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1ENGLISH 8 LEARNING MODULEQUARTER III (OVERCOMING CHALLENGES)LESSON 4: African LiteratureCourage in Rising Above ChallengesINTRODUCTION AND FOCUS QUESTIONSHave you ever felt so discouraged that you almost wanted to give up and quit?How did you respond to life‘s challenges? Whether you are black, white, or brown,you have to remember that everybody goes through difficulties in these moderntimes. Have you ever wondered how your African brothers overcome adversecircumstances in life?In this lesson, African Literature: Courage in Rising Above Challenges, youwill discover that critical understanding and appreciation of Afro-Asian literary piecescan help you identify the temperaments and psyche of your Afro-Asian brothers inresponse to the challenges of modernity.Remember to search for the answer to the following questions:1. What does literature reveal about Africans and Asians character?2. How do Africans and Asians respond to the challenges of modernity as reflected intheir literary pieces?LESSON AND COVERAGE:In this lesson, you will answer these questions when you take the followinglesson:Lesson Title: The Temperaments and Psyche of the Africans in Response to theChallenges of ModernityIn this lesson, you will learn the following:Domains Learning CompetenciesListening Comprehension Use syntactic, lexical, or context clues to supplyitems not listened toSpeaking (Oral Language andFluency) Infer the functions of utterances and respondaccordingly taking into account the context ofthe situation and the tone usedVocabulary Development Identify derivation of wordsReading Comprehension Express emotional reactions to what wasasserted or expressed in a text Determine the validity and adequacy of proofstatements to support assertions
2Viewing Comprehension Organize an independent and systematicapproach in critiquing various reading orviewing selectionsLiterature Express appreciation for worthwhile Asian andAfrican traditions and the values they represent Assess the Asian and African identity asreflected in their literature and oneself in thelight of what makes one an Asian or AfricanWriting and Composition Give and respond to feedback on one‘s paper inthe revision process Use grammatical structures and vocabularyneeded to effectively emphasize particularpointsGrammar Awareness andStructure Formulate meaningful expandedsentences following balance, parallelism, andmodification Formulate appropriate parentheticalexpressionsStudy Strategies Get vital information from various texts andsources using websites in the internetAttitude Give credence to well thought-out ideasMODULE MAP:Here is a simple map of the above lesson you will cover:OVERCOMING CHALLENGES
3UNIT ACTIVITIES MAPACTIVITIES FOR ACQUIRINGKNOWLEDGEAND SKILLSACTIVITIES FORMAKING MEANINGAND DEVELOPINGUNDERSTANDINGACTIVITIES LEADING TOTRANSFERKNOWPicture Hook (G) WorksheetBox of Essentials (Map ofConceptual Change) (I)Compare and Contrast (G)Character Analysis(G) TablePROCESSFrequency Word List (I)Squeeze it Out (I)/TableFrequency Word List (I)Strike a Balance (I)Punctuate it Right (I)Frequency Word List (I)Frequency Word List (I)Africans on Spotlight(G)Back it Up (G)/TableMessage in a Drum(G)Africa‘s Free(G)/Character AnalysisModel (G)Dissecting Pen (In-depth Analysis)Worksheet (I)Black and White - AnEvaluation Paper (I)WorksheetREFLECT/UNDERSTANDScoop on Slavery(G)Africa: Darken NoMore (G)Capturing the World ofe-Journal (G)EUreka AfricansThree-Minute PauseChart (I)TRANSFERUnpacking ofEssentials (I)Wrap it Up (I)Welcome to FB(Feedback Blog) (G)Post-assessment
4EXPECTED SKILLS:To do well in this lesson, you need to remember and do the following:Listening/Writing: Use syntactic, lexical, and context clues to supply items notlistened to. Write an analysis of how an African character depicted in a literaryselection respond to the challenges of modernity.Speaking/Writing: Engage in communication situation based from a selection readand infer the functions of utterances and respond accordingly taking intoconsideration the context of the situation and the tone used.Reading/Literature/Vocabulary/Study Strategies: Produce a frequency word listand come up with an evaluation paper on selected African literary selection.Grammar/Reading/Literature: Make an e-journal based on the impressionsreflected in an African literary selection.Viewing/Writing: Make an interactive feedback blog expressing one‘s insights andcomments.LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS:For you to accomplish the activities in this lesson, write your goals andexpectations in the box provided.
5KNOW:Let’s start the module by examining how far you have gone in Afro-AsianLiterature, particularly, African literature.Activity 1: PICTURE HOOKIn this activity, you will answer questions based on the picture shown. Write youranswers on the template provided; afterwards share your answers with the rest of theclass in a freewheeling group discussion. Try to relate your answers to the essentialquestions:1. What does literature reveal about Asian and (African) character?2. How do Asians and Africans respond to the challenges of modernity as reflectedin their literary selections?http://www.tower.com/escape-from-slavery-true-story-my-ten-years-edward-tivnan-paperback/wapi/1014492181. What role does Nelson Mandela play in the political landscape of Africa?2. Aside from being a political figure or leader, Mandela, as a writer in his ownworld, has etched an indelible mark in African literature. What do you think arehis contributions in the literary realm of Africa?3. Based on Mandela‘s words ―As I walked out the door toward the gate thatwould lead to my freedom, I knew if I didn’t leave my bitterness and hatredbehind, I’d still be in prison,‖ what does it reflect about the temperaments andpsyche of the Africans?
6Activity 2: CHARACTER ANALYSISNow, read the informative text below for you to have a clearer mental pictureof Nelson Mandela’s life, works, and contributions in Africa.Nelson Mandela – Short BiographyNelson Mandela was born at Qunu, near Umtata on 18 July 1918. His father waschief councilor to Thembuland‘s acting chief David Dalindyebo. When his father died,Mandela was groomed for becoming chief of his local tribe. However Mandela wouldnever be able to make this commitment.Whilst at the university, Nelson Mandela became increasingly aware of theunjust nature of South African Society. The majority of Black South Africans had littleopportunities either Economic or Political. Much to the disappointment of his family,Mandela became involved in politics, and along with his good friend and comrade OliverTambo was expelled from Fort Hare for organizing a student strike. However, Mandelawas able to finish his degree and qualified as a Lawyer. In 1952, Mandela and Tamboopened the first Black Law firm in South Africa. The Transvaal Law Society tried to haveit closed down, although this was blocked by the South African Supreme Court.In 1944 Mandela helped found the ANC Youth League, whose Programme ofAction was adopted by the ANC in 1949. Mandela was instrumental in pushing the ANCinto more direct action such as the 1952 Defiance Campaign and later Acts ofSabotage.By the late 50s the S.A. state had become increasingly repressive making itmore difficult for the ANC to operate. Mandela had to resign from the ANC and workunderground. In the late 50s there was an extremely lengthy Treason Trial in whichMandela and several others were charged with treason. Conducting their own defencethey eventually proved to be victorious. Mandela noted in his autobiography thejudiciary were one of the least repressive parts of the South African State and in theorysought to follow the rule of law.However in 1960 the Sharpeville massacre of 63 black South Africans changedthe whole political climate. South Africa was increasingly isolated on the internationalscene and the government banned the ANC. This led Mandela to advocate armedstruggle through the Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK).However by 1962 Mandela had been arrested and sentenced to lifeimprisonment in the notorious Robben Island prison. Life at the prison was tough anduncompromising. However in his autobiography Mandela reveals how he sought tomake the best use of his time there. He helped to keep other men‘s spirits high andnever compromised his political principles when offered early release. Towards the end
7of his prison spell his treatment improved as the South African establishmentincreasingly looked to negotiation, in the face of international isolation. Althoughnegotiations were painfully slow and difficult, they eventually led to Mandela‘s release in1990. It was an emotional moment watched by millions around the globe.The next four years were also difficult as South African society suffered intercultural violence between ANC and Inkarta supporters, in addition to slow progress on anew constitution.However on 10 May 1994 Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as the firstdemocratically elected State President of South Africa on and was President until June1999. As president, Mandela presided over the transition from minority rule andapartheid. His advocacy of reconciliation led to international acclaim and importantly thetrust of the White African population. Despite the initial euphoria of winning the electionthe ANC faced a difficult challenge to improve the lives of the black population. Thiswas made more difficult by the HIV epidemic, which continues to cause graveproblems. (Nelson Mandela recently lost his eldest son to this disease and Mandela hasworked hard to campaign on this issue.)Since retiring from office Nelson Mandela has continued to be an internationalfigure of great stature. He is one of the few politicians who have gone beyond a politicalrole; he is widely admired and has received many prestigious awards. Nelson Mandelais also associated with many educational programs and initiatives such as MakePoverty History Campaign.In 1993 Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with F.W. DeKlerkhttp://www.writespirit.net/authors/nelson-mandela/biography-mandela/This time, work in groups and fill out the template below with the necessarybackground information about Mandela. Then, be ready to share your answers with thebig group.Major CharacterAttributes/Traits/CharacteristicsStatements that Reveal SuchAttributes/Traits/Characteristicshttp://www.picsearch.com/pictures/Celebrities/Nobel%20Prize%20Winners/Peace/Peace%20Me%20-%20Y/Nelson%20Mandela.html1. What does the article reveal about the African character?2. What does this informative text reveal about the temperaments and psycheof the Africans in response to the challenges of modernity?
8Activity 3: BOX OF ESSENTIALSUse the map of conceptual change hereunder in answering the essentialquestions. In this portion, you will write on the “I think” section of IN THE BOX. See to itthat you relate it to the literature of Africa/African people, for instance, Nelson Mandela.I think…
9You are free to exchange opinions, information and answers with the rest of theclass and take turns by comparing your thoughts using this graphic organizer.Graphic Organizers Comparison & Contrastwww.slideshare.net/.../graphic-organizers-comparison-contrast-6865
101. Account for the similarities and differences in your answers.You are done giving your initial ideas on the essential questions regardingAfrican literature. What you learn in the next sections will enable you toaccomplish the culminating task or project which entails creating aninteractive feedback blog that will highlight insights and comments on thetemperaments and psyche of Africans in response to the challenges of modernityas revealed in their literary selections.Let‘s now find out how others would answer the questions and compare theirideas to our own. We will start by doing the next activity.PROCESS:Activity 4: AFRICANS ON SPOTLIGHTLet‘s have an informative text to give you an idea about the temperamentsand psyche of the Africans. Read silently the text below then; use the questionsregarding the text for an intellectual discussion. Then, as a group, complete the table bydetermining the validity and adequacy of statements.The African World-View(Excerpt from a speech delivered by Dr. Kofi A. Busia at a conference onthe ChristianFaith and African Culture in 1955 in Ghana.)My subject is the African worldview, but I should say at once that thoughthere are religious ideas and social values that are widespread in Africa, there arealso diversities. For there are many and not one African community. There arenumerous communities on the vast continent of Africa which have lived in self-contained isolation, under the varying conditions of life and experience.Certain beliefs, nevertheless, such as animism, the concept of ghosts andspirits, polytheism and magic, are common patterns which afford valuable guidesfor understanding particular communities in Africa.When we think of people‘s world view, we consider their concept of thesupernatural, of nature, of man, of society, and of the way in which these conceptsform a system that gives meaning to men‘s lives and actions.Africans believe in a Supreme Being, the Creator of the world and all thethings in it. The ideas as to the attributes of the Creator vary, but all believe that Heis charged with power, both beneficent and dangerous. This belief in a SupremeBeing who is omnipotent is held along with belief in lesser deities who are alsocharged with power, both beneficent and dangerous. These supernatural entities orgods are not always held to have bodies like men, but their values, attitudes, andthoughts, that is, their personalities are like those of men.
