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Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society
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Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources, Lifestyle and Society

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Tolerance is part of Indian culture. Literary works focus on it. It is key to maintaining diversity in India. The cultural tolerance is beneficial but when zero tolerance to corrupt practices, …

Tolerance is part of Indian culture. Literary works focus on it. It is key to maintaining diversity in India. The cultural tolerance is beneficial but when zero tolerance to corrupt practices, inefficiencies, unhygienic conditions and environmental degradation it is undesirable. Should we not follow path shown by Krishna in Geeta of fighting against adharma?

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  • 1. Tolerance in Indian Society:Implications on Society, Natural Resources and Lifestyle Presented at Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi August 8, 2012 Ankur Joshi, Sumedha Chauhan FPM Scholar Management Development Institute, Gurgaon 1
  • 2. Contents• Introduction• Indian Society: A Perspective• Why study tolerance• Tolerance in Indian society- Past times to today – Economy – Education – Natural Resources • Water • Air – Lifestyle / Standards of Living• Conclusion 2
  • 3. Introduction• “Globalization can threaten national and local identities. The solution is not to retreat to conservatism and isolationist nationalism—it is to design multicultural policies to promote diversity and pluralism” (UNDP, 2004)• Widmalm (2005) talks about the immigrants being targeted and this being a global phenomenon• In India the situation is slight different. Illegal immigrants are a great concern for India (Ministry of Home Affairs, India) 3
  • 4. Introduction• India may witness a historic transition from a largely rural and agrarian society to one that is predominantly urban (350 million in 2011 to 850 million in 2050)• This if so will pose challenges on fronts like policy formation, natural resource management and infrastructure• To ensure proper management studying the transition and addressing the issues is very crucial 4
  • 5. Indian SocietyA Perspective 5
  • 6. Indian Society• India was introduced to various cultures, which today are indispensible part of India – The Mughal culture came to India as political force and got fitted at remarkable speed – British brought incomparable political and economical change (Discovery of India J. Nehru, 1946)• Economically India suffered badly and contribution to world GDP which was once about 30% started reducing (Abdul Kalam and Singh, 2011) 6
  • 7. Indian Society• Society cannot remain immune when economical and political changes are around• Social complications increased but also resulted in diverse culture and tolerance is the key to maintaining diversity 7
  • 8. Globalization, MigrationAgain bringing changes to society 8
  • 9. Why study Tolerance Levels?• Tolerance levels are one of the major concerns for the global society• Tolerance is one of the precise and direct measurements of democratic performance (Widmalm, 2005)• India being the largest democracy in the world 9
  • 10. Why study Tolerance Levels?• In addressing the mentioned challenges a major part will have to be played by the tolerance• In the challenges related to cultural and economic transition, observing tolerance will be required• While observing zero tolerance towards corruption, inefficiencies will be decisive 10
  • 11. What is Tolerance? 11
  • 12. Tolerance, for this study• “restraint shown in revoking rights of those expressing opinions that may be disagreed with by even a majority of the population” (Widmalm, 2005)• “an allowable amount of variation of a specified quantity” (Oxford Dictionary) 12
  • 13. Tolerance in Indian Society Past times to today 13
  • 14. Part of Indian culture Giving a distinct identity to nation• Birth place of concepts like “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”• Ashoka’s championing religious and other kinds of tolerance is certainly among the earliest political defences of tolerance anywhere• Akbar in 16th century, was assertive on religious tolerance and remarked that no one should be interfered with on account of religion 14
  • 15. Contd..• Swami Vivekanand mentioned about universal toleration and acceptance of every religion as ‘true’ in famous speech at Chicago conference, 1893• Dr. Manmohan Singh also expressed his views that originated from the same idea of toleration of religious harmony while addressing at South Asian Inter Faith Harmony Conclave• And after all these examples it needless to mention India is a country which came out of dark ages of dependence through the powerful tool of ahmisa, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi 15
  • 16. Tolerance in Indian Society: Socio-political Implications An integrated society is one of most importantbenefits that India reaps. People belonging to almost all religions of world live in harmony Great literature ‘Geeta’ has clear mention that “one should always fight against adharma 16
  • 17. From ancient times• The period between 600 BC and 600 AD is considered as a turning point in Indian History• This period saw rise of Mahajanpads along with Cities and States. Registration of births and deaths started• On the religious and cultural side, Buddhism and Jainism developed. The popularity of these religions kept on increasing and emphasis was laid on their teachings Themes in Indian History, NCERT 17
  • 18. Current Situation• Jurisdiction in India, in a statement on 19th December 2011 the Indian government said “Around 3.2 crore cases were pending in high courts and subordinate courts across the country while 56,383 cases were pending in the Supreme Court” (Times of India, December 20, 2011)• In the light of increasing focus on human rights we have diluted our fight against unethical means – S. Chandni Bi a historian from Aligarh Muslim University mentioned “inscriptions found in the southern state of Tamil Nadu clearly indicate how intolerant civil society was against corrupt practices and the violators of ethical framework (http://m.ibnlive.com/news/zero-tolerance-for-corruption-in-ancient-india/201047-8.html) 18
