Session 9. differentiated instruction 2
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Session 9. differentiated instruction 2 Session 9. differentiated instruction 2 Presentation Transcript

  • InstructionD IFFERENTIATEDIgnatius Joseph N Estroga MA-EngLiceo de Cagayan University
  • SUPER SLEUTHDirections: Walk around the room and findsomeone to respond to the questions on yourSuper Sleuth. After a verbal answer theperson will initial the square.Rules:- A person can only answer and initial onesquare.- The goals are to activate prior knowledgeand to meet new people with new ideas.ignatius joseph estroga
  • Super Sleuth1.What is yourdefinition ofdifferentiatedinstruction?4.Give an exampleof when you haveused DI?7.What issomething youwould like to learnabout DI?2.When do you usesmall groupinstruction?5.Differentiationmeans as manylesson plans as youhave students.Agree?8.How do youdiscover how yourstudents learn?3.What is one wayyou can formgroups in yourclassroom?6.What are somequick on-goingassessmentsin your class?9. Are DIs andassessmentrelated?ignatius joseph estroga
  • ignatius joseph estroga
  • The biggest mistake of pastcenturies in teaching has beento treat all children as if theywere variants of the sameindividual and thus to feeljustified in teaching them all thesame subjects in the same way.Howard Gardnerignatius joseph estroga
  • Differentiatedinstruction is doingwhat‟s fair forstudents.ignatius joseph estroga
  • It means creating multiplepaths so that students ofdifferent abilities, interests, orlearning needs experienceequally appropriateways to learn.ignatius joseph estroga
  • Differentiated instructionis a process throughwhich teachers enhancelearning by matchingstudent characteristics toinstruction andassessment.ignatius joseph estroga
  • •Differentiated instructionallows all students toaccess the same classroomcurriculum by providingentry points, learning tasks,and outcomes that aretailored to the students’needs.ignatius joseph estroga
  • THE RATIONALE FORDIFFERENTIATEDINSTRUCTIONDifferent levelsof readinessDifferent Interestsignatius joseph estroga
  • THE RATIONALE FORDIFFERENTIATEDINSTRUCTIONDifferent Ability LevelsDifferent Cognitive Needsignatius joseph estroga
  • •The goals of differentiatedinstruction are to developchallenging and engagingtasks for each learner (fromlow-end learner to high-endlearner). Instructionalactivities are flexible andbased and evaluated oncontent, process and product.ignatius joseph estroga
  • TEACHERS CAN DIFFERENTIATEACCORDING TO ….•The content•The process•The productignatius joseph estroga
  • DIFFERENTIATINGCONTENTS• What the student needs to learn.• The instructional concepts should be broadbased, and all students should be givenaccess to the same core content.• However, the content‟s complexity shouldbe adapted to students‟ learner profiles.Teachers can vary.ignatius joseph estroga
  • DIFFERENTIATINGCONTENTS• Resource materials at varyingreadability levels• Audio and video recordings• Highlighted vocabulary• Charts and models• Varied manipulative and resources• Peer and adult mentorsignatius joseph estroga
  • to DifferentiateContent• Reading Partners / Reading Buddies• Read/Summarize• Read/Question/Answer• Visual Organizer/Summarizer• Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt• Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading• Flip Books• Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)• Books on Tape• Highlights on Tape• Digests/ “Cliff Notes”• Note-taking Organizers• Varied Texts• Varied Supplementary Materials• Highlighted Texts• Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-PostviewTomlinson – „00ignatius joseph estroga
  • CHARACTER MAPCharacterName____________How the characterlooks________________________________________________________________________How the characterthinks or acts____________________________________________________________Most important thing to know about thecharacter___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ignatius joseph estroga
  • CHARACTER MAPCharacterName____________What the charactersays or does________________________________________________________________________What the characterreally MEANS to say ordo____________________________________________________________What the character would mostly likeus to know about him or her_____________________________________________________________________________________ignatius joseph estroga
  • CHARACTER MAPCharacterName____________Clues the authorgives us about thecharacter________________________________________________Why the authorgives THESE clues____________________________________________________________The author’s bottom line about thischaracter______________________________________________________________________________________________________ignatius joseph estroga
  • Reading ContractChoose an activity from each shape group.Cut out your three choices and glue them below.You are responsible for finishing these activities by _________.Have fun!ignatius joseph estroga