11I may digress to point out that the problem of evil so often discussed inWestern philosophy and Christian theology does not arise in the African concept ofdeity. It is when a God who is not only powerful and omniscient but also perfect andloving is postulated that the problem of evil becomes an intellectual andphilosophical hurdle. The Supreme Being of the African is the Creator, the source oflife, but between Him and man lie many powers and principalities good and bad,gods, spirits, magical forces, witches, to account for the strange happenings in theworld.Nature, too, can have power, and even spirits. It must be noted that infarming, fishing, livestock raising, and other economic activities the African showsknowledge of natural causes. The difference with Europe lies in the fact that thecontrol that Europe has gained over nature is greater and therefore Europeans cangive naturalistic or scientific explanations to a greater range of happenings thanAfricans. But there are theories of reality in Africa just as in Europe. When theAfrican offers an egg to a tree, or food to a dead ancestor, he is not expressingignorance of material substance, or natural causes, but he is expressing in conducta theory of reality, namely that behind the visible substance of things lies essences,or powers which constitute their true nature. Those who have read Westernphilosophy are familiar with such formulations, but because the African does notformulate his problems in terms familiar to the Europeans, or may not even be ableto express his awareness in words, its conduct is often grossly misinterpreted.With regard to man himself, there is a widespread belief in Africa that he iscompound of material and immaterial substances; man is a biological and spiritualbeing. Physical death is not the end of men. The soul concepts of African peoplesare many and elaborate. Among the Ashanti, for example, as I have shownelsewhere, ―Man as a biological being inherits his blood from his mother, this giveshim his status and membership within the lineage, clan, and the tribe, and hisobligations as citizens… As a spiritual being, a man receives a two-fold gift of thespirit: that which determines his character and individuality he receives through hisfather; but his soul, the undying part of him, he receives direct from the SupremeBeing.‖Among the Dahomey, as Herskovits tells us, ―all persons have three soulsand adult males have four. One is inherited from the ancestor, and is the ‗guardianspirit‘ of the individual. The second is the personal soul, while the third is the smallbit of the Creator that lives in every person‘s body. The first in Euro-Americanthought is to be conceived as the biological aspect of man; the second, hispersonality, and the third his intellect and intuition. The fourth soul of adult males isassociated with little concept of destiny. This soul occupies itself not only with theaffairs of this world, but also with the collective destiny of his household, since theDaho mean reasons that when a man reaches maturity, his own life cannot knowfulfillment apart from the lives of those who share that life with him.Questions Adopted from Crisscrossing Through Afro-Asian Literature, Rustica C. Carpio, pp. 446-449
12Group yourselves into four. Try answering the comprehension questions below then;report your outputs creatively before the class.Comprehension Questions:1. What could be the purpose of Dr. Busia in this selection?2. What do you understand by a people‘s world-view?3. How do the Africans regard their Supreme Being?4. What are the Africans views on nature and man? Explain. Give the majorreasons why the problem of evil does not arise in the African concept of thedeity.5. What does the excerpt reveal about the temperaments and psyche of theAfricans?Activity 5: SQUEEZE IT OUTBelow are some words taken from the selection you have read. Identify theroot/base words through structural analysis.Prefix Suffix Base/Root1. isolation2. valuable3. collective4. creator5. fulfillment6. immaterial7. dangerous8. individualityActivity 6: PUNCTUATE IT RIGHT!Identifying Parenthetical ExpressionsGo over the selection you have read then; identify the expressions used inparagraphs 2, 4, and 7, that are set off by commas. What do you call these expressions?Yes, these are parenthetical expressions. What should you remember about parentheticalexpression?Key Points:A parenthetical expression is simply a word or string of words which containsrelevant yet non-essential information. In order to let the reader know that thisinformation is not essential to the sentence (it is non-restrictive), it is important that the
13parenthetical expression be punctuated properly. Let‘s look at an example of howparenthetical expressions work in a sentence:The tortoise, as far as we know, has been on earth for thousands of years.The parenthetical expression as far as we know conveys to the reader that thisstatement is not a concrete fact. However, the grammatical meaning of the sentencewould not be affected by the parenthetical expression‘s removal.Other phrases commonly used as parenthetical expressions include thefollowing: however, nevertheless, in fact, therefore, for instance, consequently, forexample, accordingly, moreover, hence.Since all parenthetical expressions are non-restrictive, they should be set offwith punctuation. One of the best ways to set them off is with commas. Thispunctuation shows that the information contained within the set of commas is non-essential, yet still related in context.Example 1: Use commas to separate parenthetical expressions whichoccur at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence.For example, the fruit fly can breed up to ten times in one hour.The fruit fly, for example, can breed up to ten times in one hour.Note how the addition of punctuation causes the reader to mentally pause andadd emphasis to the phrase as they read.Example 2: Commas may be used to punctuate mild parenthetical expressions.I was fired from my last job and consequently must look for a new one.OrI was fired from my last job and, consequently, must look for a new one.In this example the punctuation affects the meaning of the sentence by changingthe connotations of the word ―consequently.‖ In the first sentence, the lack ofpunctuation sets up a distinct cause/effect relationship (because I lost my job I have tolook for a new one), while in the second sentence, the cause/effect relationship is onlyperipheral, mentioned in passing. From this we can conclude that the use ofpunctuation with mild parenthetical expressions depends on the meaning that thewriter wishes the sentence to convey.http://www.uhv.edu/ac/newsletters/writing/grammartip2006.08.29.htmGo over the list of words in Activity 6. Use these words to construct meaningfulsentences with appropriate parenthetical expressions.
14Activity 7: BACK IT UPGo over the selection The African World-View. Accomplish the table below byputting a check mark in the second column if the statements below are valid based onthe selection that you have read. If not, correct the statement by providing proofsexplicitly stated by the author. Have a class discussion on this.Activity 8: MESSAGE IN A DRUMTo strengthen your knowledge regarding the African people including theirtemperaments and psyche, consider the essay below. Answer the questions that followthen; post your answers on the board and have a freewheeling discussion.For frequency word list, unlock the meanings of the key words used in theselection then; construct meaningful sentences using any of these words.1. Africans do not believe in aSupreme Being.2. An African is showing his utterignorance when he offers food to adead ancestor.3. The African exhibits knowledge ofnatural causes.4. Religious ideas and social valuesare widespread in Africa.5. Herskovits says that all personshave one soul.abide bilingual immemorialecho tonal imitatestrengthen injunction realistic
15How the Drums TalkBryan Donaldsonhttp://www.africantreasures.com/detail.asp?PRODUCT_ID=DRUM0009If you like talking to the telephone, you might like African drums talk evenbetter. Drum sheds are still used in the Congo and gong messages echo through thejungle just as they did when Henry Morton Stanley searched for Dr. Livingstone.African languages are tonal. Within each word are syllables of high and lowpitch. An incorrect pitch alters the meaning of the words. One missionary washorrified to discover that he was teaching the children to say ―May thy kingdom notcome, may thy will not be done on earth as it is in heaven.‖Congo drummers translate high and low sounding syllables into gongmessages. Gong phrases rather than individual words are used to clarify similarsyllable combinations.Congo drums are made from logs. A slit is carved and the red heart-wood ishollowed out. One side of the drum is made thicker than the other side. Women‘s Libhas not yet come to the Congo. The thin side of the drum is a female gong; itproduces high, gentle tones. The male side is used for bigger and lower syllables.Sometimes two different drums are used to produce male and female sounds.Some drums are carved into animal shapes complete with head, tail, and fourlegs. The carved-out slot follows the animal‘s backbone. Each gong has its ownname which is beaten out at the beginning and end of every message, much likeradio-broadcasting station identification. ―Birds do not steal from a person withoutfood‖ is the name of one gong. Another: ―Ears of mine, do not listen to what peoplesay.‖Sometimes a small piece of iron attached to the drum produces a voice-likequality so realistic that at one time many people thought the drums really spokewords. All talking drums imitate the rise and fall of vocal tones. In Akan drumlanguage, ―How are you?‖ is said ―Wo ho ten sen?‖ The first and third syllables arelow and the drummer beats on the male drum.Drums convey many kinds of messages: warnings, praise, blame, andgreetings. Even poetry and prayers are chanted in Akan drum language:The heavens are wide, exceedingly wide.The earth is wide, exceedingly wide.We have lifted it and taken it away.We have lifted it and brought it back.From time immemorial.The God of olds bid us allAbide by His injunctions.Then we shall get whatever we want.Be it white or red.
16It is God the Creator, the Gracious One.Good morning to you, God. Good morning.I am learning, let me succeed.Important messages are often relayed from village to village, and a distance of100 miles can be covered in a few hours. There is no universal drum language, butdrummers are often bilingual.Sometimes other African musical instruments use gong language. Antelopehorns can send messages a mile or more. Wind instruments that have only one fingerhole are blown like a flute or clarinet to produce high and low sounds as the playercovers and uncovers the hole. Fishermen boast of their catch by calling vocally indrum language. Ki represents the high tone and li the low tone.Each person in drum-signaling communities has a drum name. Wawina, amedical assistant in Likela, was called, ―The proud man will never listen to advice.‖Bofoma, a servant, answered to, ―Don‘t laugh at a black skin because everybody hasone.‖ John Carrington, author of Talking Drums of Africa was named. ―The whiteman, if he dances up into the sky, men of the village will laugh ha! ha!Sports are broadcast on drums: ―Let the wrestling begin. Trip one another up.‖And when the match is over. ―See the hero! Full of pride!‖War is announced on drums:War which watches for opportunitiesHas come to the townBelonging to usToday as it is dawnedCome, come, come, comeThe drum encourages the fighter:Make the drum strong.Strengthen your legs, spear, shaft, and head.The noise of running feet; Think not to run away.The drum calls the Lokele folk to the universal African pastime, thedance:Let us danceIn the eveningWhen the sky has gone down the riverDown to the ground.Talking drums telegraph their messages by pitch and not by anythingresembling Morse code. Drumming requires skill achieved only by a few. A drummerin the act of drumming is considered a sacred person.Drums are much used by popular bands, by associations such as hunters,military, and religious groups, and by the state. Drummers perform on command or bycustom and tradition.The drummer of the talking drums enjoys an honored position. He can mildlyinsult the chief and remain free. He is thought to be closest to the spirit of the ancestorchiefs.Questions Adopted from English Expressways Textbook forSecond Year
17Comprehension Questions:1. What can you say about the ingenuity of the Africans in sending messages?2. What kinds of messages are conveyed by drums?3. What is meant by the statement ―African languages are tonal.‖4. How do Africans send their messages? How does their technique differ fromour means of communicating messages? Account for the differences.5. How is the tonal quality reflected in the drum messages?6. Read the examples of the uses of drums in Africa. How do they differ from theuses of our drums?7. With the advent of technology in our midst, if you were an African, would youuse the same mode of transmitting messages or opt to use phone, fax, oninternet instead? Support your answer.8. What does the selection reveal about the African character?9. What does it reveal about the temperaments and psyche of the Africans inresponse to the challenges of modernity?Activity 9: AFRICA’S FREENow, let‘s have a poem written by Roland Tombekai Dempster. Read it carefullyand accomplish the Character Analysis Model by group based on the questionsprovided. Afterwards, post your output on the board for critiquing and feedback givingand go over the work of other groups.Before you read the poem and do the activity, try unlocking the meaning of thefollowing Key Words for better understanding of the literary piece.
