation • Mental health • Measures for women and children • Health education • Family planning
  28. 28. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE 29
  29. 29. MEDICAL MEASURES Pre-placement examination Periodical examination Medical and health care services Notification Supervision of working environment Maintenance and analysis of records Health education and counseling
  30. 30. ENGINEERING MEASURES Design of building Good housekeeping General ventilation Mechanization Substitution Dust-enclosure and isolation Local exhaust ventilation Protection device Environmental monitoring Statistical monitoring and research 31
  31. 31. LEGISLATION The Factory Act-1948 The Employees state insurance act-1948 32
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