  • 19. Contd..• In dealing with issues of terrorism, naxal movements with peace and harmony, India has sacrificed civilians and police jawans• Restraining from taking any harsh stand have let these issues surface for long time and resulted in threat to public safety and integrity 19
  • 20. Current• In past two years i.e. 2010-12 civil society has stepped up the pressure on government to formulate strict laws against corruption, but nothing significant could be achieved• The civil societies can’t be effective unless government is effective (Osborne and Gaebler, 1992) 20
  • 21. Current• Also here mention of the khap panchayats is necessary – Resisting the changes – Are intolerant towards the activities that they feel are right – In recent past incidences of irrational diktats have been noticed to increase 21
  • 22. Tolerance in Indian Society: Economy 22
  • 23. Past to Present• Strong economic foundations were being laid During 600 BC to 600 AD period – Use of iron for making agriculture tools began – Various means of irrigation were developed -impetus to agriculture growth – Facilitated by introduction of coins long distance & overseas trade began – The regulatory bodies were also in place for trade and commerce 23
  • 24. Contd..But the share started reducing rapidly as in graph below. Although post 2000 AD,GDP shows a rise (which is not captured here) Source: Target 3 Billion, Kalam & Singh (2011) pp. 104 24
  • 25. Tolerance in Indian Society: Education 25
  • 26. Nalanda - Takshshila• Education system at time of Nalanda and Takshashila was unparallel – The excellence of learned teachers attracted students from all over the world (Apte, University of Baroda) – Nalanda (427 AD to 1197 AD) was one of the first great universities, which had courses like fine arts and medicine to mathematics and astronomy along with politics and the art of war (Garten, 2006)• Kautilya’s ‘Arthashatra’was the main literary source (Nehru, 1946). Those literary works are very relevant even today 26
  • 27. A study by Widmalm (2005)• Relationship between tolerance level and the literacy is significant• The higher the education level, more tolerant the individual is towards the acceptance of diversity• One of the survey questions used by Widmalm (2005) to measure tolerance – “whether, somebody who is against all temples, mosques, churches and religion, should be allowed to make a speech in the respondent’s city or village” 27
  • 28. Contd.• Literacy and Tolerance in Madhya Pradesh and Kerala• Grant of speech rightsSource: Trust and Tolerance in India: Findings from Madhya Pradesh and Kerala, Widmalm (2005) Illiterate None & None but None but Primary Middle or Secondary College or University 28
  • 29. Tolerance in Indian Society:Implications on Natural Resources 29
  • 30. Tolerance in Indian Society: Implications on Natural Resources• The natural resources which are essential for economic growth like crude oil, elements like lithium (required in batteries), silicon (chip making) etc don’t pose threat to existence of life• The other important natural resource that is water (especially drinking water) is getting polluted at a high rate. Catering to the demand is going to be huge challenge• To make it safe for drinking the cost of treatment is increasing 30
  • 31. Contd..• Air pollution levels are also on all time high• “Environmental degradation is a major causal factor in enhancing and perpetuating poverty, particularly among the rural poor, when such degradation impacts soil fertility, quantity and quality of water, air quality, forests, wildlife and fisheries.” National Environmental Policy (2006) 31
  • 32. WaterThe concern in public for the water pollution• A survey conducted by World Values Survey in 2006 about seriousness of the water pollution reported only 40% of people to very serious about the issue and some 26% considered the threat to be somewhat serious 32
  • 33. Contd..• We may find many promises made, but implementation has been concern, to which CAG, Supreme Court and other bodies have made critical remarks, but hardly any outcome• This brings us to the tolerance level in study here, hardly people protest to the effluents being emptied in river without being treated• Various environmentalist and related organisation carry out demonstration, but outcomes are not as desired 33
  • 34. Contd..• Those people, who are financially in a condition to get the water purification systems installed, buy the packaged drinking water, so the situation is not worse for them• However a large mass of people about 29.8% who are below poverty line use the contaminated water (World Bank, 2010)• The quality of water in India is not as per standards in all parts. In a report by World Health Organisation (WHO), it is mentioned “85% of rural population is dependent on ground water which is depleting at faster rate than any time and even in urban areas 65% of population is dependent on surface water” 34
  • 35. Contd..• One song that was directed “Gaon chodab nahi” by K.P. Sasi of ‘Visual Search and Action Aid’ highlights the plight of tribal people in fetching water. Although it’s radical, but calls for action from policy makers to address the issue with most priority http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8M5aeMpzOLU• Wild life & aquatic life is also under serious threat. – Sardines (a type of fish) that travelled towards coast of Gujarat from Kerala because they are highly sensitive to even a change of 0.1 degree centigrade. – Fishermen from Gujarat remarked having never seen sardines, at the same time Keralites fisherman witnessed their reducing number (Nambudiri, 2012) 35
  • 36. Contd..Ganga Action Plan:CAG of India (2000) reported – Ganga Action Plan, did not achieve river water quality / levels despite a total expenditure of Rs 901.71 crore over a period of 15 year – The targets were already set low, of the total domestic sewage of 5044 mld, the GAP addressed itself to process only 2794 mld. The reported achievement was only 39 percent (of 2794 mld) and that was 1095.69 mld 36