18Frequency Word List1. plea2. meddle3. affair4. unjust5. unwiseI am not you ---But you will notGive me a chance,Will not let me be.―If I were you‖---But you know,I am not you,Yet you will notLet me be me.You meddle, interfere in my affairsAs if they were yours and you were me.You are unfair, unwise,Foolish to thinkThat I can be you, talk, act,And think like you.God made meHe made you, youFor God‘s sakeLet me be.
19Comprehension Questions:1. What African qualities do the lines express?2. What do you think they are all craving for?3. Do you think there is a way of liberating themselves from slavery?4. Does discrimination exist in African society? Single out lines from thepoem that prove this claim.5. What does the poem reveal about the African character?6. What does it reveal about the temperaments and psyche of the Africansin response to the challenges of modernity?Questions Adopted from Worktext for Second Year
20Activity 10: DISSECTING PENIn Lesson 1, you were made to come up with a character sketch based on aninterview. This time, applying the same skill, you will write an analysis of a literaryselection. Before that read the selection below and answer the questions that follow.Find out what conflicts are undergone by the young African and what causes theseconflicts, in the selection, Open House.Open HouseMusa NagendaKabana saw his father and other elders from his village get off the red bus, takedown their suitcases from the top of the carriage, and look up at the gate. After lookingat the poster with approval, they noticed the boys standing in white shirts, ties and khakishorts and hurried through the gate in the compound.When the parents were seated on chairs under the trees, and the boys on theground, the headmaster made a short speech welcoming the parents to open day at theschool. He invited the elders to have tea with him and the staff in the common room afterthey examined the exhibits.Kabana and Yagunga ran to their fathers and elders as soon as the headmasterdismissed the meeting. They dropped to one knee before the elders, whereas the eldersplaced hands on their shoulders and greeted them. Kabana remembered the courtesy ofgreeting the elders first, so he came to greet his father last of all.―Kaije – It has been long,‖ his father said.―Ego – Yes,‖ Kabana answered.―Buhoero – It has been very long.‖―Ego.‖―Agandi? – What is the news?‖―Nimarungi‖ – It is good, Agandi?‖―Nimarungi‖ – His father said.―Oraiegyo sebo‖ – How did you spend the night?―Kurungi – Well.‖Mulangu smiled upon his son, but Kabana knew his father well and he lookedhurriedly away, for he did not see the one thing in his father‘s eye that he looked for. Hewanted his father to be proud of him, but that was the one thing missing. His fatheralways seemed to be saying ―Prove yourself first.‖―The people at home greet you,― Mulangu said.The people at home greet you – Olewa, Rugaya, Totesie. He could see thesmiling faces of his mother, sister, and little brother as they moved about the compoundin Ruti Village. His mother was such a wonderful mother and a good cook, and Rugaya
21such a beautiful and thoughtful sister that it almost broke his heart not to tell them so.But it was not the habit to show much emotion, for life was a hard challenge every dayand the thing you love so dearly today might disappoint you tomorrow. And it seemed tohim he was failing them all – especially Rugaya. Lately his father had chided him on hissoftness of manner, and one day during the last holiday, Kabana forgot one basket ofcoffee and it remained in the coffee field all night.―Why don‘t you use your head for something more than stuffing it with all thatbook knowledge?‖ Mulangu had asked.But today was Open House of Kisumbu Secondary School. Perhaps his fatherhad changed in his opinion of his son.The leaders from the different villages had lingered behind him when the otherparents and visitors left the school and went back to their villages. After the conferencewith the headmaster, they went outside and sat in a circle near the compound under thejacaranda tree. They smoked their pipes, talked and nodded their heads for a whilebefore they sent for Kabana, Yagunga, and Biraro.When the boys had taken the place offered them in the circle, the oldest elderslowly refilled his pipe and lit it. The ebony walking stick, his rod of authority, lay acrosshis lap. When he‘d taken several puffs on his pipe, he began to speak. He did not hurrybut looked straight at the boys with deep lines of seriousness in his kind face.―Mwebare munenga emirime – thank you very much for the work you‘re doinghere,‖ he said. ―You have made the hearts of your forefathers happy. They and werejoice in your success.‖Then slowly, and with pride, he sketched a history of their tribe, telling about thehardships and demands of life in their village, how through hard work, daring, andattention to the ways of their fathers and Ruhanga, their God, who lighted and guardedthe fires of the Omugabo and protected the drum of Banyankero, they had alwaystriumphed. The faces of the other elders beamed with pleasure as his words, in theBantu language, rolled out of him in a tone and rhythm not unlike the emotional beat ofthe drum.Yagunga, Kabana, and Biraro sat in the circle of men underneath the jacarandatree and felt the stares of boys of other tribes like hot sun on their necks. Kabana wasashamed. This talk was for the village and had no place here at school. He wished theelder would hurry so they could catch the bus. If they stayed longer, they would hearsome of the things Kabana had said to the other boys, and the other boys would get achance to see that his father couldn‘t eat with a fork and that he ate too fast.Still the musical voice of the elder went on, and Kabana felt compelled to listen toit although his legs cramped, for it was a long time since he had sat on the ground.―Now,‖ the elder went on, ―you have gained a book education. We will also seethat you have your tribal education. You, three boys, Yagunga, Biraro, and Kabana,‖ henodded at them as he spoke, ―will soon be made men. You are of age, now.‖―They are of age,‖ said another elder with enormous ears and a black beard.―Soon you must come home for studies and trials and you will learn everythingabout the joy and the dangers of living. We shall spread your story in the village of ourclansmen, and sing of it in our kraals. We greet you, we salute you, and now as ourjourney is long, we take leave of you.‖ After a moment, all men rose together and startedtoward the bus, leaving the boys sitting in the broken circle.
22When they had gone a short distance, Mulangu turned and called Kabana to him.As always, now, when in his father‘s company, Kabana felt a tightening in his throat. Hehad mixed feelings about his father. He was ashamed of his crudeness, his inability tospeak good English, his long hair, but at the same time he felt pride in his strength andhis ability to take care of his family and play a leading role in village affairs. His chestrose high. He felt proud to have a father so strong, so brave, and so successful. He wasrespected by both villagers and Europeans for his bravery and his ability as a farmer andtrader, and Kabana always felt that he‘d never be able to live up to his father‘sexpectations. Mulangu touched Kabana‘s shoulder and nodded to where Yagunga andBiraro sat in a broken circle.―You have done well here in your studies and in your special callings as drummerbut your life is incomplete. It is like that circle, broken because things valuable are leftfrom it. Do you like this school?‖Kabana nodded. ―Yes, Sir.‖ But it was the question that he knew to be comingnext that he dreaded.―And the village, what can you say about it?‖―It is my home, father. My mother, my brother, my sister, and my friends arethere,‖ he tried to be tactful.―You love them but no longer love their ways?‖ His father looked straight at him.All right he would tell the truth. ―I used to love the village, but now things aredifferent, I don‘t know where I belong. Do I belong to where I fail or where I succeed?‖Mulangu‘s face clouded. ―So, this is what I sent you to school for. To forget yourown people – to despise our ways. Your failure is your own doing. With effort you coulddo what is expected of you.‖ Kabana didn‘t want his father to be angry, but now hethought of old men who sat around doing nothing but drinking beer, of with doctors withrattling gourds, and poison taken from snake heads and the dried entrails of goats. Thevery worst of the village flashed into his mind. His father was talking to him. ―You hatethe village, don‘t you?‖―You sent me to school, father.‖ Before the words came from him Kabanaregretted them, but still he spoke them.Mulangu stiffened. He almost struck Kabana, but he looked around hurriedly andsaw the other elders watching them.―You‘ll never be a man. At the initiation you will surely disgrace me. You arealways acting like a baby. Night and day your head is in your mother‘s kitchen or bowedto your sister. Do you know these are not the ways of men?‖―I shall improve,‖ Kabana repented.―You say so, but you won‘t. I noticed you in our village. You no longer joke, tellstories with the other boys, or dance. Are you a European?‖ Kabana bowed his head,and Mulangu felt the guilty sting of his last remark.―Very well, the elders think the boys here will vote to come for the initiation buthaving a son like you, I doubt it. So as soon as school is out, you come home and I shalltry to do a father‘s duty by you.‖ He looked closer at Kabana and tried to be pleasant.―We have been both made unhappy, father and son, but this time we shall talk to eachother and in our village, we‘ll laugh and be happy.‖―Oh, that will be wonderful, father,‖ Kabana said, hopefully.
23‗Don‘t be late. The coffee is ripe and there are many goats to herd. Osibegyeomwana wangye – Goodbye, my son.‖―Osibegye omukawa wanye – Goodbye, my father. Obandamukize – Greet thoseat home for me.‖Questions Adopted from English Arts II, Textbook for Second YeaComprehension Questions:1. Why did Kabana feel that he had failed his family?2. What was Kabana‘s attitude towards tribal customs and ways? Why?3. Compare the attitudes and ways of Kabana with those of the elders andhis own father. Is this contrast natural or not? Explain.4. Read the lines below. What deeper meaning can you infer? If you wereKabana, how would you respond to each statement?a. ―It has been very long.‖b. ―You hate the village, don‘t you‖c. ―Don‘t be late… Goodbye, my son.‖5. Why did Kabana have mixed feelings? Do you sometimes feel the same?6. What kind of relationship did Kabana have with this father? Prove youranswer.7. What values do you gain from the story? Are these universal? Explain.8. What conflicts are experienced by the young Africanand what causes these conflicts?Group Work: Visualization Wheel: Write the title of the story in the middle squarebelow. Label each quadrant of the circle with the answers to each question. Next,draw a picture for each answer. Present your output to the class.
24Your next task now is to analyze the literary selection that you have read. Asyou analyze, ask the following questions:1. What does the selection say about the people in the place?2. What parts of the selection reveal what the characters think and feel?3. What do the characters say about the kind of people they are?4. Does the selection relate to real life situation?5. How does the literary selection help you understand the people from thiscountry?Write your analysis on the worksheet below.
25Activity 12: STRIKE A BALANCEListen to the statement (to be read by your teacher) of the President of theAfrican National Congress, Nelson Mandela, during his inauguration as President of theDemocratic Republic of South Africa, Union Buildings, Pretoria, May 10, 1994. Take noteof the parallel words, phrases, and clauses used and identify their functions.Key Points:Study the following sentences taken from the speech you listened to.1. ―We thank all our distinguished international guests for having come to takepossession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a commonvictory for justice, for peace, for human dignity.”2. ―We trust that you will continue to stand by us as we tackle the challengesof building peace, prosperity, non-sexism, non-racialism anddemocracy.”3. ―We commit ourselves to the construction of a complete, just andlasting peace.”4. ―We must therefore act together as a united people, for nationalreconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world.‖How were the underlined words and phrases used? Yes, they were used toexpand sentences. In expanding sentences, we should observe parallelism.Let us consider the sentences above. Notice that sentence 1 uses parallelphrases (prepositional phrases); sentence 2 uses parallel words (all nouns); sentence 3uses parallel words (all adjectives); and sentence 4 uses parallel phrases (prepositionalphrases).Recognizing Parallel ConstructionsWhen a writer is presenting a series of equally important details in a sentence, heor she should try to make the items balanced, or parallel. When the sentences arepresented in different forms, they are nonparallel, and the resulting sentence is notsmooth.One of the fundamental rules of our language is that similar ideas should beexpressed in similar grammatical structures. When we want to talk about a series ofthings, qualities, ideas, problems, processes, or feelings, we combine a word with aword, a phrase with a phrase, or a clause with a clause.
