Ch. 1 becoming an effective teacher of reading


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Ch. 1 becoming an effective teacher of reading

  1. 1. Literacy in the Early Grades by Gail Tompkins Chapter 1 Becoming an Effective Teacher of Reading
  2. 2. Principle 1: Effective Teachers Understand How Children Learn o o Traditional Idea Based on the Behavioral Theory That is… Children learn to read by learning a series of discrete, sequenced skills. For example, children must begin learning to read by first knowing the alphabet, then the sounds, then how the sounds combine, then words, then sentences, then comprehension, etc….
  3. 3. Behaviorism Teachers provide direct instruction Teachers motivate students and control their behavior. CHILDREN ARE PASSIVE LEARNERS Teachers have ALL of the knowledge and it is up to them to transport that to the students.
  4. 4. Effective Teachers Recognize the Five other Learning Theories Constructivist Learning Theory Sociolinguistic Learning Theory Information Processing
  5. 5. Constructivist Learning Theory Children are active, engaged learners. Schema Theory - Children relate new information to prior knowledge. Children organize and relate information in schemata. Inquiry Learning – Collaboration is more conducive to learning than is competition. Asking questions, seeking answers, creating new knowledge.
  6. 6. Sociolinguistic Learning Theory Thought and language are related. Focus on the zone of proximal development and scaffold instruction. Sociocultural Theory – Reading and writing are social activities that reflect the community and culture. Situated Learning Theory – Learning as you do; becoming an apprentice. Critical Literacy – Language is a means for social action and students become agents for social change (see pg. 8)
  7. 7. Information Processing    Interactive Models – Reading and writing are interactive, meaning-making processes. Transactive Theory – Comprehension is seen as an interpretation of the interaction between the reader and the text. Strategic Behaviors – Goals that direct thinking such as visualizing, organizing, and revising as well as metacognitive strategies such as monitoring and revising (fix-up strategies).
  8. 8. Quick Write: How did you learn to read? Think back about your first experiences in school…. Which one of these models (behaviorism, constructivism, interactive, sociolinguistics, reader response, or critical literacy) were used? There may have been a few models used. Now Share….
  9. 9. Principle 2: Effective Teachers Support Children’s Use of the Four Cueing Systems Phonological or sound system (aka graphophonic) Syntactic or structural system Semantic or meaning system Pragmatic or social/cultural use system We’ll go over these cueing systems later in more depth, but look at p. 10 in your text.
  10. 10. Principle 3: Effective Teachers Create a Community of Learners Think about how traditional classrooms looked? How did they look? What did this mean or say to the learners in those communities?
  11. 11. Characteristics of a Community of Learners 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Safety – promotes in-depth learning and nurtures physical and emotional well-being Respect – mutual respect, zero tolerance, non-threatening environment where children feel free to take risks High Expectations – all children can be successful Risk-Taking – explore new topics, try different things, develop higher-level thinking skills Collaboration – working together Choice – children make choices within the parameters set by the teacher. Choice = motivation! Family Involvement – involve parents early on and create a home-school connection
  12. 12. Principle 4: Effective Teachers Adopt a Balanced Approach to Literacy Instruction Literacy – viewed comprehensively, involving both reading and writing Explicit Instruction – on grade level as well as differentiated and assessment driven Authentic Application – lots of opportunities to practice newly learned skills Reading and Writing Strategies – applying cognitive and metacognitive strategies Oral Language – opportunities to talk and listen Tools for learning – reading, talking, and writing are tools for content-area learning
  13. 13. Components of a Balanced Literacy Program Reading-students participate in a variety of opportunities to read and be read to. Phonemic Awareness & Phonics-students are taught to manipulate sounds and apply the alphabetic principle to decode new words . Strategies & Skills-students are taught and shown multiple ways of understanding what they are reading through problem solving, monitoring, and automatic actions. Vocabulary-students are given opportunities to use and understand words they come across in their reading and through listening to books being read aloud to them. Comprehension-students use reader factors (comprehension strategies) and text factors (text structures) to understand what they’re reading.
  14. 14. Components of a Balanced Literacy Program continued Literature-real children’s literature, as well as textbooks are used in the classroom. Students have access to a variety of texts, written on various levels. Content-Area Study-students use reading and writing to learn about other subject areas, such as social studies, math, science, etc… Reading and writing are used in REAL situations for students. Oral Language-students are given opportunities to work with their classmates and teachers while using discussions and conversations to deepen their knowledge about what they are studying. Writing-journaling, writing process, poems, reports and papers, etc.. are used in REAL ways. Spelling-apply what they know about spelling and progress along a developmental continuum until they become conventional spellers.
  15. 15. Principle 5: Effective Teachers Scaffold Children’s Reading and Writing Model reading and writing. Shared reading and writing-this is a class activity in which the teacher demonstrates productive reading and students follow what is modeled. Interactive reading and writing-teachers scaffold students during this process, teachers interact with students and then students interact with each other, sharing what they are reading and writing. Guided reading and writing-this is mainly small group instruction, based on needs and strengths of students.. Independent reading and writing.
  16. 16. Principle 6: Effective Teachers Organize Literacy Instruction in Four Ways Literature focus units Literature circles. Reading and writing workshop. Basal reading programs.
  17. 17. Principle 7: Effective Teachers Differentiate Instruction Differentiate Content Differentiate Process Differentiate Products At your table groups, talk about what this might look like and how you, as the teacher, can make this a reality in your classroom. Partner with Parents Interventions
  18. 18. Principle 8: Effective Teachers Link Instruction and Assessment Determine Reading Levels – plan instruction based on each student’s need Monitor Progress – assessment should be an ongoing process, adjusting instruction as necessary Diagnose strengths and weaknesses – assess and plan instruction based on both Document Learning – formal and informal assessments, portfolios, anecdotal notes, observation…
  19. 19. Does what you have learned from Ch. 1 differ from your experience in the classroom? How so? What might you do differently in your own classroom now?