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  1. 1. IBOGAINE
  2. 2. Ibogaine is a naturally occurringpsychoactive substance found in anumber of plants
  3. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibogaine
  4. 4. The most-studied therapeutic effect of ibogaine is thereduction or elimination of addiction to opioids. Anintegral effect is the alleviation of symptoms of opioidwithdrawal. Research also suggests that ibogaine maybe useful in treating dependence on other substancessuch as alcohol, methamphetamine, and nicotine andmay affect compulsive behavioral patterns not involvingsubstance abuse or chemical dependence.Researchers note that there remains a "need forsystematic investigation in a conventional clinicalresearch setting."[13]^ a b c K.R. Alper, H.S. Lotsof, G.M. Frenken , D.J. Luciano , J. Bastiaans (1999). "Treatment of Acute Opioid Withdrawal withIbogaine". The American Journal on Addictions 8 (3): 234–42. doi:10.1080/105504999305848. PMID 10506904. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
  5. 5. MAPS helps scientists design, fund, and obtain regulatory approval forstudies of the safety and effectiveness of a number of currently controlledsubstances. MAPS works closely with government regulatory authoritiesworldwide such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) to ensure that all of itssponsored research protocols conform to ethical and procedural guidelinesfor clinical drug research.
  6. 6. MAPS is currently studying the long-term effects ofibogaine treatment on patients presently undergoingtherapy at independent ibogaine treatment centers inMexico and New Zealand. http://www.maps.org/research/ibogaine/MAPS is collecting observational data for the first prospective ibogaine outcomestudies in order to contribute to the growing scientific literature about ibogaine as atreatment for drug addiction.
  7. 7. It is proposed that intensive counseling, therapy and aftercareduring the interruption period following treatment is of significantvalue. Some individuals require a second or third treatmentsession with ibogaine over the course of the next 12 to 18 months.A minority of individuals relapse completely into opiate addictionwithin days or weeks. A comprehensive article (Lotsof 1995) onthe subject of ibogaine therapy detailing the procedure, effectsand aftereffects is found in "Ibogaine in the Treatment of ChemicalDependence Disorders: Clinical Perspectives".[14] Ibogaine hasalso been reported in multiple small-study cohorts to reducecravings for methamphetamine.[15]
  10. 10. Documentary films about ibogaine therapyDetox or Die (2004) Directed by David Graham Scott.[50] David Graham Scott beginsvideotaping his heroin-addicted friends. Before long, he himself is addicted to thedrug. He eventually turns the camera to himself and his family. After 12 years ofdebilitating, painful dependence on methadone, Scott turns to ibogaine. Filmed inScotland and England, and broadcast on BBC One as the third installment in thedocumentary seriesOne Life.[51] Ibogaine: Rite of Passage (2004) Directed by Ben Deloenen.[52] A heroinaddict undergoes ibogaine treatment at the Ibogaine Association, a clinic in Mexico.Deloenen interviews people formerly addicted to heroin, cocaine, andmethamphetamine, who share their perspectives about ibogaine treatment. InGabon, a Babongo woman receives iboga root for her depressive malaise. Deloenenvisually contrasts this Western, clinical use of ibogaine with the Bwiti use of ibogaroot, but emphasizes the Western context.Facing the Habit (2007) Directed by Magnolia Martin.[53] Martins subject is a formermillionaire and stockbroker who travels to Mexico for ibogaine treatment for heroinaddiction.Im Dangerous with Love (2009) Directed by Michel Negroponte.[54] Negroponteexamines Dimitri Mugianiss long, clandestine career of treating heroin addicts withibogaine.