26Parallel words. When a writer lists a series of words, the words in the series should beall nouns, all adjectives, or all adverbs, but not mixed.Mixed: The celebrity was charming, witty, and a beauty.Charming and witty are adjectives; however, beauty is a noun. For the sentence to beparallel, beauty must be in adjective form.Parallel: The celebrity was charming, witty, and beautiful.Parallel phrases. When a writer lists a series of phrases, all the phrases should be thesame – all gerund phrases, all infinitive phrases, all participial phrases, or allprepositional phrases.Mixed: Her aims were to study, to travel, and someday having a family.The sentence is nonparallel because two infinitive phrases, to study and to travel, aremixed with a gerund phrase, having a family. For the sentence to be parallel, having afamily could be changed to an infinitive.Parallel: Her aims were to study, to travel, and to have a family.Parallel clauses. When a writer lists a series of clauses, all the clauses in the seriesshould be the same. They should all be noun clauses, all adjective clauses, or all adverbclauses.Mixed: What we say and the things that we do are never quite the same.What we say is a noun clause; the things that we do is a noun followed by an adjectiveclause. In order to make the elements of the sentence parallel, the things that we docould be changed into a noun clause.Parallel: What we say and what we do are never quite the same.Exercise 1. Some of the following sentences contain nonparallel constructions. Revisethese sentences by putting parallel ideas into equal grammatical form. Underline theparallel structures in your revised sentences. If a sentence is acceptable in StandardEnglish, write ―Correct.‖1. The beach resort has good food, live entertainment, and a heated pool.2. Teachers must teach values to their students consciously, openly, andconsistently.3. The employer who praises employees, giving recognition, and allows vacationsshould have a good staff.4. We should save our money carefully, regularly, and with knowledge.5. Next year, my friends will decide to buy a car, to save their money, or to go on atrip.6. Felix dressed up because he wanted to charm his girlfriend, to impress his friends,and please his parents.7. Mary argued that reading books is better than watching TV.8. She worked quickly and with accuracy.9. Composing music and to write poetry have some similarities.10.Brisk walking daily and eating well are important for me.
27Activity 13: BLACK AND WHITE – AN EVALUATION PAPERIn lesson 2, you were asked to write an evaluation paper on a program viewed. Inthis activity, your task is to make an evaluation paper of the literary selection OpenHouse. Extract what the selection shows about the diversity of temperaments andpsyche of the Africans. Use the worksheet below. Work in pairs then take turns in givingand responding to feedback on each other‘s paper in the revision process. Remember touse meaningful expanded sentences following balance, parallelism, and modification.Activity No. 14: IMPRESSIVELY EXPRESSIVEBased from the different informative and literary text types that you have read andlistened to, express your impressions in writing about the literature of Africa and theAfrican people which includes the temperaments and psyche of the African people inresponse to the challenges of modernity.Relate your answers to the essential questions. Refer to the template providedbelow. Remember to use grammatical structures and vocabulary to effectivelyemphasize particular points.
28My Newfound ImpressionsIn this section, the discussion was centered on the temperaments and psyche ofthe African people in their response to the challenges of modernity.Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with the discussion.How much of your initial ideas are found in the discussion? Which ideas are different andneed revision?Now that you know the important ideas about this topic, let‘s go deeper by movingon to the next section.REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND:Your goal in this section is to take a closer look at some aspects ofthe topic on the temperaments and psyche of the African people in theirresponse to the challenges of modernity.Activity 15: SCOOP ON SLAVERYHere‘s a true-to-life story for you to read. Then, do the following activities.Escape from Slaveryby Francis Bok with Edward TivmanMy father‘s farm was full of family, friends and love. We had chickens and goats,sheep and cows; we had beautiful green trees with yellow mangoes and coconuts as bigas your head. My father, it seemed to me, owned the best farm in our village of the Dinkapeople in Sudan, about 100 kilometers south of what the maps call the Bahr al-ArabRiver, the border between the north and south of the country.We lived in two houses – one for men, the other for women – made from mud andtopped by straw roofs shaped like upside-down cones. I did not go to school. No one inmy family had any formal education. Like most boys, I spent my days playing games andrunning in the fields. But what I liked to do most was follow my father around as heworked on the farm. I felt my father‘s love every day. One day he called me muycharko,which means ―twelve men.‖ I asked him, ―Why do you call me muycharko?‖He laughed and explained that out of all his children, I was the one who workedthe hardest, the one who would never give up. I felt my father‘s words flow into my bodyand fill me with happiness. I dreamed of being a great man with a great farm and manycattle.
29When my mother told me she had instructed some village kids to take me alongon their trip to the nearby market town, I saw it as the first step to becoming theimportant man my father thought I could be. This would be my trip to town on my own,although I had been there with my father when he went to trade animals and with mymother on market days. Our family also went to the Catholic Church there.On market day the other kids turned up, and my mother warned me, ―When yousell something, give the money to the older children so you do not lose it.‖I grabbed the carrying pole with my goods: two tins of hard-boiled eggs andpeanuts. We walked along a dusty road and soon approached the market-place. Peoplewere already set up in the shade, and the market smelled of fish, fruit and vegetables.The big kids picked a spot under the tree. I made some sales and handed over themoney, just as my mother had said.Then something changed. People began walking faster, talking to each other.They seemed excited; some were pointing towards the river. ―Smoke,‖ I heard. ―In thevillages.‖ More people ran into town with news. ―Maybe the murahaliin came,‖ one said.―They came and burned the houses.‖I had heard people in my village talk of these dangerous men from the north whokilled people and stole their cattle. But I had never seen these murahaliin.The customers began to rush from the marketplace. The sellers gathered theirthings. Then we heard bursts of loud noises. Everyone was running. ―The murahaliin arecoming!‖ Wherever people scattered they ran into men with guns entering the town. Firstmen on horses, shooting people with bursts from their rifles. Then men on foot, shootingand slashing at people with their long knives.They were not Dinka, but people with lighter skin than ours, in headdresses androbes. They were shooting the Dinka men, slashing with their swords, chopping offheads with a single swipe. I had never seen such violence and never heard so manyscreams.―Run!‖ I heard. ―Leave your things and run!‖ I raced from the marketplace, rightinto the huge horse with a militiaman pointing a gun at me. I stopped; I could not move.Someone grabbed me from behind – another murahaliin, yelling and waving his gun.I was sure he was going to kill me. All around I saw people screaming and fallingto the ground and not getting up. He pushed me back into the marketplace with otherboys and girls. Everyone was crying and screaming for their parents.I looked around for help, but all I could see were the bodies of Dinka men, theblood running from them like water in little rivers. I had never seen a dead body before,and now I saw more than I could count. I wanted my mother; I wanted my father to pickme up onto his shoulders and carry me away from this. My entire body and mind turnednumb as I waited to be killed.With no Dinka men standing, the killing seemed to be finished. While a fewmurahaliin guarded us, others began collecting food and loading it into baskets. A manpicked me up and set me on a donkey. Some of the women ran to their children, but themilitiamen beat them and pushed them away.When the loading was completed, we headed out of town. Behind the horsemen,the soldiers and our donkeys walked the older kids and the women, forced to carry thevery things that we had all been selling not long before.
30We rode into darkness, my heart beating wildly, my head filled with questions.Why did these men do this? Where are they taking me? Were my parents safe?In the night we passed through a forest, then stopped in an open area. They satus kids down and yelled at us in their language. We were full of fear, and everyone keptquiet, except for two sisters who through their tears said they had seen their father andmother shot and killed.A militiaman grabbed the older girl, yelling at her, trying to shake her into silence.She could not stop crying. He pulled her to the side, put his rifle to her head and shot her– one shot that rang through the forest. And when that noise stopped so had the girl‘scrying.Her little sister began crying even harder, but her body twisted and pulsing withsobs. She was crazy with crying, and our silence made her crying seem louder. One ofthe murahaliin struck her leg hard with his sword, cutting it off at the thigh. Blood squirtedall over her. I remember this, but I cannot remember if she stopped crying.The murahaliin began dividing us between them. One man grabbed me andpushed me towards his horse. He sat me behind his saddle and wrapped a leather beltaround my waist. I begged him to let me down, let me go home to my parents. But wejust rode away, the silence of the night broken by my sobs.As the sun came up I noticed the countryside was different. The trees were small,and the people had lighter skin. I was sure we were now across the border into northernSudan, where my father said the Dinka did not live, only the Arabs.We kept riding until we came to a farm. The murahaliin got off the horse, then setme on the ground. Three children ran out of the horse, then the mother, all coming up tohug him. The kids approached me, laughing and talking, and I noticed the younger boywas about my age. Maybe he would be my friend.They seemed happy and began singing, chanting the same word over and over:abeed, abeed, abeed. I didn‘t notice they were carrying sticks until they started beatingme, including the boy I wanted to be my friend. I tried to block the blows, but the sticksstung my arms as if they had fire on them. ―Stop,‖ I yelled. ―Help me!‖ The parents didnothing but watch. My body buzzed from the blows.The militiaman finally led me to a small mud shelter and pointed to a blanket onthe ground. I was exhausted and lay down, but I could not fall asleep. I told myself thatmy father would want me to stay strong. I kept thinking how my family would be worriedabout me, and my father and big brother Buk would come and save me from thesepeople.I finally fell asleep.The sun woke me, and soon the militiaman and his wife arrived, followed by thechildren. The kids started singing the abeed song again, pointing at me and laughing.The man handed me a bowl of food. Even though it was bad, I ate because I washungry.For days I kept expecting someone would arrive and tell me it was all a mistake.But no one came except the militiaman and his sons. I soon figured out the man‘s namewas Giemma Abdullah, and his oldest son was Hamid. I could see the family had goatsand sheep, horses and camels and cattle. One morning, when Giemma and Hamid letthe animals out, Giemma handed me a small whip. They herded the animals towards theforest, and I knew I had to follow. What was not clear to me was that this was my first
31day of slavery – forced to work for no pay but the garbage from the family‘s dinner andan occasional beating from Giemma‘s cattle whip.We drove the goats towards the forest. Whenever one strayed from the herd,Giemma made me chase after it. This, I quickly learned, was my job – to keep the goatsfrom running away. It was not easy running this way and that in the hot sun.As we walked into the bush, I saw another black boy herding cows among thetrees, and then another. Hamid saw them too and knew what I was thinking. He yelled atme and shook his head. I could not go near the other boys. Still, I realized I was notalone. I was sure they were Dinkas.After a few hours we rounded up the animals and drove them to a nearby river.There were hundreds of animals drinking, and hundreds more waiting their turn. Therewere also more black boys. Hamid signalled I was to stay with the goats and away fromthe Dinka boys. But when I did get close to the others, I was shocked to hear themspeaking Arabic.I answered at least one question: what did abeed mean? Hamid referred to theother boys as abeed, and I soon learned it meant both ―black people‖ and ―slaves.‖Every day I went with Hamid to continue my training as a goatherd. One dayHamid showed up on his horse. He rode into the bush, and I followed on foot. Later, herode away. I worried how I would get the animals back to their pens by myself, but thenhe returned. This became part of our routine. Hamid‘s job was to spend the day with meand the animals, but occasionally he would ride away, probably to visit friends. I neverknew when he would leave or return. His freedom taught me that I had none.I was given a wooden-framed bed covered by palm leaves and a single thinblanket. It was an improvement over sleeping on the ground, but I hated my life andhated taking care of Giemma‘s animals. Some mornings I didn‘t want to go. Giemmawould pull my legs from the blanket. ―You don‘t want to get up on your own two legs,‖he‘d say, using gestures to make it clear. ―Then maybe you don‘t need two legs. I‘ll chopone off for you. Then you can stay here and lie on the ground all you want.‖He said this so often I took his words only as a way to scare little boys – until oneday when Giemma and I were returning from the grasslands, I spotted a Dinka. Then Isaw one of his legs was missing. ―What happened to him?‖ I asked.Giemma smiled at me and said: ―I told you that‘s what happens to bad boys. Hetried to escape. They caught him and warned him. Then he tried again and…‖ Giemmashrugged as if to say there was no alternative. I stared at the boy with one leg asGiemma kept talking: ―That‘s what happens when you disobey.‖The routine was the same for several weeks: Hamid and I taking the goats topasture, going to the areas where the good grass was, heading to the river for water, andHamid watching me run after strays. The days were long, and I dreaded the hot sun andthe chaos at the watering hole. When the sun went down, we would head back, and Iwould eat my dinner alone and sleep in the hut next to the goats.I hated not being able to understand what these people were saying. I had tolearn this language, which seemed a wall of strange sounds that made no sense. Ilistened carefully to everything Giemma and his sons said to each other, and as the daysand weeks went by, I began to distinguish certain sounds as words.I found out that hanim was the word for ―goats‖ and ―sahl‖ meant ―grass.‖ I soonlearned an important word that everyone kept repeating – it sounded like hop. Did the
