Introduction to world literature[1]

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  • 1. INTRO TOWORLDLITERATURE ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 2.  MESOPOTAMIAN LITERATURE EGYPTIAN LITERATURE HEBREW LITERATURE ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 3. • THE ANCIENT LITERATURE AND HISTORICAL RECORDS HELP US UNDERSTAND THE CULTURE AND WISDOM OF THESE PEOPLE ignatius joseph n estroga
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  • 5. One Land…Two Rivers • Mesopotamia means = “land between the rivers” – Tigris River and Euphrates River • Both rivers flooded once a year and left thick bed of silt. – Silt: rich, new soil farmers could plant and harvest enormous quantities of wheat and barley ignatius joseph n estroga
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  • 8. THE SUMERIANS WERE THE FIRST TO SETTLE IN THE MESOPOTAMIA SUMERIANS LIVED IN CITY-STATES BUILT AROUND ZIGGURATS ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 9. zigguratignatius joseph n estroga
  • 10. Hodges Library, Utah ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 11. CULTURE SUMERIAN’S CREATED… BEATUIFUL STONE AND METAL WORK SCULPTURES THE TWELVE MONTH CALENDAR THE FIRST WRITING SYSTEM: CUNIFORM ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 12. PoliticsPower of the Priests• Sumer’s earliest governments were controlled by temple priests – Farmers believed they needed blessings for success of their crops – Priests were the middle man for the Gods – Priests demanded portion of farmer crops ignatius joseph n estroga as tax
  • 13. Political• Later followed Hereditary rulers: when the power is passed down to family members ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 14. Economy• Metal tools and weapons(bronze, iron)• Increasing agriculturalsurplus (better tools, plows,irrigation)• Increasing trade alongrivers – traded with Egypt• Development of the world’sfirst cities• Specialization of labor ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 15. Religion• Polytheistic: Belief in Many Gods (3,000!!!)• Gods could be angered at any moment and to keep them happy Sumerians: – Built impressive ziggurats or temples to sacrifice food, wine and animals – Souls of the dead wandered in the land of no return ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 16. Society Kings and Priests Wealthy merchants Ordinary Sumerian people Slaves ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 17. Women• Could hold property• Join lower ranks of priesthood• There were few women scribes – Scholars think that girls were not allowed to attend schools ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 18. Literature Epic of Gilgamesh • Myths and legends recorded in this long poem • One of the earliest works of literature in the world ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 19. “Gilgamesh, whither are you wandering?Life, which you look for, you will never find.For when the gods created man, they letDeath be his share, and withheld life ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 20. Achievements Science and Technology • Invented the wheel, the sail, the plow • First to use bronze. • Developed system of writing • Built irrigation systems, buildings, surveyed flooded ignatius joseph n estroga fields.
  • 21. THE RISE, REBIRTH AND FALL OF BABYLON IN 200O BC BABYLONIANS CAME AND OVERPOWERED THE SUMERIANS THEIR RULER WAS HAMMURABI AND HE IS FAMOUS FOR THE CODE OF HAMMURABI THE MOST COMMON MESSAGE WAS “AN EYE FOR EYE AND A TOOTH FOR A TOOTH” BABYLOIANS OVERTHREW THE ASSYRIANS AND HAD A NEW RULER NAME NEBUCHADNEZZER WHO IS FAMOUS FOR THE HANGING GARDENS BABYLON FELL TO CYRUS THE GREAT OF PERSIA IN 539 BUT BABYLON STILL REMAIN THE CENTER OF TRADE AND CULTURE ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 22. HangingGardens ofBabylon, Iraq ignatius joseph n estroga
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  • 24. Egyptian LitEraturE ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 25. Ancient Egypt is one of the most powerful civilizations the world has ever known Egypt was called the “gift of the Nile” The Nile provided water and fertile soil for growing crops Papyrus is what made Egypt a stable civilization. Papyrus is an early form of paper.. Also created by the Nile River Egyptian was prosperous for more than twenty-seven centuries. The greatest years were divided into three eras ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 26. Kingdoms New Kingdom (1600-1100) Old Kingdom (2700-2200) Middle Kingdom (2000-1800) The pinnacle of political power Famous Pyramids Expanding Economy Known for lyric love poemsHighest Level of Sophistication Political Power ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 27. “Pyramid Power”Religion was apart of daily life… Pharaoh was both a political and spiritual leader Pharaoh Single; powerful ruler Priest and Scribes Merchants and Professionals Workers, Peasants and Slaves The largest class ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 28. Egyptian Literature• Egyptians also had a form of writing called hieroglyphs. Hieroglyphs is a script in which pictures represent ideas• Because everything that Egyptians did was based on religious belief they constantly thought of the afterlife• Egyptians even wrote a book that was called the “Book of the Dead”. It was a guide to the afterlife.