Saffron – a symbol ofCourageWhite – Peace andHonestyBlue – Vigilance,Truth andLoyalty,Perseveranceand JusticeGreen – hope, joy, Fertility andLove and in many cultures have asacred significanceSaffron - a symbol of Courag
Spinning Ashoka Chakrarepresents the eternalwheel of law. In the centerwas a traditional spinningwheel, symbolizing Gandhis goal of making.Indians self-reliant by fabricating their ownclothing. The design was then modified toinclude a white stripe in the centre for otherreligious communities, and provide abackground for the spinning wheel.
Geographic Features• India• South Asia• One of the Oldest Civilizations• 2nd Populace Country• ~1/3 US size• ~3 time more people• Himalayas in North• Indian Ocean (S), Bay of Bengal (E)& Arabic Sea (W)• Sri Lanka (S), Myanmar &Bangladesh (E), Nepal, Bhutan, &China (N), & Pakistan &Afghanistan (W)
Environment• North: Himalayas• South, East, & West: Seas• Latitude: (E-W): 32°-10°N• Longitude: (N-S): 70-90°E• Summer: March to June• Monsoon: June toOctober• Winter: October to March
PEOPLE• India is the home to large number ofindigenous people, who are still untouchedby the lifestyle of the modern world. Withmore than 84.4 million, India has thelargest population of the tribal people inthe world. These tribal people also knownas the adivasis are the poorest in thecountry, who are still dependent onhaunting , agriculture and fishing. All thesetribal people have their own culture,tradition, language and lifestyle.
Tradition and Culture• The uniqueness of Indian culture lies in its strong socialsystem and family values .• The elders are considered the driving force and so arerespected and loved .• The guests are considered as gods and are treated withrespect and love, even if by foregoing some of thepersonal pleasures.• Indians are always ready to help one another in times ofneed.• The philosophy of distributing joy and sharing sorrows isalso an important part of Indian culture.• Unity in diversity can be seen here which teachestolerance and respect for others.
• NAME PROTOCOL: Younger never uses the propername of their elders. (eg: Anna, Akka etc.) Onlypeople of the same age will address each other byfirst name. A Hindu wife never speaks the name ofher husband .• CAUTION WITH FOOTWEAR: It is very important toapologize immediately if one touches someone withhis or her shoe or sandal• DISPLAYING AFFECTION: Married Hindu couples donot hug, hold hands or kiss in public. Even embracingat airports and train stations is considered not wise.Men, however, frequently walk hand in hand.
• MODESTY: Interaction in public between men andwomen is much more restrained in Hindu culture thanin Western culture. In Hindu culture, for the most part,men socialize with men, and women with women. Mennever touch women in public unless the lady is veryelderly or infirm.• WOMANLY RESERVE: In mixed company especially inthe presence of strangers, a Hindu woman will keepmodestly in the background and not participate freelyin conversation. This, of course, does not apply tosituations among family and close associates.• SERVING AT MEALS: At meals women follow thecustom of serving the men first before enjoying theirown meal.
• CHAPERONING: It is customary for a woman to always beaccompanied when she leaves the home. Living alone, too, isunusual.• WOMEN IN Public : Generally it is improper for women to speakwith strangers on the street and especially to strike up a casualconversation.• HOME VISITS: Close friends can visit one another anytimewithout being announced or making arrangements first. Whenthey drop in, at least a refreshing drink is always served.• WIFE HOME ALONE: If the lady of the house is in home aloneand a male visitor comes to see her husband, it is not proper forher to invite him in, nor for him to expect to enter. Rather, hewill leave a message and depart.
Clothing• Traditional clothing in India greatly variesacross different parts of the country and isinfluenced by local culture, geography, climateand rural/urban settings.
Saree or Sari Ghagra Choli
Salwar Kameez Churidaar Kurta
Mundum NeriyathumPattu Pavadai
Festivals• India is a land of great diversity. It described as a land of many religions andinnumerable languages, it might well be described as a land of festivals aswell. Indians love celebrating. Every little occasion from the harvesting ofcrops, welcoming the spring or rain, to seeing the full moon lends itself tojoyous celebrations splashed with colors, music, folk dances and songs. Eventhe birthdays of divine beings are celebrated by connecting them withparticular festivals.• The homes are neatly decorated, new dresses are worn for every occasion,prayers offered to Gods, and lot of sweets and goodies are cooked. Most ofthese festivals are common to most part of India however they may beknown by different names in different parts of the country. Different culturesalso mean that different rituals are followed.