32goats hop the grass? Hamid would say he didn‘t hop working with camels. So hop meant―like‖ or ―love,‖ and with that knowledge I could tell what Giemma liked and didn‘t like.Learning the language became one of my pleasures.I settled into my job as Hamid‘s assistant. But one day Giemma showed up alone.Today I would take the goats to pasture without Hamid. I herded the goats out towardsthe grasslands. A few wandered out of line, but I shooed them back in. If I lost any goatsI knew Giemma would be furious.I got the goats to pasture without any problems. I began thinking, maybe it will begood not to have Hamid always bossing me around. But before I could get used to thatidea, I saw Hamid on his horse at the end of the bush. He had come to check on me.At the river I worked hard to make sure none of my goats wandered away, and asthe sun went down I rounded up the animals and headed back. Giemma was not happy,―Some are missing,‖ he said.I couldn‘t believe it. I had tried so hard. Giemma counted the goats, then yelled atme and hit me with his whip. Soon a neighbour arrived leading the two missing goats.Giemma‘s anger had the desired effect. I was scared about losing another goatthat I watched them constantly, never permitting one to stray too far. I got very good atthe job, but the fear that something would go wrong and would earn me a beating neverleft me.I had so many questions in my head that one evening I asked Giemma a questionin his language. ―Why does no one hop me?‖He stared at me as if one of his goats had suddenly spoken. ―And why do youmake sleep with the animals?‖ I asked.―Where did you learn that?‖ Giemma yelled, his face puffed up with anger. He hitme, then walked away. Two days later he appeared and said, ―You want to know why noone loves you and why you must sleep with the animals? Because you are an animal.‖That left me dazed. Bit it explained why he let his kids hit me, why he fed megarbage, why he left me to sleep in a hut no better than an animal pen. I now knew thatlife would never get better for me with these people. That was the moment I beganplanning my escape.Later in the day, with the goats fed and watered, I could rest in the shade andmake my plans. I was learning the language. That would help me find help among theseArab people. But I also had to learn the area. I decided that each day when I went outwith the animals I would look around, investigate the roads, and remember where themen rode on horseback checking on their slaves.For the first few weeks I had cried every day. But I realised my crying did not bringanyone to help me, so I decided to replace my crying with praying. I didn‘t know muchabout religion, but my parents had told me, ―God is always with you.‖Alone at night sitting in my hut, I remembered my father once said to me, ―Evenwhen you are one, you are two.‖I prayed to God almost every day: ―Please help me. I love my parents, and I wantto have a future. I don‘t want to die.‖In Sudan there are two seasons, the rainy one and the dry one. I arrived atGiemma‘s in the dry time, in April or May. Then the rains came, occasionally leaking
33through the roof of my hut. By February it was dry again, and the grass began to getscarce.―We are going,‖ Giemma announced one day, explaining that the animals neededto eat, and the grasslands in our area had been picked clean. Several times a year Ihelped the family pack up all their things to take the animals to a ―cattle camp‖ where thegrass was more plentiful.As we waited our turn at the watering place in the cattle camp, an Arab boygreeted Hamid. Next to Hamid‘s friend was a Dinka boy. He smiled at me and said inArabic, ―Peace be with you.‖A few days later I saw him again, and this time he was on his own, and so was I.―Are things OK for you?‖ he asked me in Arabic.My real answer would have taken a day to say. Instead I said in Dinka, ―I‘m OK.‖He looked around to make sure no one was listening. Then, in Dinka, he askedme where I was from. I was happy to hear my own language, and it turned out we werefrom the same area.―This is a very dangerous place,‖ he said. He told me to do my job, that when kidscomplained they ―got hurt.‖I told him my master and his kids had already beaten me. He shook his head.―They will really hurt you.‖ He told me a lot of kids had been hurt and even shot trying toescape. He returned to speaking Arabic. ―Don‘t talk to me in Dinka,‖ he warned. ―It willget me in trouble. They‘ll think we‘re planning to do something wrong.‖I assured him I would talk only in their language. ―I must go and do my work,‖ hesaid. ―Be careful,‖ he repeated and left me alone with my thoughts, which included theimage of the boy I had already seen with the missing leg.I was well aware of how much worse things could be for me, and I believed thatGod was looking after me, just as my parents had promised. They probably would nothave recognised me now, for when I looked into the water where I took the sheep andgoats, an older boy looked back. I was now almost as big as Giemma and taller thanHamid. I told myself that my parents would be proud of me. I was a good worker andsmart enough to stay out of trouble.Then Giemma complicated my life again. ―Tomorrow, you will work with the cows,‖he announced.I protested that they were too big for me to handle. But Giemma had made hisdecision, and the next morning we were driving cattle to pasture. The job was not muchdifferent from handling the goats and sheep, except when goats got in a fight you couldtear them apart. But the cattle could tear a grown man apart.Later, Giemma added the camels to my duties as well. When I complained,Giemma told me to shut up. ―You do not want to work, I can shoot you. Or maybe I justcut off your legs, and you can stay at home.‖The days were always the same: in the morning take the cows to eat, stand in theblazing sun to get water, go back to the grasslands, and then head home as the sunwent down. By my seventh summer, I had learned a lot. I knew there were roads not farfrom the grasslands where I had been going for years, and I was now fluent in mymaster‘s language.
34I understood that even if I stayed seven more years, my life would not get better.My body hated the work and the beatings; my mind hated the isolation. Finally I decidedit was time to act. ―Tomorrow,‖ I announced to myself, ―I will head out with the cows asusual, but I will not return.‖Before the sun came up I took the cows into the forest. The cattle began grazing,and I left them there. I ran to nearby road and kept running. After seven years I hadfinally done what I had dreamed of doing.Suddenly, up ahead, I saw some cows – and a man on a horse. My stomachswirled: If he saw me, it was over. I turned around and began moving in the oppositedirection, hoping to make it into the forest. Within seconds, I heard the horse at my back.―Where are you going?‖ the man asked.My escape had failed.The man took me to Giemma‘s house, and when he saw me a look of surprisecrossed his face. The man on the horse explained what had happened.Giemma grabbed a cattle whip and started beating me. I did not protest. When hestopped hitting, he warned: ―If you try this again, you‘re going to be like those kids wesaw. I will hurt you.‖The next morning Giemma took the herd to the grasslands himself. The followingmorning I told Giemma I would take them. He stared at me.―Do not try to escape,‖ he warned.I assured him I would not do that again. I headed off with the cows and spent theday in my usual routine. But when the sun began to go down, instead of herding thecows back to Giemma‘s, I headed to the road again. This time I went in the otherdirection, staying in the woods, following the road, which I could see through the trees.About an hour later, I saw a little river where some people were washing up. There werealso some slaves around. I decided I could risk a short rest. Everyone would assume Iwas working.I knelt down, scooping some water to my face. It felt cool. ―I am on my way,‖ I saidto myself.But then another feeling took over, one of danger. I turned, and there wasGiemma! He was tying his horse to a cart. Was my mind fooling me? Was it a baddream?But it was no dream. The sight of him was like a punch in the stomach. He sawme and asked, ―What are you doing here?‖―I was just getting a drink. The cows are here.‖―Where?‖ Giemma looked around, seeing no evidence of his cows.―Not far,‖ I said, lying again.―Let‘s go get the cows,‖ said Giemma. So we went looking for the cattle. I think atfirst Giemma actually believed me – he did not think I was crazy enough to try toescape two days after I had been caught and beaten – but we kept walking andthere were no cows. Giemma became upset. ―You tried to escape again.‖I said nothing. I waited for him to hit me, but all he said was, ―Let‘s go home.‖
35When we arrived at his place, he cursed me and smacked me several times. Thenhe led me into a room and pushed me to the floor. ―Tonight will be your last!‖ he shouted,and tied my hands behind me with a piece of rawhide, then my legs.I sat there, filled with anger about my own stupidity. Soon my hands and feetbegan to hurt. No matter how hard I tried to loosen the rawhide, it seemed only to gettighter. Giemma returned, carrying his cattle whip, and gun. He pointed the gun at meand said, ―Tomorrow I will kill you.‖ I wondered if it would hurt as I waited for the bullet.He lowered the rifle and left the room. I cried with relief, then cried over the factthat this would be my last night on earth.I don‘t remember sleeping that night, only the anger and the fear and the prayers.It was still dark outside when Giemma returned. I noticed he did not have his gun. Hebegan untying me and said, ―If you do this again, I will kill you. I promise.‖I said, ―I will not do it again.‖―I do not want to kill you. You take good care of my cows.‖I sat in my hut hoping that Giemma would not change his mind. I was no longerthinking of escaping. So much fear had filled me that night.Giemma would show up, and my heart would race. You will not try again?‖―No,‖ I promised. And I was not lying now. I was not thinking about escaping. Todo so was to be reminded how close I had come to dying.Three days after my escape attempt, Giemma told me to go back to work. Irealised that Giemma might consider me an ―animal,‖ but he liked his animals. I wouldmake sure I was the hardest working animal on the property. My job became lifeline.I did not lie to Giemma when I told him I would never escape again. But Ieventually realised that, while the pain and fear came and went, the one thing that neverwent away was the ache of wanting to leave this place where I was forced to work andlive like an animal. Wasn‘t living with these people a kind of death?My new plan was to wait another three years before I tried to escape again. I‘mnot sure why I picked three years. But I would have to regain Giemma‘s trust. And also inthree years I would be 17, and I would be stronger, smarter and better prepared to getaway.So I tried to do the best job I could, and as the months passed Giemma seemedhappy with me. His wife would ask, ―Why are you keeping him? Why don‘t you kill him?‖And Giemma would answer, ―He takes care of my cows. He does a good job.‖I turned 15 and 16 and then 17. I was taller than Giemma. I could walk and run forhours. My body was strong and so was my mind. I was sure I had finally become theman my father dreamed I would be: I was muycharko.My plan was to leave first thing in the morning and stay out of sight in the forestuntil I got to the market town of Mutari. I knew which road to follow. I promised myselfthat this time I would not give up. If someone caught me, Iwould fight. I refused to live as a slave any longer.That morning I headed out with the cows as usual. Assoon as they started grazing, I ran as fast as I could for aslong as I could through the woods along the road towardsMutari. No-one stopped me. I was farther away from
