2. is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols Is a method of representing language in a visual or tactile form A physical and mental activity engaged in for various purposes.
3. STAGES OF WRITING
4. STAGE 1: PREWRITING Choose a topic. Gather and organize ideas. Consider the audience to whom students will write. Identify the purpose of the writing activity. Choose an appropriate genre for their compositions based on audience and purpose.
5. STAGE 2: DRAFTING Write a rough draft. Craft leads to grab readers’ attention. Emphasize content rather than mechanics.
6. STAGE 3: REVISING Share writing in writing groups. Participate constructively in discussions about classmates’ writing. Make changes in compositions to reflect the reactions and comments of both teacher and classmates. Make substantive rather than only minor changes between the first and final drafts.
7. STAGE 4: EDITING Proofread compositions independently. Help proofread classmates’ compositions. Increasingly identify and correct mechanical errors without assistance.
8. STAGE 5: PUBLISHING Publish writing in appropriate form. Share finished writing with an appropriate audience.
9. 5 LEVELS OF SUPPORT A TEACHER USE:
10. 1. Modeled Writing - teacher writes in front of students, creating the text, doing the writing, and thinking aloud about writing strategies and skills. Purposes: 1. To demonstrate how do a new type of writing activity before having students do the writing activity independently or in a small groups. 2. To demonstrate how to use writing strategies, such a proofreading, monitoring, sentence combining and revising. 3. To demonstrate how writing conventions and other skills work.
11. 2. Shared Writing - teacher and students create the texttogether ; then the teacher does the actualwriting. Students may assist by spelling words. Purposes: 1. To demonstrate how to writing works. 2. To record students’ idea. 3. To create written texts for theclassroom that children could not writeindependently.
12. 3. Interactive Writing - teacher and students create the textand share the pen to do the writing. Teacherand students talk about writing conventions. Purposes: 1. To demonstrate how to write words andsentences. 2. To teach how to use capital letters andpunctuation marks. 3. To demonstrate how to use phonics andspelling patterns to spell words. 4. To create written texts for the classroomthat children could not write independently.
13. 4. Guided Writing - teacher presents a structured lesson and supervises as students write. Teacher also teaches a writing procedure, strategy, or skill. Purposes: 1. To scaffolding a writing experience so that students can be successful. 2. To introduce different types of writing activities 3. To teach children to use the writing process in particular, how to revise and edit. 4. To teach procedures, concepts, strategies, and skills during minilessons.5. Independent Writing - students use the writing process to write stories, informational books, and other compositions. Teacher monitors students’ progress.
14. 2 APPROACHES IN WRITING1. Writing Workshop Approach - provide children with opportunities to use the writing process to create books and other composition - students choose their own topic - is an ongoing and regularly scheduled part of the day2. Thematic Approach -respond to literature and expand learning aboutsocial studies and science through writing projects - students write on topics related to literature orsocial studies and science - it continues until the project is completed, usuallya week or two
15. Purposes: 1. To provide an authentic context for writingpractice. 2. To give students opportunities to choose writingtopics and forms. 3. To gain writing fluency and stamina. 4. As a tool for learning, such as when childrenwrite in reading logs. 5. To make and publish books. 6. To document learning in literature focus unitsand thematic units.
16. WRITING STRATEGIES USE BY A WRITER- are deliberate thinking procedures writers use to solve problems that they encounter while writing.
17. 1. Tap prior knowledge - students think about they already know about the topic of their composition.2. Organize ideas - students group and sequence ideas before writing.3. Visualize - students use the description and sensory details to make their writing more vivid.4. Summarize - students write the main ideas or events in a text they have read or written.5. Make connections - students make “personal,” “world knowledge,” and “literary” connections to the composition they are writing.
18. 6. Revise meaning - students add words and sentences, makesubstitutions and deletions, and move text aroundto communicate more effectively.7. Monitor - students coordinate all writing- relatedactivities, check on how well they arecommunicating, and ask self- questions.8. Play with language - students incorporate figurative and noveluses of language in their writing.9. Generalize - students draw out main ideas and details anduse main ideas to direct readers through thecompositions10. Evaluate - students make judgements about, reflect on,and value their writing.
19. SKILLS THAT WRITERS USE:1. Structuring skills - students use structuring skills as they craftsentences, group sentences into paragraphs, andorganize the entire composition.2. Spelling, Punctuation, and Capitalization Skills - are the traditional “mechanics” of writing.3. Language Skills - precise and imaginative language makewriting more interesting.4. Reference Skills - variety reference tools a writer will use5. Handwriting and Word Processing Skills - students develop effective manuscript andcursive handwriting skills so that they can writelegibly and fluently.
20. STRATEGIES ININFORMAL WRITING1. Brainstorming - quickly list all words and phrases that cometo mind in response to the topic. - use of KWL chart2. Clustering - similar to brainstorming except that all thewords generated are circled and linked to anucleus word.3. Quickwriting - students simply begin to write and let theirthoughts flow freely without focusing on mechanicsor revisions.
21. SIX WRITING GENRES1. Descriptive writing2. Expository writing3. Narrative writing4. Persuasive writing5. Journals and Letters6. Poetry writing