Gandhi Jayanthi• A solemn celebration marking the birth dateof Gandhiji, the father of the nation, includesprayer meetings at the Raj Ghat where he wascremated.
Diwali or DeepawaliThis is perhaps thehappiest of Hindu festivals Ofall the festivals celebrated inIndia, Diwali is by far themost glamorous andimportant. its a festival oflights symbolizing the victoryof righteousness and thelifting of spiritual darkness.Countless number of lampsare lighted at night, givingthe impression that the starshave descended on earth.
WEDDING• Colorful costumes, vibrant settings, happy faces,lip-smacking traditional food-fare and a lot morecomprise the extravaganza of an Indian wedding.Indian weddings are elaborate and typicallyconsist of many functions. Simple weddings arethe best weddings. Although traditions and ritualsvary with different states in India.
Pre-wedding• Sagan – event heldat the grooms housewhere the Havan isheld by the pundit.Afterwards the bridesfather applies tilak tothe grooms head andthe brides familypresent him withblessings and gifts.
Chunni ChadanaThis time the groomsrelatives visit the house ofthe bride. She is given a redSari and dresses in clothesthat the grooms familypresents her with.A Chunni is placed on herhead by the mother-in-lawand she is feed rice and milkby the grooms family.at the very end the rings areexchanged.
Sangeet• A musical program heldat both the bride and thegrooms homes wheretraditional music is sung.This event is held two orthree days before themain ceremony and isusually reserved for thewomen.
Kwar Dhoti• “Mehendi is consideredto be an ancient Indianbody art. It is used tocreating elaborateethnic or contemporarydesigns and exoticpatterns on variousparts of the body;traditionally mehendiwas applied on thehands and feet of Indianbride”
Wedding Ceremony• Kanya Dan – the bride’s father gives away hisdaughter to the groom while the mantras arespoken.• Vivah – Homa – the sacred fire ceremonyascertaining that all auspicious undertakingare begun in an atmosphere of purity.• Pani – Grahan – the Groom takes the righthand of the bride in his left hand and acceptsher as his lawfully wedded wide.
• Pratigna – karan – the couple walk around thefire, the bride leading, and take solemn vowsof loyalty.• Shila Arohan – the mother of the bride assistsher to step onto a stone slab and counselshere to prepare herself for a new life.• Laja – Homah – pufffed rice offered asoblations into the sacred fire by the Bridewhile keeping the palms of her hands overthose of the groom.
• Mangal Fera – the couple circles the sacred fireseven times. This aspects of the ceremonylegalizes the marriage according to the HinduMarriage act as custom.• Saptapadi – “Marriage Knot” symbolized by tyingthe one end of the grooms scarf with the Bride’sdress. Then they take seven steps representingnourishment, strength, prosperity, happiness,progeny, long life harmony and undestanding.• Abhisek – sprinkling of water meditating on thesun and the pole star.• Anna Praashan – thecouple make food offeringsinto the fore then feed morsel of food to eachother expressing joy.
Is the world second most populousnation (after China) and the seventhlargest in area, is located in South Asiaon the Indian subcontinent. It is about3,000 km(1,875mi) wide and has ,because of its peninsular shape, ashoreline of about 7,000km (4,000mi)along the Bay of Bengal on the east andthe Arabian Sea on the West.
India and Bharat are both official names.The early settlers called their land “BharatVarsha” or Bharat and during medievaltimes it was known as Hind. The nameIndia derives from the Indus River and wasused by the Ancient Greeks and Persians,came into wide during the colonialperiod.
• EDUCATION: Responsibility of both the central stateGovernment. Two states education is compulsory for childrenaged 6 to 14 . India has the second largest University systemin the world, after the United States. Earliest Universities were established by theBritish at Bombay, Calcutta, andMadras in 1857.Control and fundingcoming from 3 levels:1. Central2. State3. Local
PRIMARY EDUCATION: It emphasizes Primary education up to the ageof fourteen years old. 80% of all recognized schools at the Elementarystage are government run or supported.• SECONDARY EDUCATION: Covers children 14-18 years old. Emphasis on theinclusion of thedisadvantagedsections of thesociety andvocational training.