36Giemma‘s than I had been in ten years. I was hot and tired and dirty, but I felt relief and akind of excitement.Before the sun went down I arrived in Mutari. I walked into town and saw otherDinka with their masters, but no-one seemed to suspectthat I had escaped from mine. I allowed myself to enjoythis new feeling of being on my own. I was free!I decided to go to the police and made my way to aone-storey mud building. A policeman was sitting at thedesk. ―I need help,‖ I said.He took me to another man, and I told him I had escaped and wanted to findsome people from the south. He sent me to a waiting area, where I sat for several hours.Finally another policeman took me to a kitchen area. ―Clean up,‖ he said.For the next two months, I worked for the Mutari police as a kitchen boy. They fedme, and I worked, and I slept in the kitchen. When I finally realised they were not goingto help me, I left the police station on market day and disappeared into the crowd.The trucks loaded their goods on the edge of the market area. I hoped one ofthem would be my ride out of Mutari. A man named Abdah allowed me to climb in histruck and hide me behind his cargo. He would take me to his hometown, but he warnedme that it was dangerous for me there. He invited me to come home with him. ―Don‘tworry,‖ he said. ―I want you to be safe.‖For two months I lived with Abdah, his wife and two boys. His wife fed me thesame food she prepared for her husband and children. She treated me as if I were avisiting friend or relative. Abdah and his wife believed that no Muslim had the right toenslave other human beings.Abdah asked some friends whether they could get me a ride to the capital,Khartoum, but no one was willing to take the chance of driving an escaped slave. FinallyAbdah said I must take the bus. ―I will buy you the ticket.‖I arrived in Khartoum late in the afternoon. I met a Dinka in the bus station andtold him I hoped to find someone who could take me to where people from the south live.―I‘m going there now,‖ he said. ―Come with me.‖My prayers had finally been answered. I was alive, free, and for the first time sinceI was a small child, I felt safe.I went to the refugee camps outside Khartoum, where I looked for my parents. Ihad no idea whether they were dead, enslaved, or living in a refugee camp in Kenya orhere in the capital. I told people what had happened to me, how I had been enslaved forten years. Before long, two men came to see me. ‖People have told us that you aresaying things against the government,‖ they said and took me to the local police station.The government denied that there was slavery in Sudan, and they were not aboutto let a 17–year-old Dinka boy tell everyone he had been a slave for ten years. I wasarrested and held for seven months. Then I was released. I was never sure why. But Ivowed to do everything I could to escape from the country.With the help of friends from the south, I got the necessary papers on the blackmarket. I took a train north, changed to a boat that took me up the Nile across theEgyptian border, then switched to another train to Cairo.http://www.tower.com/escape-from-slavery-true-story-my-ten-years-edward-tivnan-paperback/wapi/101449218
37There I was accepted as a UN-sanctioned refugee, and in August 1999 I wasallowed to go to America. I eventually learned that my parents and two sisters had beenkilled, but my older brother Buk survived and, after 13 years, I talked with him by phone.TODAY I WORK for the American Anti-Slavery Group (AASG), which speaks outagainst slavery in Sudan and throughout the world. (Our website is iAbolish.com). My jobis to tell people how I was kidnapped, beaten, treated like an animal and forced to workfor ten years, until I escaped. And I call on the American people to stand up and help mypeople.I‘ve spoken to church and school groups, and even testified before the USSenate. We finally got the Sudan Peace Act passed in Washington. It recognises theproblem of slavery, provides aid for southern Sudan and imposes sanctions on thegovernment if it‘s determined that Khartoum does not negotiate for peace in good faith.Someday I hope to return to Sudan, but in the meantime I continue to work withthe AASG and for my people, as well as continue my education. It‘s hard work, but I amstill in my twenties and have plenty of time and energy. Whenever life gets tough I thinkof my father, who told me I would grow up to do important things ―You are mymuycharko,‖ he said. ―Twelve men.‖Reader’s Digest April 2005Group Work:Groups 1 and 2 will come up with an illustrated story depicting the core messageof the selection. Present the outputs before the big group.Groups 3 and 4 will role play in class the situations which show the maincharacter‘s attempts/struggles to escape from the shackles of slavery.Groups 5 and 6 will present a talk show on the topic ―How to Eradicate Modern-Day Slavery.‖Website Link: Extended ActivityThe Web offers a wealth of resources. Visit www.iAbolish.org and make aresearch to determine the different ways this organization is seeking to solve theproblem of modern-day slavery. Present the gathered information through a slideshowwhich will highlight important facts/issues regarding modern-day slavery and howAfricans deal with it.Across the Curriculum (Integration of government‘s thrust/program)
38Visit these sites http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtmland http://www.gov.ph/2003/12/19/republic-act-no-9231-s-2003/ then, research on someprovisions regarding slavery as stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,Article 4, and provisions regarding child labor as contained in Republic Act No. 9231,Sections 1-6. You research further on the actions taken by the Philippine government infighting modern-day slavery or human trafficking. As a group, report your findings to theclass through a slideshow/power point presentationActivity 16: AFRICA: DARKEN NO MOREHere‘s another poem that will shed light on the temperaments and psyche ofthe Africans in response to the challenges of modernity.Unlock the meanings of the following words used in the poem below.1. plague2. hardship3. overpower4. knavish5. weeping6. fray7. dawnThe Dark Continent http://images.yourdictionary.com/dark-continentAfrica my beginning, Africa my end.I was born here and I will die here,Africa you bear my hopes and fearsPoverty, famine, crime and AIDS are wordswhich plague Mother Africas nameThese demons bring me shameWhile people try to make Africa better,a few let the hardship overpower themShame on themThey give up hope and goabout their knavish waysEven though theres hope on the horizon,be that as it mayThey continue to destroy what little Mother Africa hasAfrica is no longer what she wasMother Africa is weepingYet a new dawn may be creepingMother Africa and her children are beautiful,
39they know their place in natureEven though hardship may corrupt good natureIn the name of ALL that is good,I hope Africa will rise one dayAnd well stop the suffering before she fraysThe words upon a famous poet, I hearAfrica my beginning, Africa my end.I was born here and I will die here.http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/the-dark-continentComprehension Questions:1. Why is the poem entitled The Dark Continent?2. How would you characterize the speaker?3. Why does the speaker regard poverty, famine, crime, and AIDS as demonsthat bring him/her shame? Do you agree with the speaker‘s train of thought?Explain.4. What do the lines ―In the name of ALL, I hope Africa will rise one day‖suggest?5. What does the poem show about the temperaments and psyche of theAfricans?Group Work:Group 1 - Present a dramatic reading of the poem or jazz chants.Group 2 - Compose and present a jingle emphasizing the core message ofthe poem.Activity 17: CAPTURINGTHE WORLD OF e-JOURNALIn Lesson 3, you were asked to make a critical review based on an editorialarticle. This time, you will make an e-journal focusing on how Africans respond to thechallenges of modernity as revealed in a literary selection. Prior to that, you will read theselection The Capture by Alex Haley. Use this as bases in making your e-journal.Unlock the meaning of the following Key Words.1. sagging under the pain2. lunging at him with a big sack3. ducking to escape more clubbing4. flailing blindly at the air
40Synopsis:Kunta was born free. His parents, Omoro and Binta Kinte, offspringsof a distinguished family tree, were Allah-fearing, freedom loving, andrespectable tribe members of tradition-steeped Juffure, a small butprosperous village on the coast of Gambia in West Africa. Like all Africantribespeople, their most prized possession was their freedom – a faithfullysecured and vigilantly guarded legacy from their forefathers. Every man,woman, and child learned not only to keep out of the way of the white menwho kidnapped African natives for the slave market but also to be preparedto fight with their lives for their freedom when caught.According to tradition, a boy who was a first-born foretold of Allah’sspecial blessings upon the parents and their kin. With the birth of Kunta,who was named after a free and noble ancestor, a great hunter andwarrior, was born the pride and the great expectation that the tribe ofKinte would indeed prosper. Hence, it was expected of Kunta to bringcredit, pride, and many children to his family tree and to his village; tobring honor to the name of Kinte and to dignify further the nobility of thetribe. Hovering protectively over Kunta’s crib, his father would talk of thebrave deeds his son would do when he grew up. Thus, Kunta’s boyhood, hisadolescence, all his life with his parents in Juffure, were dedicated to thefulfillment of the great expectation.As a boy Kunta roamed freely, happily, and fearlessly through thevirgin forests of his tribal village, inhaling the deep musky fragrance of themangroves, romping with baboons, and thrilling to the shrill cries ofkingfishers and pelicans. He hunted wild pigs, pursued the fleet-footeddeer, fished in the rippling waters, set traps for the forest fowls, swam inthe streams, and chased schools and winnows. In these happy, peaceful,and free surroundings Kunta learned “to treat of Allah’s creatures as hehimself wished to be treated: with respect.”Kunta’s happiness and freedom were short-lived. Falling a victim ofa white slave trader, he was transported to America, sold in the slavemarket, and he remained a slave to his death. It took his progenies,several generations later, to regain the freedom Kunta lost.5. the white men‘s club crashed against histemplehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunta_KinteIs an excerpt of the novel “Roots” byAlex Haley. Here, you can relate howAfricans respond to the challenges ofmodernity as revealed by his story.
41The excerpt reveals a significant fact in the life of Kunta – hiscapture, which marked the beginning of his life as a slave. It shows thetenacity and the violence with which he fought to keep his freedom.Kunta finally reached the head-high grass surrounding the grovewhere he was going to pick out and chop a section of a tree trunk just theright size for the body of his drum. As he stepped into the grove, Kunta sawa hidden movement from the corner of his eyes. It was a hare, and the dogwas after it in a flash as it raced for cover in the tall grass.He was bending over a likely prospect when he heard the sharp crackof twig, followed quickly by the squawk of a parrot overheard. It wasprobably the dog returning, he thought in the back of his mind. But nogrown dog ever cracked a twig, he flashed, whirling in the same instant.In a blur, rushing at him, he saw a white face, a club upraised; heard heavyfootfalls behind him. Toubob! His foot lashed up and caught the man in thebelly –it was soft and he heard a grunt – just as something hard and heavygrazed the back of Kunta’s head and landed like a tree trunk on his shoulder.Sagging under the pain, Kunta spun – turning his back on the man who laydoubled over the ground at his feet – and pounded with his fists on the facesof two black men who were lunging at him with a big sack, and at anothertoubob swinging a short, thick club.His brain screaming for any weapon, Kunta leaped into them clawing,butting, kneeing, gouging – hardly feeling the club that was poundingagainst his back. As three of them went down with him, sinking to theground under their combined weight, a knee smashed into Kunta’s lowerback, rocking him with such pain that he gasped. His open mouth meetingflesh, his teeth clamped, cut, tore. His numb fingers finding a face he claweddeeply into an eye, hearing its owner howl as again the heavy club metKunta’s head.Dazed, he heard a dog snarling, a toubob screaming, then a suddenpiteous yelp. Scrambling to his feet, wildly twisting, dodging, ducking toescape more clubbing, with blood streaming from his split head, he saw oneblack cupping his eye, a toubob holding a bloody arm, standing over thebody of the dog, and the remaining pair circling him with raised clubs.Screaming his rage, Kunta went for the second toubob, his fists meeting andbreaking the force of the descending club. Almost choking with the awfultoubob stink, he tried desperately to wrench away the club. Why had he notheard them, sensed them, smelled them?Just then the black’s club smashed into Kunta, once again, sending
42Comprehension Questions:1. What incident is described in the selection?2. From what the toubobs and their helpers are trying to do, what can you say abouttheir regard for their fellowmen?3. Explain the statement ―He was fighting for more than his life.‖4. In what way can this incident affect society‘s thinking about human rights? Aboutmen being born free and equal?Group Work:Specific Instructions:For Schools With Internet Connection:1. Form a ten-member group.2. Create an e-journal, a simple website, from any freewebsite provider (such as www.wix.com). Your teacher will guide you through thetechnical aspects of website creation.3. In your website, each member will post a write-upwhich will feature Africans‘ response to the challenges of modernity. Your write-upshould be inspired by the selection “The Capture by Alex Haley.”4. The write-up could either be a news article, a newsfeature, an editorial or a feature article. You could also post an editorial cartoon.5. Support your entries with related media as images,illustrations and video clips.6. The e-journal could contain one, a combination of, orall of the type of write-ups indicated in instruction No. 4 and an editorial cartoon.7. Your journal must be based on facts from currentevents or from facts that transcend time.8. You will then invite students from your school to visitthe journal.9. Your teacher will assess the quality of your e-journalthrough its content and through the number of visits it will gain.
