WHY DO WE NEED A PARLIAMENT?*************************** ***************************• Law making is the main • The parliament is the open function of legislature, in forum of debate modern democracies it is the main source of law • It is the most representative of all organs of government• In representative form of democracies the legislatures • The parliament is vested helps the people in holding with the power to choose the representatives and dismiss the government accountable • Above all it is the centre of• In parliamentary form of all democratic and political government the legislature process controls the cabinet
Legislature• BICAMERAL • UNICAMERAL LEGISLATURE LEGISLATURE• A legislature having • A legislature having two houses is called only one house is bicameral legislature called unicameral• Eg. India,USA legislature • Eg.UK,
PARLIAMENTLOK SABHA(House of RAJYA SABHA(Council ofpeople) states)
WHY DO WE NEED TWO HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT ?• Countries with large size • In a federation the second and much diversity chamber as the council of usually prefer bicameral states gives legislature, In order to representation to give representation to all different states regions and sections of • The senior and people experienced persons can• A bicameral legislature be accommodated makes it possible to have through nomination or every decision indirect elections reconsidered and thus • Eminent persons from prevents hasty decisions different areas can be included through nomination
FUNCTIONS OF LEGISLATURE• Legislative Function• Control of Executive and ensuring its accountability• Financial Function• Representation• Debating Function• constitutional amendments• Electoral functions• Judicial functions
POWERS OF LOK SABHA• Makes Laws on • Amends the matters included in Union Constitution. List and Concurrent List. • Approves the Can introduce and enact Proclamation of money and non money emergency. bills. • Elects the President• Approves proposals and Vice President and for taxation, budgets and removes Judges of annual financial Supreme Court and High Statements. Court.• Controls the • Establishes executive by asking committees and questions, supplementary commissions and questions, resolutions and considers their reports. motions and through no confidence motion.
POWERS OF RAJYA SABHA• Considers and • Participates in the approves non money bills election and removal of and suggests the President, Vice amendments to money President, Judges of bills. Supreme Court and High• Approves Court. It can alone constitutional initiate the procedure for amendments. removal of Vice• Exercises control President. over executive by asking • Can give the Union questions, introducing parliament power to motions and resolutions make laws on matters included in the State list.
Legislative Procedure in the Parliament• A bill has to pass through various stages before it becomes an Act.1. Introduction2. Committee Stage3. Second Reading4. Third Reading5. The Bill in the Second House6. The President’s Assent
1. Introduction• 1 month’s notice (in case of a Private bill) to the Speaker by a MP other than a Minister, regarding his intention to move a bill• In case of Govt Bill- no need to give a month’s notice to the speaker.• After submitting to the with its aims and objectives- date time is fixed on the agenda of the House for its introduction.• On the scheduled date and time mover of the bill begs leave of the House to introduce the bill.• Initiator of the Bill speaks, a discussion follows.• The request for introduction of the bill is put to vote.• If House votes in its favour then the Bill is formally passed.• Introduction of the Bill is also known as FRB
2. Committee Stage• After granting leave to introduce the Bill, the House may do one of the following.1. It may immediately take up the Bill for consideration.2. Refer it to a select Committee of the House .3. It may circulate the bill for eliciting public opinion.• Usual practice- refer the bill to a Select Committee.
3. Second Reading (Report Stage)• Submission of the report of the committee – beginning of the third stage.• House takes up the Bill for consideration after a debate on the Committee’s Report• This is called the Second Reading.• Amendments if any are proposed n included if passed by a majority vote.• Completion of Second Reading- Once every Clause is voted upon.•
4. Third (Final) Reading• TRB is a formality.• No changes at this change.• Members can speak for or against the Bill as a whole.• With minor amendments if any the bill is put to vote.• Either passed or rejected as a whole by a majority vote of the house.• Receives the Sign of the Chairman of the House.
5. The Bill in the Second House• Once passed it is referred to the Second House for consideration .• In Second House it goes through all the stages of procedure as in the First House .• When passed by both the Houses then it is considered to be passed by the Parliament.• Any disagreement- joint session of both the Houses takes place.• Decision is taken by the majority vote of the members present.• Receives the Sign of the Chairman of the House.
6. The President’s Assent• Having been passed in both the Houses – is referred to the President for his assent.• Treatment by President .1. President may give his assent. It becomes an Act and is placed on the Statue Book2. May reject it and send it back to Parliament for consideration If passed again by both Houses with or without amendments will be sent to President for Second Time. President has to give his assent and thus it becomes an Act with his sign3. Parliament is not bound to accept the suggestion made by the President.
HOW DOES THE PARLIAMENT CONTROL THE EXECUTIVE?• Deliberation and discussion• Approval or Refusal of laws• Financial control• No confidence motion