One Land…Two Rivers • Mesopotamia means = “land between the rivers” – Tigris River and Euphrates River • Both rivers flooded once a year and left thick bed of silt. – Silt: rich, new soil farmers could plant and harvest enormous quantities of wheat and barley ignatius joseph n estroga
Hodges Library, Utah ignatius joseph n estroga
CULTURE SUMERIAN’S CREATED… BEATUIFUL STONE AND METAL WORK SCULPTURES THE TWELVE MONTH CALENDAR THE FIRST WRITING SYSTEM: CUNIFORM ignatius joseph n estroga
PoliticsPower of the Priests• Sumer’s earliest governments were controlled by temple priests – Farmers believed they needed blessings for success of their crops – Priests were the middle man for the Gods – Priests demanded portion of farmer crops ignatius joseph n estroga as tax
Political• Later followed Hereditary rulers: when the power is passed down to family members ignatius joseph n estroga
Economy• Metal tools and weapons(bronze, iron)• Increasing agriculturalsurplus (better tools, plows,irrigation)• Increasing trade alongrivers – traded with Egypt• Development of the world’sfirst cities• Specialization of labor ignatius joseph n estroga
Religion• Polytheistic: Belief in Many Gods (3,000!!!)• Gods could be angered at any moment and to keep them happy Sumerians: – Built impressive ziggurats or temples to sacrifice food, wine and animals – Souls of the dead wandered in the land of no return ignatius joseph n estroga
Society Kings and Priests Wealthy merchants Ordinary Sumerian people Slaves ignatius joseph n estroga
Women• Could hold property• Join lower ranks of priesthood• There were few women scribes – Scholars think that girls were not allowed to attend schools ignatius joseph n estroga
Literature Epic of Gilgamesh • Myths and legends recorded in this long poem • One of the earliest works of literature in the world ignatius joseph n estroga
“Gilgamesh, whither are you wandering?Life, which you look for, you will never find.For when the gods created man, they letDeath be his share, and withheld life ignatius joseph n estroga
Achievements Science and Technology • Invented the wheel, the sail, the plow • First to use bronze. • Developed system of writing • Built irrigation systems, buildings, surveyed flooded ignatius joseph n estroga fields.
THE RISE, REBIRTH AND FALL OF BABYLON IN 200O BC BABYLONIANS CAME AND OVERPOWERED THE SUMERIANS THEIR RULER WAS HAMMURABI AND HE IS FAMOUS FOR THE CODE OF HAMMURABI THE MOST COMMON MESSAGE WAS “AN EYE FOR EYE AND A TOOTH FOR A TOOTH” BABYLOIANS OVERTHREW THE ASSYRIANS AND HAD A NEW RULER NAME NEBUCHADNEZZER WHO IS FAMOUS FOR THE HANGING GARDENS BABYLON FELL TO CYRUS THE GREAT OF PERSIA IN 539 BUT BABYLON STILL REMAIN THE CENTER OF TRADE AND CULTURE ignatius joseph n estroga
HangingGardens ofBabylon, Iraq ignatius joseph n estroga
Ancient Egypt is one of the most powerful civilizations the world has ever known Egypt was called the “gift of the Nile” The Nile provided water and fertile soil for growing crops Papyrus is what made Egypt a stable civilization. Papyrus is an early form of paper.. Also created by the Nile River Egyptian was prosperous for more than twenty-seven centuries. The greatest years were divided into three eras ignatius joseph n estroga
Kingdoms New Kingdom (1600-1100) Old Kingdom (2700-2200) Middle Kingdom (2000-1800) The pinnacle of political power Famous Pyramids Expanding Economy Known for lyric love poemsHighest Level of Sophistication Political Power ignatius joseph n estroga
“Pyramid Power”Religion was apart of daily life… Pharaoh was both a political and spiritual leader Pharaoh Single; powerful ruler Priest and Scribes Merchants and Professionals Workers, Peasants and Slaves The largest class ignatius joseph n estroga
Egyptian Literature• Egyptians also had a form of writing called hieroglyphs. Hieroglyphs is a script in which pictures represent ideas• Because everything that Egyptians did was based on religious belief they constantly thought of the afterlife• Egyptians even wrote a book that was called the “Book of the Dead”. It was a guide to the afterlife.• Egyptians also began a love for poetry. Especially pastoral poetry-displays everyday life in pleasant terms ignatius joseph n estroga
• Hieroglyphs are written in rows or columns and can be read from left to right or from right to left.ignatius joseph n estroga
Hieroglyphic categories1. Alphabetic signs represent a single sound. Unfortunately the Egyptians took most vowels for granted and did not represent such as e or v. So we may never know how the words were formed.2. Syllabic signs represent a combination of two or three consonants.3. Word-signs are pictures of objects used as the words for those objects.4. A determinative is a picture of an object which helps the ignatius joseph n estroga reader.
Hebrew LiteratureThe Hebrew people were wanderers who created a rich culture based on their religious beliefs The Hebrew were monotheists- worshipping one God (Yahweh) Their beliefs were recorded in a the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) The Hebrew Bible is considered the GREAT monument left by the ancient Hebrews ignatius joseph n estroga
The Early Hebrew Patriarchs Abraham was the founding father and his wife’s name was Sarah Hebrews lived in Canaan for, four generations… SON Isaac and his GRANDSON Jacob Jacob’s name was changed to Israel and his people became the Israelites ignatius joseph n estroga
Hebrew Literature “Hebrew Family Drama” Jacob’s (Abraham’s grandson) son Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers Joseph won favor with the Pharaoh and saved his family from starvation The Israelites were enslaved by Pharaoh and then later set free by Moses. The Israelites were so large they created tribes Moses heard from Yahweh and created the Ten Commandments which is the code of moral conduct Moses died in the desert and his follower Joshua led Israelites to Canaan ignatius joseph n estroga
Hebrew Literature The Promised Land, Peace and Stability The first King was Saul; under his rule the Israelites became a powerful group in Canaan After Saul was David and the Israelites were very successful and peaceful David captured the Jebusites The Israelites arrived to and made Jerusalem the capital city see that Canaan had people living there ; they David’s son Solomon built the struggled to find out Temple of Jerusalem an important symbol of spiritual who they were unity ignatius joseph n estroga
Hebrew Literature Conflict… Division… Exile Once Solomon died there was confusion in the twelve tribes. The tribes divided into two kingdoms but still thought of themselves as one spiritual body The Assyrians came and conquered Israel; the tribes dispersed and are now referred to as the “Ten Lost Tribes” King Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah, destroyed the Temple of Jerusalem and took the Hebrews into slavery. Creating the most bitter periods in Hebrew history; “Babylonian Exile” Cyrus the Great came and freed the slaves, they returned to Jerusalem and rebuilt everything that was destroyed. Their belief stayed strong ignatius joseph n estroga
Hebrew LiteratureThe Hebrew Identity• The Jews always saw God as their source of unity. They believed that God provided a special agreement (covenant) with them• The terms of the covenant were God would always protect them. Even when they lost their homeland; they found a sense of belonging in their relationship with Yahweh ignatius joseph n estroga
• www.myjewishlearning.com/.../ Liter ature/Heb• www.britannica.com/.../Hebr ew -liter ature• www.answers.com/topic/hebr e w-liter ature• www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org ignatius joseph n estroga
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