43For example of an actual e-journal, you may visit:www.thelandmarkersjournal.wordpress.com for reference.For Schools without Internet Connection:1. Form a ten-member group.2. Each group will create a newsletter which will containwrite-ups from each member which feature Africans‘ response to the challenges ofmodernity. Your write-up should be inspired by the selection ―“The Capture by AlexHaley.”3. The write-up could either be a news article, a newsfeature, an editorial or a feature article. You could also post an editorial cartoon.Support your entries with related media as images or illustrations which willreinforce your points.4. Your newsletter could contain one, a combination of,or all of the type of write-ups indicated in instruction no. 3 and an editorial cartoon.5. Every write-up/entry must be based on facts fromcurrent events or from facts that transcend time.6. Your teacher will assess the quality of yournewsletter through its content and its visual appeal.
44http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_ma1ui2G7pP1rp2svp.jpghttp://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lzazrqyCag1qfmv3b.jpghttp://s3.amazonaws.com/rapgenius/kunta-kinte-getting-whipped.jpghttp://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTIgmhRW0nu4hosJ1u0VLprS-kK0ebn_AnF_fhi3oK_XflJCjm1Is an excerpt of the novel ―TheRoots‖ by Alex Haley. Here, youcan relate how Africans respondto the challenges of modernity asrevealed by this story.
45Activity 18: EUreka Africans!To recap, fill in the Three-Minute Pause Chart below with the necessaryinformation regarding our topic. Be reminded to always relate your answers to theessential questions:What does literature reveal about Asian and African character?How do Asians and Africans respond to the challenges of modernity asreflected in their literary selections?1. Summarize Key Points So Far____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. Add Your Own Thoughts____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. Pose Clarifying Questions____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________In this section, the discussion was about the temperaments and psyche ofthe African people in response to the challenges of modernity.What new realizations do you have about the topic? What new connectionshave you made for yourself?Now that you have a deeper understanding of the topic, you are ready to dothe tasks in the next section.
46TRANSFER:Your goal in this section is apply your learning to real life situations. Youwill be given a practical task which will demonstrate your understanding.Activity 19: WELCOME TO FB (FEEDBACK BLOG)Your task is to make an interactive feedback blog. You are a youthleader invited to a World Youth Camp where teen bloggers are encouragedto post their insights and comments on how Asians and Africans respond tothe challenges of modernity as revealed in their literary selections. You aretasked to create an interactive feedback blog to promote and strengthencultural heritage and identity as well as to better understand one‘s self andthat of others. Your interactive feedback blog has to be effective, insightful,and creative. Use the ideas reflected in the video clip or the speech ofNelson Mandela below as guide in making your interactive feedback blog.
47For Schools with Internet ConnectionThis activity requires:Internet ConnectionBlogger account or account from any website that offers free blogging serviceSpecific instructions:1. Form a five-member group.2. Create a blog from blogger or any other sites offering free blogging services.3. Design your blog in such a way that visitors to your blog will immediately get themessage of your blog even before they read its content. You can either createyour own design or choose from default design templates and customize it toyour liking by adding images and other media.4. Create a striking blog name and appealing blog content. Be sure to focus more ondetails that support your theme.5. Invite fellow bloggers, (in this case, other groups), to your blog and have themreact or respond to your blog.6. For an example of a blog page, refer to the snapshot of the blog page shownabove.For Schools without Internet Connection:Materials:Whole size illustration boardPermanent marker pensBond PaperRulerCrayon/Water colorCutout pictures/drawingsInstructions:1. Form a five-member group and choose a leader for the group.2. Using the illustration board, create a message board. Divide your board into twoparts—the upper half and the lower half. In the upper half of the illustration board,write the title of your message board and a brief three-paragraph treatment of theissue of your choice.3. The issue or topic that is the focus of your message board must be based on thearticle provided (the speech of Nelson Mandela).
484. Design your message board using cutouts, pictures, drawings, crayons and anydesign materials of your choice to make the board appealing.5. Leave the lower half portion of the board blank. In this part, reactions of fellowclassmates written on a piece of paper (coupon bond) will be posted. The groupwill provide the piece of paper.6. Post your boards on the area designated by your teacher. All group members thenwill visit other groups‘ board and post their reactions.7. Any student can post comments on either the message indicated on the messageboard or on other comments on the message board or both.This video clip can be viewed at:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2-_r6B_Z188Free at LastSpeech of Nelson Mandela, May 2, 1994My fellow South Africans - the people of South Africa:This is indeed a joyous night. Although not yet final, we have received theprovisional results of the election, and are delighted by the overwhelming support for theAfrican National Congress.To all those in the African National Congress and the democratic movement whoworked so hard these last few days and through these many decades, I thank you andhonor you.
49To the people of South Africa and the world who are watching: this a joyous nightfor the human spirit. This is your victory too. You helped end apartheid, you stood withus through the transition.I watched, along with all of you, as the tens of thousands of our people stood patiently inlong queues for many hours, some sleeping on the open ground overnight waiting tocast this momentous vote.South Africas heroes are legend across the generations. But it is you, thepeople, who are our true heroes. This is one of the most important moments in the lifeof our country.I stand before you filled with deep pride and joy. Pride in the ordinary, humble people ofthis country. You have shown such a calm, patient determination to reclaim this countryas your own. And joy that we can loudly proclaim from the rooftops - Free at Last!I stand before you humbled by your courage, with a heart full of love for all ofyou. I regard it as the highest honor to lead the ANC at this moment in our history, andthat we have been chosen to lead our country into the new century.I pledge to use all my strength and ability to live up to your expectations of me aswell as of the ANC.I am personally indebted and pay tribute to some of South Africas greatestleaders including John Dube, Josiah Gumede, GM Naicker, Dr Abduraman, Chief Lutuli,Lilian Ngoyi, Helen Joseph, Yusuf Dadoo, Moses Kotane, Chris Hani, and OliverTambo. They should have been here to celebrate with us, for this is their achievementtoo.Tomorrow, the entire ANC leadership and I will be back at our desks. We arerolling up our sleeves to begin tackling the problems our country faces. We ask you allto join us. Go back to your jobs in the morning. Lets get South Africa working.For we must, together and without delay, begin to build a better life for all SouthAfricans. This means creating jobs, building houses, providing education and bringingpeace and security for all.The calm and tolerant atmosphere that prevailed during the elections depicts thetype of South Africa we can build. It set the tone for the future. We might have ourdifferences, but we are one people with a common destiny in our rich variety of culture,race and tradition.People have voted for the party of their choice and we respect that. This isdemocracy.I hold out a hand of friendship to the leaders of all parties and their members,and ask all of them to join us in working together to tackle the problems we face as anation. An ANC government will serve all the people of South Africa, not just ANCmembers.We also commend the security forces for the sterling work done. This has laid asolid foundation for a truly professional security force, committed to the service of thepeople and loyalty to the new constitution.Now is the time for celebration, for South Africans to join together to celebratethe birth of democracy. I raise a glass to you all for working so hard to achieve what canonly be called a small miracle. Let our celebrations be in keeping with the mood set inthe elections, peaceful, respectful and disciplined, showing we are a people ready toassume the responsibilities of government.
50I promise that I will do my best to be worthy of the faith and confidence you haveplaced in me and my organization, the African National Congress. Let us build the futuretogether, and toast a better life for all South Africans.www.emersonkent.com/speeches/free_at_last.htmRefer to this rubric for assessment.INTERACTIVE FEEDBACK BLOGCRITERIA Outstanding4Satisfactory3Developing2Beginning1RATINGEffectiveContent is well-organized andadequate detailsare present toreflectcomments.Follows astandard styleand prescribedformat(grammar,mechanics, etc.)Content isorganized andadequatedetails arepresent toreflectcomments.Follows astandard styleand prescribedformat(grammar,mechanics,etc.)Content isnotorganizedandinadequatedetails arepresent toreflectcomments.Does notfollow astandardstyle andprescribedformat(grammar,mechanics,etc.)Content is notorganized andno details arepresent toreflectcomments.Does not followa prescribedformat(grammar,mechanics,etc.)InsightfulFeedbackshows in-depthand criticalanalysis of theliteraryselections. Itrelatessignificantpersonalexperiences andsocietal issuesto the contentshowing howpeopleovercomechallenges.Feedbackreveals criticalanalysis of theliteraryselections. Itrelatessignificantpersonalexperiences tothe contentshowing howpeopleovercomechallenges.Commentsare limited toexplanationof the literaryselections.Comments arerepetition of thecontent.Analysis is notevident.CreativeThe blog hassufficientThe blog hassufficientThe blog haslimitedThe blog doesnot contain any
51graphics relatedto the literaryselectionspresented withspecial effects.The design ishighly attractivethat it catchesothers‘ attention.graphicsrelated to theliteraryselections andthe design isattractiveenough toinvite others tolook into theblog.graphics andthe design issimple andcommon.graphics andthe design iscopied fromother blogs.OVERALLRATINGActivity 20: UNPACKING OF ESSENTIALSGo back to your box and finalize your map of conceptual change by finishing the ―Ithink‖ OUT OF THE BOX area. Go over the essential questions and connect youranswers to these questions.I think…Activity 21: WRAP IT UPTry to reflect on the lesson under discussion. Complete the template below withrelevant thoughts regarding the entire lesson.Today’s Lesson __________________________________________________
52One key idea was __________________________________________________This is important because ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________Another key idea was _______________________________________________This matters because __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________In sum, today’s lesson ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________In this section, your task was to make an interactive feedback blog.How did you find the performance task? How did the task help you see thereal world use of the topic?You have completed this lesson. Now, you are ready to answer thefollowing post-assessment.GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS LESSON:Feedback – The transmission of evaluative and corrective information to the original orcontrolling source about an action, event, or process; also: the information sotransmitted.Blog – It is an online diary on website; a frequently updated personal journal chroniclinglinks at a website, intended for public viewing.Character Analysis – Is a technique of critically analyzing the personality and attributespersonified by a certain character in a literary selection.Clause – Is a group of words with subject and verb.Electronic Journals – Are scholarly journals or intellectual magazines that can beaccessed via electronic transmission.Evaluation Paper – Is a type of discourse or argument that includes evidences orproofs to support a writer‘s opinion on a specific subject or topic.Interactive Feedback Blog – Is an effective, insightful, and creative online diaryintended for transmission of information and public viewing.Parallel Structure – Is the use of similar grammatical or syntactical forms to expresssimilar ideas.Phrase – Is a group of words that functions in a sentence as a single part of speech. Itdoes not contain a subject and verb.Psyche – It refers to soul, self, mind.