  11. 11. ^ a b Keegan Hamilton (2010-11-17). "Ibogaine: Can it Cure Addiction Without the Hallucinogenic Trip?". Village Voice.^ Kenneth Robert Alper (2001). "Chapter 1. Ibogaine: A review". 56. Academic Press. Retrieved 2012-09-10.^ US patent 2813873, Morrice-Marie Janot & Robert Goutarel, "Derivatives of the ibogaine alkaloids", issued 1957-11-19, assigned to LesLaboratoires Gobey^ a b K.R. Alper, H.S. Lotsof, C.D. Kaplan (2008). "The Ibogaine Medical Subculture". J. Ethnopharmacology 115 (1): 9–24.doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.034. PMID 18029124. Retrieved 2008-02-22.^ Berger ML, Palangsuntikul R, Rebernik P, Wolschann P, Berner H.. Screening of 64 Tryptamines at NMDA, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT2A Receptors: AComparative Binding and Modeling Study. 19. Current Medicinal Chemistry. PMID 22519402.^ Glick, S. D.; Maisonneuve, I. M. (1998). "Mechanisms of Antiaddictive Actions of Ibogainea". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 844: 214–226. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb08237.x. PMID 9668680. edit^ Wei, D.; Maisonneuve, I. M.; Kuehne, M. E.; Glick, S. D. (1998). "Acute iboga alkaloid effects on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels in nucleusaccumbens and striatum in rats". Brain Research 800 (2): 260–268. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(98)00527-7. PMID 9685673. edit^ a b c Samuel Obembe (06 August 2012). Practical Skills and Clinical Management of Alcoholism & Drug Addiction. Elsevier. p. 88.ISBN 9780123985187.^ GERSHOX, S.; LANG, J. (1962) (PDF). A PSYCHO-PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF SOME INDOLE ALKALOIDS. Arch Int Pharmacodyn. Retrieved 2008-05-27.^ Maas U, Strubelt S (2006). "Fatalities after taking ibogaine in addiction treatment could be related to sudden cardiac death caused by autonomicdysfunction". Med. Hypotheses 67 (4): 960–4. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2006.02.050. PMID 16698188.^ Hoelen DW, Spiering W, Valk GD (January 2009). "Long-QT syndrome induced by the antiaddiction drug ibogaine". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (3): 308–9.doi:10.1056/NEJMc0804248. PMID 19144953.^ "Grapefruit juice: Beware of dangerous medication interactions". Retrieved 2010-09-10.^ a b c K.R. Alper, H.S. Lotsof, G.M. Frenken , D.J. Luciano , J. Bastiaans (1999). "Treatment of Acute Opioid Withdrawal with Ibogaine". The AmericanJournal on Addictions 8 (3): 234–42. doi:10.1080/105504999305848. PMID 10506904. Retrieved 2009-06-16.^ Lotsof, H.S. (1995). Ibogaine in the Treatment of Chemical Dependence Disorders: Clinical Perspectives. 3. MAPS Bulletin. pp. 19–26.^ Giannini, A. James (1997). Drugs of Abuse (2 ed.). Practice Management Information Corporation. ISBN 1-57066-053-0.^ A. Ludwig, J. Levine, L. Stark, R. Lazar (1969). A Clinical Study of LSD Treatment in Alcoholism. The American Journal of Psychiatry.^ US patent 2817623, Jurg Schneider, "Tabernanthine, Ibogaine Containing Analgesic Compositions.", issued 1957-12-24, assigned to CibaPharmaceuticals Inc.^ Patrick K. Kroupa, Hattie Wells (2005) (PDF). Ibogaine in the 21st Century. XV. Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies.. pp. 21–25.^ Naranjo, Claudio (1973). "V, Ibogaine: Fantasy and Reality". The healing journey: new approaches to consciousness. New York: Pantheon Books.pp. 197–231. ISBN 0-394-48826-1. Retrieved 2012-08-15.^ J. Dybowski, E. Landrin (1901). "PLANT CHEMISTRY. Concerning Iboga, its excitement-producing properties, its composition, and the new alkaloid itcontains, ibogaine". C. R. Acad. Sci. 133: 748.^ G. Büchi, D.L. Coffen, Karoly Kocsis, P.E. Sonnet, and Frederick E. Ziegler (1966). "The Total Synthesis of Iboga Alkaloids" (PDF). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 88(13): 3099–3109. doi:10.1021/ja00965a039.^ Frauenfelder, Christine (1999). Doctoral Thesis (Thesis). p. 24. Archived from the original on 2012-08-17.^ ^ "Echoes" at the Internet Movie Database
  12. 12. Dzoljic ED, Kaplan CD, Dzoljic MR (1988). "Effect of ibogaine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in chronic morphine-dependentrats". Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 294: 64–70. PMID 3233054.^ Glick SD, Rossman K, Steindorf S, Maisonneuve IM, Carlson JN (1991). "Effects and aftereffects of ibogaine on morphine self-administrationin rats". Eur. J. Pharmacol 195 (3): 341–345. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(91)90474-5. PMID 1868880.^ Cappendijk SLT, Dzoljic MR (1993). "Inhibitory effects of ibogaine on cocaine self-administration in rats". European Journal of Pharmacology241 (2–3): 261–265. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(93)90212-Z. PMID 8243561.^ Rezvani A, Overstreet D, Lee Y (1995). "Attenuation of alcohol intake by ibogaine in three strains of alcohol preferring rats". Pharmacology,Biochemistry, and Behaviour 52 (3): 615–20. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(95)00152-M. PMID 8545483.