• Egyptians also began a love for poetry. Especially pastoral poetry-displays everyday life in pleasant terms ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 29. • Hieroglyphs are written in rows or columns and can be read from left to right or from right to left.ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 30. Hieroglyphic categories1. Alphabetic signs represent a single sound. Unfortunately the Egyptians took most vowels for granted and did not represent such as e or v. So we may never know how the words were formed.2. Syllabic signs represent a combination of two or three consonants.3. Word-signs are pictures of objects used as the words for those objects.4. A determinative is a picture of an object which helps the ignatius joseph n estroga reader.
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  • 32. Hebrew Literature ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 33. Hebrew LiteratureThe Hebrew people were wanderers who created a rich culture based on their religious beliefs  The Hebrew were monotheists- worshipping one God (Yahweh)  Their beliefs were recorded in a the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)  The Hebrew Bible is considered the GREAT monument left by the ancient Hebrews ignatius joseph n estroga
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  • 35. The Early Hebrew Patriarchs Abraham was the founding father and his wife’s name was Sarah Hebrews lived in Canaan for, four generations… SON Isaac and his GRANDSON Jacob Jacob’s name was changed to Israel and his people became the Israelites ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 36. Hebrew Literature “Hebrew Family Drama” Jacob’s (Abraham’s grandson) son Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers Joseph won favor with the Pharaoh and saved his family from starvation The Israelites were enslaved by Pharaoh and then later set free by Moses. The Israelites were so large they created tribes Moses heard from Yahweh and created the Ten Commandments which is the code of moral conduct Moses died in the desert and his follower Joshua led Israelites to Canaan ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 37. Hebrew Literature The Promised Land, Peace and Stability  The first King was Saul; under his rule the Israelites became a powerful group in Canaan  After Saul was David and the Israelites were very successful and peaceful  David captured the Jebusites The Israelites arrived to and made Jerusalem the capital city see that Canaan had people living there ; they  David’s son Solomon built the struggled to find out Temple of Jerusalem an important symbol of spiritual who they were unity ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 38. Hebrew Literature Conflict… Division… Exile Once Solomon died there was confusion in the twelve tribes. The tribes divided into two kingdoms but still thought of themselves as one spiritual body The Assyrians came and conquered Israel; the tribes dispersed and are now referred to as the “Ten Lost Tribes” King Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah, destroyed the Temple of Jerusalem and took the Hebrews into slavery. Creating the most bitter periods in Hebrew history; “Babylonian Exile” Cyrus the Great came and freed the slaves, they returned to Jerusalem and rebuilt everything that was destroyed. Their belief stayed strong ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 39. Hebrew LiteratureThe Hebrew Identity• The Jews always saw God as their source of unity. They believed that God provided a special agreement (covenant) with them• The terms of the covenant were God would always protect them. Even when they lost their homeland; they found a sense of belonging in their relationship with Yahweh ignatius joseph n estroga
  • 40. • www.myjewishlearning.com/.../ Liter ature/Heb• www.britannica.com/.../Hebr ew -liter ature• www.answers.com/topic/hebr e w-liter ature• www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org ignatius joseph n estroga