The Quest for OpticalPerfection: Italian and Northern Fifteenth Century painting
Humanism:Impetus For Change
The Allegory of Good Government – Ambrogio Lorenzetti
The Effects of Good Government - Lorenzetti
The School of Athens - Raphael
The Evolution ofPerspective in Painting
Evidence of An Understanding of Perspective and Optics in Classical Greece and RomeNo specific books or treatises have been found from the Classical world that indicate aspecific method or formula for creating a painting with linear perspective.However, several written works indicate an understanding of optics and references toobservations relating to the perception of depth within oneâ€™s line of vision.Written works with minor references include:Euclid--Greek mathematician (Optics, ca. 300 B.C)Lucretius-- Roman Poet and Philosopher from the 1st century BC. (De Renum Natura--On the Nature of Things)Vitruvius-- Roman architect, engineer, and writer also from the 1 st century B.C. (DeArchitectura) ca. 25-23 B.C.)No Ancient Greek paintings exist (outside of paintings on pottery) to examine for linearperspective.What seems certain is an understanding of optics as it related to architectural design:The Parthenon
The Acropolis, Parthenon, 448-438 B.C.Athens, Greece.
Red Figure Crater, c. 340-330 B.C. Greek.
Roman Examples of PerspectiveWhat is understood of perspective in Roman painting comes from the fresco remains in Pompeian villas. There is evidence of linear perspective in frescoes of the second style at Pompeii with architectural representations aligned to vanishing points.Late Third and Fourth styles of frescoes at Pompeii incorporate obliquely positioned architecture in their composition to create 3 dimensional illusion. The inconsistent and short period of use makes it difficult to conclude that it was widely used or understood.
Villa of the Mysteries, 60-40 B.C.Pompeii, Italy, Fresco.
Villa of the Mysteries, 1st century A.D.,Pompeii, Italy
GiottoInnovative painter and precursor to the Renaissance. Considered by some as the first artist of the Renaissance.His depictions of the human figure emphasize weight and volume. He depicts characters in his composition from the back. Helps to draw the viewer in.He often makes use of obliquely angled architecture in his paintings to created perspective.
Last Supper, c. 1305, c. 1305, Giotto. Arena Chapel,Padua Italy.
Fresco in Villa of Publius FanniusSinister; Mystic scene with twowomen, c. 50 A.D.
Madonna and Child in Majesty (Maesta) c.1308-1311. Duccio.
From the Maesta Altar Piece, c. 1308-1311. Duccio
Christ Before Pilot, First half 14th century.Pietro Lorenzetti.
Marble Frieze from the Parthenon of Poseidon,Apollo, and Artemis, 440 B.C., Athens, Greece.
Filippo Brunelleschi: Rediscovering Linear Perspective• Rediscovers/Invents Linear Perspective• Fixation point on an imaginary picture plane as the location for convergence of receding edges.• One point perspective: This perspective is when the picture plane is parallel with two sets of leading edges of a rectilinear object--or flush with the front surface (Curtis 243)• Two Point Perspective: When only one set of leading edges (typically vertical) is parallel to the picture plane (Curtis 243).• Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472, architect, linguist, writer) wrote Della Pittura (1436)--a descriptive treatise on perspective in painting.
One Point Perspective fromARTstor
Two Point Perspective fromARTstor.
East Portal of The Gates ofParadise, Baptistry San Giovanni,Florence Italy, 1378-1455. LorenzoGhiberti.
Gates of Paradise, East Portals, 1378-1455,Baptistry of San Giovanni. LorenzoGhiberti. Florence, Italy
Feast of Herrod: SienaBaptistry Font, 1423-1427.Donatello. Italy.
The Holy Trinity, 1427.Masaccio. S. Maria Novella,Florence, Italy.
Birth of Florentine Citizen BirthSalver, ca. Italian 15th c.Masaccio.
Saint Catherine Arguing with the Philosophers…….c.1429-32. Masolino da Panicale. San Clemente, Rome inCastaglione Chapel.
Death of Saint Ambrose. C. 1428-1430, Chapel of St. Catherine,Rome, Italy. Masolino.
Madonna of the Rocks, 1483 by.Leonardo da Vinci.
Technology andImplements: The tools of the trade
Brunelleschi’s Linear Perspective Experiment on the Florence Baptistery
Perspective diagram of Masaccio’s Trinity
Jan van Eyck, Madonna of Canon van der Paele with Saints Donation and George, 1436, oil on panel
Northern Artists, the Flemish
Jean Pucelle, Arrest of Christ ( c.1325)The Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux
Boucicaut Master, Pentecost (1410)Heures du Marechal Boucicaut
Boucicaut Master, Crucifixion, bones at foot ofCross
Domenico Veneziano, St Lucy Altarpiece
Domenico Veneziano, John theBapist and St Francis
Robert Campin, Virgin & Child Before a Firescreen (c.1425)
Hugo van der Goes, Portinari Triptych, Annunciation (1473-1478)
Jan van Eyck, Annunciation Diptych (c. 1434-36)
Hans Baldung, Bewitched Groom (1544)
Rogier van der Weyden, Altar of the Seven Sacraments (c.1450)
Martin Schongauer, Madonna and Child in a Courtyard (1490)
Martin Schongauer, St. James and the Saracens
Jan van Eyck, Madonna of the Church (1440)
St Sauveru, interior vaults
Jan van Eyck, Madonna of Chancellor Rolin (1435)
Albrecht Duer, Path in the Alps(1495)
Albrecht Durer, Roller Bird(1512)
Albrecht Durer, Fencing Book, c.1490-1520)
Frans Floris, Fall of the Rebel Angels (1554)
Jan Gossaer,t Danae (1527)
The Standout Structures of 15thCentury Painting (Architecture)
The Pazzi Chapel
Interior of the Camera Picta
Coronation of the Virgin
The Church of Santa delle
The Church of Santa delle Grazie
• Old exterior sketch of the Sistine Chapel structure before it was remodeled. Date unknown.