^ Kenneth R. Alper, Dana Beal and Charles D. Kaplan. A Contemporary History of Ibogaine in the United States and Europe. "IBOGAINE:PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE". THE ALKALOIDS 56. Retrieved 2012-08-15.^ Taylor WI (1965). "The Iboga and Voacanga Alkaloids". The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology. pp. 203, 207–208.^ a b Kontrimaviciūte V, Mathieu O, Mathieu-Daudé JC et al. (September 2006). "Distribution of ibogaine and noribogaine in a man following apoisoning involving root bark of the Tabernanthe iboga shrub". J Anal Toxicol 30 (7): 434–40. PMID 16959135.^ Rick Doblin (ppt). A Non-Profit Approach to Developing Ibogaine into an FDA-Approved Medication. Retrieved 2012-08-16.^ Alper KR, Lotsof HS, Frenken GM, Luciano DJ, Bastiaans J (1999). "Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine" (PDF). Am J Addict8 (3): 234–42. doi:10.1080/105504999305848. PMID 10506904.^ Mash DC, Kovera CA, Pablo J et al. (September 2000). "Ibogaine: complex pharmacokinetics, concerns for safety, and preliminary efficacymeasures". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 914: 394–401. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb05213.x. PMID 11085338.^ Jenks, C. (2002). "Extraction Studies ofTabernanthe IbogaandVoacanga Africana". Natural Product Letters 16 (1): 71–76.doi:10.1080/1057563029001/4881. PMID 11942686. edit^ Shulgin, Alexander; Shulgin, Ann (1997). TiHKAL. p. 487.^ Pace CJ, Glick SD, Maisonneuve IM et al. (May 2004). "Novel iboga alkaloid congeners block nicotinic receptors and reduce drug self-administration". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 492 (2–3): 159–67. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.03.062. PMID 15178360.^ Glick SD, Kuehne ME, Raucci J et al. (September 1994). "Effects of iboga alkaloids on morphine and cocaine self-administration in rats:relationship to tremorigenic effects and to effects on dopamine release in nucleus accumbens and striatum". Brain Res. 657 (1–2): 14–22.doi:10.1016/0006-8993(94)90948-2. PMID 7820611.^ Tsing Hua. (2006-01-28). Antiaddictive indole alkaloids in Ervatamia yunnanensis and their bioactivity. Academic Journal of Second MilitaryMedical University. Retrieved 2012-08-15.^ P. Popik, P. Skolnick (1998). Pharmacology of Ibogaine and Ibogaine-Related Alkaloids. The Alkaloids 52, Chapter 3, 197-231, AcademicPress, Editor: G.A. Cordell^ Kenneth R. Alper; Glick, Stanley D. (2001). "Ibogaine: A Review" (PDF). The alkaloids: chemistry and biology. 56. San Diego: Academic.pp. 1–38. ISBN 0-12-469556-6.^ Xu Z, Chang LW, Slikker W, Ali SF, Rountree RL, Scallet AC (September 2000). "A dose-response study of ibogaine-induced neuropathologyin the rat cerebellum". Toxicol. Sci. 57 (1): 95–101. doi:10.1093/toxsci/57.1.95. PMID 10966515.^ Maciulaitis R, Kontrimaviciute V, Bressolle FM, Briedis V (March 2008). "Ibogaine, an anti-addictive drug: pharmacology and time to gofurther in development. A narrative review". Hum Exp Toxicol 27 (3): 181–94. doi:10.1177/0960327107087802. PMID 18650249.^ Baumann MH, Rothman RB, Pablo JP, Mash DC (1 May 2001). "In vivo neurobiological effects of ibogaine and its O-desmethyl metabolite,12-hydroxyibogamine (noribogaine), in rats". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 297 (2): 531–9. PMID 11303040.
  13. 13. ^ Hough LB, Bagal AA, Glick SD (March 2000). "Pharmacokinetic characterization of the indole alkaloidibogaine in rats". Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 22 (2): 77–81. doi:10.1358/mf.2000.22.2.796066.PMID 10849889.^ Zubaran C, Shoaib M, Stolerman IP, Pablo J, Mash DC (July 1999). "Noribogaine generalization to theibogaine stimulus: correlation with noribogaine concentration in rat brain". Neuropsychopharmacology 21 (1):119–26. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(99)00003-2. PMID 10379526.^ Scheduling Actions Controlled Substances Regulated Chemicals. Retrieved 2012-08-23.^ Johnson, Gail (2003-01-02). "Ibogaine: A one-way trip to sobriety, pot head says". straight.com. Retrieved2009-11-05.^ . Canadian Department of Justice. 1996. http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-38.8/. Retrieved 2009-11-05.^ "Iboga Foundation". Iboga Foundation. 2011-11-26. Retrieved 2012-08-14.^ "Iboga Foundation". Iboga Foundation. 2011-09-23. Retrieved 2012-08-14.^ Detox or Die (2004) at the Internet Movie Database^ One Life at the British Film Institute^ Ibogaine: Rite of Passage (2004) at the Internet Movie Database^ Facing the Habit (2007) at the Internet Movie Database^ Dangerous with Love (2009) at the Internet Movie Database^ Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail 72. Straight Arrow Books. 1973. pp. 150–154. ISBN 978-0-87932-053-9.^ "National Geogrpahics Drugs, Inc. on Hallucinogens: LSD, Mushrooms, Ayahuasca & Ibogaine".CelebStoner.com. 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2012-08-14.^ "Via Negativa" at the Internet Movie Database^ "Getting Off" at the Internet Movie Database^ "Users" at the Internet Movie Database
  14. 14. http://www.ibogaine.co.uk/http://www.erowid.org/splash.php http://www.ibogaine.org/