  • Make a poster advertisingyourself as a goodfriend. Use words andpictures to help makepeople want to be yourfriend. Make sure yourname is an importantpart of the posterGet a partnerand makea puppet showabout a problem andthe solution in your bookDraw a picture of a problemin the story. Then use wordsto tell about the problem andhow the characters solvedtheir problemMake a two sidedcircle-rama. Use it to tellpeople what makes you agood friend. Use picturesand words and makesure your name is animportant part of thedisplayGet a partnerand act outa problem and itssolution from yourbookWrite a letter to one of thecharacters in your book. Tellthem about a problem you have.Then have them write back witha solution to your problem.Make a mobile thatshows what makes youa good friend. Usepictures and wordsto hang on your mobile.Write your name on thetop of the mobile inbeautiful letters.Meet with meand tell me about aproblem and its solutionfrom the story. Then tellme about a problem you havehad and how you solved itThink about anotherproblem one of thecharacters in your bookmight have. Write a newstory for the book about theproblem and tell how itwas solved.ignatius joseph estroga
  • Make a poster advertisingyourself as a goodfriend. Use words andpictures to help makepeople want to be yourfriend. Make sure yourname is an importantpart of the posterMake a two sidedcircle-rama. Use it to tellpeople what makes you agood friend. Use picturesand words and makesure your name is animportant part of thedisplayMake a mobile thatshows what makes youa good friend. Usepictures and wordsto hang on your mobile.Write your name on thetop of the mobile inbeautiful letters.ignatius joseph estroga
  • Meet with meand tell me about aproblem and its solutionfrom the story. Then tellme about a problem you havehad and how you solved itGet a partnerand makea puppet showabout a problem andthe solution in your bookGet a partnerand act outa problem and itssolution from yourbookignatius joseph estroga
  • Draw a picture of a problemin the story. Then use wordsto tell about the problem andhow the characters solvedtheir problemWrite a letter to one of thecharacters in your book. Tellthem about a problem you have.Then have them write back witha solution to your problem.Think about anotherproblem one of thecharacters in your bookmight have. Write a newstory for the book about theproblem and tell how itwas solved.ignatius joseph estroga
  • ContentEssentialQuestionsReadingcomprehensionVocabularyInstructionCompactingUsing varied textand resourcematerialsLearningcontractsMinilessonsVariedSupportSystemsAudio/VideorecordersNote-takingOrganizersHighlighted PrintMaterialsLists of Key IdeasPeer or Adultmentorsignatius joseph estroga
  • • Activities in which the student engagesto make sense of or master the content.• Examples of differentiating processactivities include scaffolding, flexiblegrouping, interest centers, manipulatives,varying the length of time for a studentto master content, and encouraging anadvanced learner to pursue a topic ingreater depth.DIFFERENTIATING PROCESS(MAKING SENSE AND MEANING OF CONTENT)ignatius joseph estroga
  • DIFFERENTIATING PROCESS(MAKING SENSE AND MEANING OF CONTENT)• Use leveled or tiered activities• Hands-on materials• Vary pacing according to readiness• Allow for working alone, in partners, triads,and small groups• Allow choice in strategies for processingand for expressing results of processingignatius joseph estroga
  • ProcessFlexible groupingGraphicOrganizersTieredassignmentsAnchor ActivitiesFramingQuestionsLearning LogsLearning CentresLearningcontractsLiterature CirclesWritingWorkshopsignatius joseph estroga
  • • The culminating projects that askstudents to apply and extend whatthey have learned.• Products should provide studentswith different ways to demonstratetheir knowledge as well as variouslevels of difficulty, group orindividual work, and various meansof scoring.DIFFERENTIATING PRODUCTS(SHOWING WHAT IS KNOWN AND ABLE TO BE DONE)ignatius joseph estroga
  • DIFFERENTIATING PRODUCTS(SHOWING WHAT IS KNOWN AND ABLE TO BE DONE)•Tiered product choices•Model, use and encourage studentsto uses technology•Provide product choices that range inchoices from all multiple intelligences,options for gender, culture, and race•Use related art to help with studentproductsignatius joseph estroga
  • ProductsDevelop games Write booksGive apresentationWrite a songConduct adebateMake a videodocumentaryPresent apuppet showWrite a photoessayDevelop webpagesignatius joseph estroga
  • OBSTACLES1. I Long to return to the Good Old Days2. I thought I was differentiating3. I teach the way I was taught4. I don‟t know how5. I have too much content to cover6. I‟m good at lecturing7. I can‟t see how I would grade all thosedifferent assignmentsKathie F. Nunley, Differentiating in the High School, Thousand Oaks,CA: Corwin Press, 2006.ignatius joseph estroga
  • OBSTACLES8. I thought differentiation was for theelementary school9. I subscribe to ability grouping10.I have real logistic issues11.I want my classroom under control12.I don‟t know how to measure mystudent‟s learning styles13.I have neither the time nor the fundingfor all thatKathie F. Nunley, Differentiating in the High School, Thousand Oaks, CA:Corwin Press, 2006.ignatius joseph estroga
