Professional Development Seminar:Special Education Through the Years Courtney Johnson SPE 529
History & Timeline in the Evolution of Special Education…
History of Special Education• Special Education is still a relatively “new” concept.• In the 1800’s the federal government requested that we educate the “deaf and dumb” but we see nothing much came of this at the time.
1950’s: National Defense Education Act• 1950’s: Soviet Union announced the launch of Sputnik• President D. Eisenhower signed National Defense Education Act: Grants for science and math programs in public schools.• Soon after President Eisenhower signed an act to for universities to be able to adequately educate teachers about those with special needs
1965: Elementary & Secondary Education Act• Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) 1965: The first federal effort to assist (financially and through grant programs) public (including Title 1) elementary & secondary schools.• By the second year of this act, it became specified that children in state schools for the disabled could be classified as “Title 1” and receive some of the financial grant supports.
1960’s-1970’s• Many students with cognitive impairments were not educated and those with physical disabilities were treated as though they had developmental disabilities.• Finally, PARENTS became involved and pushed for state “MANDATORY” laws— requiring states to educate, fund and provide special education!• 1973: 45 states had made the decision, by law, to offer special education classes
However….• 45 states had passed a law mandating special education be taught in the public schools, many students were not being educated…or they were being poorly educated.• PARENTS, ADVOCATES and others PASSIONATE about serving the special need population, approached Congress with their concerns.
1971: PARC vs. Commonwealth of Virginia• Pennsylvania Association of Retarded Children vs. Commonwealth of Virginia: PARC argued against the law stating that a child must be at a mental age of 5 yrs. old in order to begin school.• Through PARC vs. Commonwealth of Virginia the state will now provide FREE public education to ALL mentally disabled children up to age 21. In the LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT.
1972: Mills vs. Board of Education• 7 Children (ages 8-16) with varying disabilities vs. District of Columbia Public Schools• Students turned away or even suspended from the 1971-1972 school year• Main reason they were turned away from enrollment was budget cuts• United States District Courts ruled that public schools were prohibited from turning students away with disabilities
1974: Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act• Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA)• Parent/Guardian has right to access any and all school records• Parent/Guardian can request school records to be changed if believed to be incorrect• Written permission is required- always required• Every year parent/guardian must be given the FERPA rights.
1975: Education for All Handicapped Children Act• Education for All Handicapped Children (presently known as IDEA) was passed in 1975.• Free and Appropriate Public Education• Evaluation of students needing Special Education• LRE• IEPs• Education until age 21 (Cont. next slide)
Cont.• 1986: Re-evaluation• Preschool Education & Early Intervention• 1990: Re-evaluation• IDEA• Autism & Traumatic Brain Injuries• Parent’s rights for states that are not participating (cont. next slide)
Cont.• 1997: Re-evaluation• IEPs for students that have been suspended/expelled• Mediation Services• Transition Services- age 14• Establish performance goals for SpEd students• 2004: Re-Evaluation• Updates in IEP guidelines & eligibility guidelines
2002: No Child Left Behind• Teachers & States become more accountable• Inclusion of students with disabilities• Academic requirements are also applicable to students with special needs• Academic Proficiency is to be met by 2014— including special education students• Community will have access to performance and scores of schools in area• Educators must be “highly qualified”
References• Martin E. (1996). The Legislative and Litigation History of Special Education. The Future of Children Special Education for Students with Disabilities. 6 (1), 25-32.• Cortiella, Candace No Child Left Behind and Students With Disabilities: Opportunities and Obstacles. (n.d) retrieved 7/23/12, from Great Schools Web Site: www.greatschools.org• Individuals with Disabilities Act 2004. (2007). retrieved 7/22/12, from Council for Exceptional Children Web Site: www.cec.sped.org• Week 1 & Week 2 Lecture Notes from SPE 529