HIGHER EDUCATION:Third largest in the world.University Grants Commission , which enforcesitsStandards.Accreditation for higher learning education isoverseen by 12 autonomous institutions.HOME SCHOOLING: Is legal in India.HRD Minister Kapil Sibal that despite the RTE Actof 2009.
LANGUAGES:Official language is Hindi.More than 200 languages arespoken in India.The most important of these are theIn-Aryan,Indo-European, Dravidian languagegroup.
• INDO-ARYAN:1. AssameseEx. Hello (formal) NoHello (informal) Bhalne2. Bengali-written in Bengali script.-its one of the most spoken language.Ex. Please (Doyakore oronugroho).3. Gujarati-Derived from old Gujarati.-chief language in the state of Gurajat.
Ex. Yes-hano-na4. Kashmiri-language from the Dardic sub-group.6. Punjabi-spoken by inhabitants of thehistorical.-it is the unusual because it is tonallanguage.7. Urdu-precisely standard Urdu in the SouthAsian language.-national language and lingua francaof Pakistan.
DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE:1. Tamil-Dravidian language spoken predominantly by TamilPeople.-also a national language of Sri Lanka.-longest surviving classical languages.2. Telugu-spoken in South Indian state of Andhra Pradeshwhere it is an official language.3. Malayalam-mainly spoken in South West of India particularly inKerala.-its written with the Vatteluttu alphabet which meansRound writing.
4. Kannada-spoken in Indiapredominantly in the state ofKarnataka. Whose nativespeakers called Kannadigas.
HINDUISM:-Various Gods and Goddesses.3 lords that rule in the world:1. Brahma- the creator2. Vishnu- preserver3. Shiva- the destroyerReligions in India:
ISLAM:-2nd most practised religion in India afterHinduism.-Came in India with Muslim invasion andArab trade to the Malabar coast in the 7thand 8th century.-Process of converting Indians toIslam began in the 8th century.
CHRISTIANITY:• Third largest approximately 24 millionfollowers.• Introduced to India by Thomas theApostle who visited Muziris in Kerala in52AD.
SIKHISM:-Fourth largest religion in India existed over 500years.-Its founder is Guru Nanak Dev ji.Predominantly located in Punjab.-Its place of worship called Gurdwara.-The Harminder Sahib also know as ( Goldentemple in Amritsar in Punjab is the mostimportant site and its considered the Holiestshrine of Sikhism.
BUDDHISM:-Based on teaching of SiddhartaGautama.-followers called Buddhist inEnglish, referred themselves asSaugata.
JAINISM:• 6 largest Religion. There are 5,200,000Jainism in the 1.028 billion Population ofIndia.• ALWAYS EXISTED AND WILL ALWAYSEXIST.• Traditionaly as Jaina Dharma.• One oldest Religion of the world.
-Emphasizes spiritual interdependence andequality between all forms of life.Ex. Inspect the ground they walk.do not walk in grass.
CULTURE OF INDIA:• Indian’s languages, religions,dance, music, architecture, foodand customs differ from place toplace.
ARRANGED MARRIAGE:• Have been tradition in Indiansociety.• In the past, the age of marriage wasyoung, especially in Rajasthan.
GREETINGS:• Folding hands together with a smile togreet Namaste- a common culturalpractise in India.• Namaskar is considered a slightly moreformal version than Namaste but bothexpresses deep respect.• Commonly used in in india and Nipalin Hindus.
INDIAN FOOD:• Is different from the rest of theworld not only in taste but also incooking methods.• It reflects a prefect blend in variouscultures and ages.• Better known for its spiciness.
NORTH INDIAN FOOD:• Kashmiri cuisines reflect strongCentral Asian influences. In Kashmir,mostly all the dishes are preparedaround the main course of ricefound abundantly in the beautifulvalley.
WEST INDIAN FOOD:• The dessert cuisine is famous for itsunique taste and varieties of food.Rajasthan and Gujarat are the statesthat represent the dessert flavor ofIndian food.
SOUTH INDIAN FOOD:-In the Southern Indian, thestates make great use of spices,fishes and coconuts, as most ofthem have coastal kitchen.
CASTE SYSTEM OF INDIA
Indian authors have influencedan entire generation with theirwriting.R. K. NarayanKiran Desai Raj Kamal Jha