  • OBSTACLES14.I‟ve been teaching this way for years andit works15.There‟s no support for it at my school16.My district requires me to follow aprescribed text17.Parents expect lecture format in highschool for college prep18.The bottom line – if they are learning, youare teachingKathie F. Nunley, Differentiating in the High School, Thousand Oaks, CA:Corwin Press, 2006.ignatius joseph estroga
  • STRATEGIES TO MAKEDIFFERENTIATION WORK1. Tiered InstructionChanging the level of complexityor required readiness of a task orunit of study in order to meet thedevelopmental needs of thestudents involved.ignatius joseph estroga
  • TIERINGKey ConceptOrUnderstandingThose who do notknow the conceptThose with someunderstandingThose whounderstand theconceptignatius joseph estroga
  • WHAT CAN BE TIERED?• Processes,content andproducts• Assignments• Homework• Learning stations• Assessments• Writing prompts• Anchor activities• Materialsignatius joseph estroga
  • WHAT CAN WE ADJUST?•Level of complexity•Amount of structure•Pacing•Materials•Concrete to abstract•Options based on student interests•Options based on learning stylesignatius joseph estroga
  • TIERING INSTRUCTION1. Identify the standards, concepts, orgeneralizations you want thestudents to learn.2. Decide if students have thebackground necessary to besuccessful with the lesson.3. Assess the students‟ readiness,interests, and learning profiles.ignatius joseph estroga
  • TIERING INSTRUCTIONS4. Create an activity or project that isclearly focused on the standard,concept or generalization of the lesson.5. Adjust the activity to provide differentlevels or tiers of difficulty that will lead allstudents to an understanding.6. Develop an assessment component forthe lesson. Remember, it is on-going!ignatius joseph estroga
  • STRATEGIES TO MAKEDIFFERENTIATION WORK1. Anchoring ActivitiesThese are activities that a student may do at anytime when they have completed their presentassignment or when the teacher is busy withother students.They may relate to specific needs or enrichmentopportunities, including problems to solve orjournals to write. They could also be part of along term project.ignatius joseph estroga
  • STRATEGIES TO MAKEDIFFERENTIATION WORK2. Flexible GroupingThis allows students to be appropriatelychallenged and avoids labeling astudent‟s readiness as a static state. It isimportant to permit movement betweengroups because interest changes as wemove from one subject to anotherignatius joseph estroga
  • FLOW OF EXPERIENCES(TOMLINSON)Back and forth over time or course of unitIndividual Small Small IndividualGroup Whole Group Groupignatius joseph estroga
  • FLEXIBLE GROUPINGHomogenous/Ability-Clusters students of similarabilities, level, learningstyle, or interest.-Usually based on some typeof pre-assessmentHeterogeneous Groups-Different abilities, levels orinterest- Good for promotingcreative thinking.Individualized orIndependent Study-Self paced learning-Teaches time managementand responsibility-Good for remediation orextensionsWhole Class-Efficient way to present newcontent-Use for initial instructionignatius joseph estroga
  • STRATEGIES TO MAKEDIFFERENTIATION WORK4. Compacting CurriculumCompacting the curriculum means assessinga student‟s knowledge and skills, andproviding alternative activities for the studentwho has already mastered curriculumcontent. This can be achieved by pre-testing basic concepts or using performanceassessment methods. Studentsdemonstrating they do not require instructionmove on to tiered problem solving activitieswhile others receive instruction.ignatius joseph estroga
  • Through a variety of instructional strategiesCarol Ann Tomlinson(2006)ProductDifferentiationIs a teachers response to learner’s needRespectful tasks Continual assessmentFlexible groupingTeachers can differentiate throughContent ProcessAccording to students’Readiness Interests Learning Profile Environmentignatius joseph estroga
  • IN CLOSING…..What is fair isn’talways equal…ignatius joseph estroga
  • IN CLOSING…..Differentiation gets usaway from “one size fits all”approach to curriculum andinstruction that doesn‟t fitanyone.ignatius joseph estroga
  • Download presentation atwww.slideshare.net/josephestrogaignatius joseph estroga
  • BIBLIOGRAPHYCampbell, Bruce. The Multiple Intelligences Handbook: Lesson Plans andMore. Stanwood, WA. 1996.Daniels, Harvey and Bizar. (2005). Teaching The Best Practice Way:Methods that Matter, K-12. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.Gregory, Gayle. Differentiated Instructional Strategies in Practice. ThousandOaks, CA. 2003.Tomlinson, Carol Ann. The Differentiated Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.1995.Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isn’t Always Equal: Assessment and Grading in theDifferentiated Classroom, Stenhouse Publishers, 2006.ignatius joseph estroga
  • Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4Activity Activity Activity ActivityDomain _________________________Least Mastered Skill/Critical Content _________________Day 2: Workshop 3ignatius joseph estroga