  • 37. Contd..• Similar is the case with the river Yamuna in New Delhi – Supreme Court termed the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) as the biggest polluter of the river Yamuna, and came hard the stand of MCD as it said, it has nothing to do with the pollution of the river. – Further, court also warned it that all its three commissioners would have to appear before the court if it persisted with its stand 37
  • 38. Contd..• As discussed earlier, migration to urban areas is putting a lot of pressure on urban infrastructure• An indicator in the inefficiency in the supply of water is the amount of water produced that does not reach its customers (unaccounted for water). The reasons may be leakage or illegal connections 38
  • 39. Contd..• The maintenance of water supply systems that has been poor could be improved by communities taking responsibility and municipal bodies facilitating the process• The depletion in ground water levels is a cause for concern which may get addressed after declaring it as national property similar to oil 39
  • 40. Waste water generation Waste water generation (estimated)Year Urban Population Lpcd Gross Wastewater Generation (mld)1977-78 60 116 70071989-90 102 119 121451994-95 128 130 166622001 285 130 370002011 373 130 480002021 488 121 590482031 638 121 771982041 835 121 1010352051 1093 121 132253 Source : Derived from data of Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt in India. 40
  • 41. Air• Results of a survey question by World Values Survey when people were asked about concern for air quality• About 38% of people felt this is very serious issue and 23% somewhat serious.Survey had a note below:• “The Government should reduce environmental pollution, but it should not cost me any money”(World Values Survey) 41
  • 42. Contd..• Today air conditioners with purifiers are becoming need• Pure air is already on verge of turning into an economic good and hence posing threat of survival for people• Just to exaggerate, situation shown in science-fiction movies may come true 42
  • 43. Contd..Today, the toxic levels in air are increasing (January, 2012) Source: The Hindu, January 28, 2012 43
  • 44. Tolerance in Indian Society: Lifestyle / Standard of Living 44
  • 45. Tolerance in Indian Society: Lifestyle / Standard of Living• The degradation in quality of natural resources has been increasing and has been ignored• The contaminated water and inadequate levels of sanitation and hygiene result in improper health conditions and increase the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases (including cholera) trachoma and hepatitis (world health statistics, 2012)• How can we expect the people to have a decent lifestyle and standard of living, especially when they have to shell out money for treatment of diseases 45
  • 46. Contd..• Again comparing with ancient times (600 BC to 600 AD) – looking after public buildings, water supply, hospitals, schools was the job of municipal councils – Hygiene was considered important• But today being hygienic is a great difficulty in India for many families – Unhygienic ambience gives birth to various diseases – According to WHO and UNICEF report there are approx 1.2 billion people in the world who defecate in the open, out of which 665 million live in India – According to health ministry estimates, the unhygienic condition and poor health cost about Rs 12 billion a year 46
  • 47. Contd..• Unhygienic conditions can be observed at public places like railway stations and parks also. And since rules are not enforced, people don’t adhere to themBut• There are examples like Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), which has taken a stand of observing zero tolerance to violation of rules and has been very successful in this regard – Authorized the station personnel to directly impose fines for littering or creating other kind of any nuisance – DMRC administration has set an example for civic bodies to follow – And the outcome is significant, Metro premises are clean and hygienic 47
  • 48. Contd..• The hygiene has affected the image of India as well• The case of commonwealth games held in India in 2010 – Officials of New Zealand team were horrified by the view of unclean bathrooms and rooms – Explanation given by Mr. Lalit Bhanot “Indians and Westerners have different standards of hygiene.”• After this statement national media took on Mr. Bhanot – but a self introspection would have resulted in working for improvement rather than criticizing him – which we unfortunately didn’t do 48
  • 49. Conclusions 49
  • 50. Conclusions• Learning from the best practices already being followed – Delhi Metro’s model – Kautilya’s concept of stronger rules• About natural resources – India had ample natural resources and to take their utmost care was is our responsibility and should not tolerate environmental degradation 50
  • 51. Conclusions• The solution to the problems can come from communities or government – Strengthening of communities is possible only when governance is effective• These all issues create enormous policy challenges – If cities are expected to serve as engines of economic success, rather than places of sickness, crime, and despair, India needs will needs better urban policies – A well crafted policy can solve implementation issues itself 51
  • 52. Conclusions• Hence, we suggest that to assertively address the needs of time careful and informed decision is required when we choose to observe tolerance• 2 X 2 Matrix – Ideally 2nd and 3rd quadrant should be blank 52
  • 53. Conclusions Tolerance Observed Tolerance Not Observed Diversity in religion, origin, Failure, accepting defeat economic status Inter-caste relationship In relationship with Research andTolerance Desirable neighbouring countries Development Education Polluting natural resources Polio Maintaining hygiene levels Ragging in educational Corruption institutesTolerance Not Terrorism MassacreDesirable Public Safety 53
  • 54. Thank You Contact Ankur Joshiankurjoshi87@gmail.com Gurgaon, India 54

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