53Temperament – Refers to characteristic or habitual inclination or mode of emotionalresponse; disposition.REFERENCES USED IN THIS LESSON Alcober, E, Balingit, P, Cabanilla, J, Cortez, C, Reyes, L, Salvosa, A, and Ribo, L.(2000) English Arts Textbook for Second Year. Quezon City: JTWCorporation. Alvaran, V, De Villa, M, and Ularte, M, (2011) Worktext in English for SecondYear. Batangas: United Eferza Academic publications, Co. Bermudez, V, Cruz, J, Nery, R, and San Juan, M, (2007) English Expresswaysfor Second Year. Quezon City: SD Publications, Inc., Carpio, R, (2006) Crisscrossing Through Afro-Asian Literature. Pasig City: AnvilPublishing, Inc., Eclipse, E, Bumanglag, T, Cabanilla, J, Canlas, S, Cortez, L, and Ribo, L,(1982) Communicating in English III. Manila: Textbook Board, Ministry ofEducation and Culture, 1982. Gonzales, R, Herlong, R, Hynes-Berry, M, and Pesce, P, Language: Structureand Use. Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company. Bok, F., Tivman E. (2005). Escape from Slavery. Readers Digest, 114-132.WEBSITE LINKS USED IN THIS LESSON:1. Richard. (n. d.). Short biography Nelson Mandela. Retrieved November 19, 2012,from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/8275/African-literature2. Francis Bok. (n. d.). Escape from Slavery: The true story of my ten years in captivityand my journey to freedom in America (Paperback). Retrieved November 5, 2012,from http://www.tower.com/escape-from-slavery-true-story-my-ten-years-edward-tivnan-paperback/wapi/1014492183. Mthoko Mpofana. (1989, Feb). The Dark Continent. Retrieved November 10, 2012,from PoemHunter.com website: http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/the-dark-continent
544. Abi B. Ali-Dinar. (1994, May 11). Inaugural speech, Pretoria (Mandela). RetrievedNovember 12, 2012, from webcache.googleusercontent.com website:http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Inaugural_Speech_17984.htm5. LeVar Burton. (n. d.) Kunta Kinte. Retrieved November 15, 2012, from Wikipediawebsite: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunta_Kinte6. Nelson Mandela. (1994, May 2). Free at last, speech. Retrieved November 15,2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2-_r6B_Z1887. Emerson Kent. (n. d.). Free at last, transcript. Retrieved November 16, 2012, fromEmerson Kent.com website: www.emersonkent.com/speeches/free_at_last.htm8. A-Z Strategies. (n. d.). Comparison and contrast graphic organizer. RetrievedNovember 16, 2012, from www.slideshare.net/.../graphic-organizers-comparison-contrast-68659. Kunta Kinte (n. d). Retrieved November 18, 2012, fromhttp://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_ma1ui2G7pP1rp2svp.jpg10.S3amazonaws.com/rapgenius (n. d.). Kunta Kinte getting whipped. RetrievedNovember 18, 2012, from s3amazonaws.com website:http://s3.amazonaws.com/rapgenius/kunta-kinte-getting-whipped.jpg11.http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTIgmhRW0nu4hosJ1u0VLprS-kK0ebn_AnF_fhi3oK_XflJCjm112.http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lzazrqyCag1qfmv3b.jpg13.Dinah Crockett. (2006, August 29). Grammatically correct. Retrieved November 19,2012. from http://www.uhv.edu/ac/newsletters/writing/grammartip2006.08.29.htm14.www.iAbolish.org15. www.thelandmarkersjournal.wordpress.com16. Images.yourdictionary.com. (1996-2021) .Dark Continent images. RetrievedDecember 3, 2012, from http://americanheritage.yourdictionary.com/dark-continent
5517. A Correspondent. (2012, July 18). Nelson Mandela: Interesting facts and trivia.Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.mid-day.com/lifestyle/2012/jul/180712-Nelson-Mandela-Interesting-facts-and-trivia.htm18.Official Gazette. (2003, December 19). Republic Act 9231. Retrieved December 5,2012, from http://www.gov.ph/2003/12/19/republic-act-no-9231-s-200319. Answers. (n. d.). Gale Encyclopedia of Biography: Kofi Abrefa Busia. RetrievedDecember 5, 2012, from http://www.answers.com/topic/busia-kofi-abrefa20.African Treasures. (n. d.). Djun-Djun. Retrieved December 5, 2012, fromhttp://www.africantreasures.com/detail.asp?PRODUCT_ID=DRUM000921. http://images.yourdictionary.com/dark-continent22. Digital History. (2012, December 6). Slavery Fact Sheets. Retrieved December 6,2012, from digitalhistory.uh.edu website:http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/slav_fact.cfm23.Nathan Soderblom. (2012). Nelson Mandela’s pictures. Retrieved December 6,2012, fromhttp://www.picsearch.com/pictures/Celebrities/Nobel%20Prize%20Winners/Peace/Peace%20Me%20-%20Y/Nelson%20Mandela.htmlPOST-ASSESSMENTIt‘s now time to evaluate your learning. Encircle the letter of the answer that youthink best answers the question. Your score will only be checked after you answerall items. If you do well, you may move on to the next module. If your score is notat the expected level, you have to go back and take the module again.1. An idiom is a form of figurative language and a phrase whose meaning cannot beunderstood from the ordinary meanings of the separate words in it. Choose thecorrect idiomatic expression that will complete the sentence. The children couldnot understand such difficult and _____________________.A. high-flown languageB. bad formsC. hard linesD. flowery words2. Which of the following statements is correct?A. Jogging as a matter of fact is not good for people of all ages.B. Jogging, as matter of fact is not good is not good for people of all ages.C. Jogging, as a matter of fact, is not good for people of all ages.D. Jogging as a matter of fact is not good for people of all ages.3. Which of the following statements lacks parallelism?
56A. Teaching, facilitating, and mentoring are the major tasks of a teacher.B. To see is to believe.C. Mark‘s opinion of his employer is that he is smart, eloquent, and considerate.D. Every athlete can lead his team to a whooping victory by practicing hard,studying the plays, and if he focuses on the signals.4. Terms that indicate opinions are called opinion signal words. The examples ofthese are below except for one:A. possiblyB. I thinkC. howeverD. seems to me5. What do you mean by psyche and temperament?A. the heart, the life-force that drives a person to decide on things – bad orgoodB. the inner self, the essence of the soul plus the strength of body and soulC. the mind, the deepest thoughts, beliefs plus the nature or character of thepersonD. the soul, the inner thoughts, outlook and humor plus the attitude of theperson6. Burma, also known as Myanmar, has been in one of the longest running andunresolved civil wars among ethnic groups and still a country under military rulewhich retains enormous influence. This prominent individual continues to work fordemocracy and freedom in Burma.A. Nelson MandelaB. Aung San Suu KyiC. Mahatma GandhiD. Martin Luther King, Jr.7. After reading a Korean legend, you notice one striking similarity between Koreanand Filipino legends. What similarity is this?A. Legends from both countries described the rich natural resources back then.B. Legends from both countries narrated ethnic rituals practiced by the natives.C. Legends from both countries were orally transmitted first before they werewritten.D. Legends from both were written by ordinary people.8. Read the excerpt below then answer the question that follows.Ki, the Pygmy, has married a Pygmy girl from another village. The girlwas called Luetsi and she became Ki‘s wife. With them lived Ntio, Ki‘s brother.After a year, Luetsi wished to visit her mother, as was the custom. Ki agreed andgave Luetsi a big piece of meat to take to her mother. As a big hunt was imminent,ki could not go with his wife, but he promised to fetch her from her mother‘s housein four weeks‘ time. Now it happened that Ki was bitten in the foot by a snake and
57he could not walk. So he asked his brother to fetch his wife. Ntio did not want to goand said, ―In a few days‘ time you will be able to walk again. It is better for you tofetch your wife yourself.‖―No,‖ said Ki. ―It is better not to leave Luetsi in uncertainty. She would notwait for me but would start the journey home alone. Fetch her home for me, and I‘llgive you my best bow.‖-An excerpt from The Leopard, folklore from AfricaWhich of the following does the excerpt imply about Africans?A. They are wild people.B. They are not afraid of animals.C. They are caring people.D. They are careless.9. In the literature of Myanmar, prose works during the 15thto 19thcentury were fewand authors were monks, courtiers and court poetesses. This is one example ofwork under prose.A. historical balladB. panegyric odeC. story in verseD. scripture or chronicle10. Why is literature a good source of knowing Koreans?A. Literature gives all the updates about all the important events in a country.B. Literature mirrors the psyche, temperament, culture and traditions of thepeople.C. Literature provides a descriptive picture of how the people dress and speaklike.D. Literature is a work of art that describes citizens with breeding andrefinement.11.What is the best observation regarding this paragraph?Modern Korean literature attained its maturity in the 1930s through the efforts of agroup of talented writers. They drew freely upon European examples to enrich their art.Translation of Western literature continued, and works by I.A. Richards, T.S. Eliot, andT.E. Hulme were introduced. This artistic and critical activity was a protest against thereduction of literature to journalism and its use as propaganda by leftist writers.A. It has a topic sentence that gives the best practices of the Koreans.B. It has an impact because it has a well-chosen topic.C. It has coherence in its sentences and cohesion in its ideas.D. It has one imperative sentence and three declarative sentences.12. Read the paragraph and answer the question.These young men were the country‘s good sons who were protecting their countryfrom its enemies. Their aims and intentions were as different from those of the addicts aseast from west, north from south. Although these young men had one leg missing, theystill wanted to serve their country. The two young soldiers told Lin Aung that they plannedto work in the disabled soldiers‘ cooperative shop.
58Why were the two young men the country‘s good sons?A. They planned to work in the disabled soldier‘s cooperative shop.B. They have one leg missing.C. Their aims and intentions were as different from those of drug addicts.D. They are protecting their country from its enemies.13. Your Korean classmate has been a student here in the Philippines for two years.In studying a formal essay, you are given by your teacher to react on the firstparagraph of Carlos Romulo‘s I Am a Filipino. The first paragraph goes like this:I am a Filipino, inheritor of a glorious past, hostage to the uncertain future. As such Imust prove equal to a twofold task – the task of meeting my responsibility to the past andthe task of performing my obligation to the future.You cannot help but discuss pertinent characteristics about you, being a Filipinoand your classmate, being a Korean and the challenges of modernity that somehowaffected you both as Asians. What would be the best lesson of the paragraph that youcan present to your teacher and classmates that somehow will be true to you both asAsians?A. We have to acknowledge that as Asians we exist because of our past andbecause society is constantly evolving, we must keep up and see the positivethings brought about by these changes.B. We have to respond to the challenges of so many tasks so that we will be moreprepared in facing the future.C. We need to recognize where we really came from and that we should alsoprepare ourselves for the uncertainty that the future will bring.D. We should accept that whatever we will become in the future, it will always bethe product of what we decide for our present.14. Read the excerpt below then, answer the question that follows.And so Luetsi had to lie there for hours, beneath the dead leopard. In thedistance, she could hear the roaring of the leopardess, looking for its dead mate.The jungle was full of threatening voices. At last, she began to imagine that theleopard on top of her was moving, as if it had come to life again. But still she did notbudge from the spot, so keen was she to find out how her husband would behave.-An excerpt from The Leopard, folklore from AfricaWhat characteristic of Africans is revealed in the excerpt?a. They are courageous.b. They are deceptive.c. They love animals.d. They like to display their strength.
5915. Read the following situation then, answer the question that follows.You recently attended a Youth Summit on Culture and the Arts whereyou learned that literary pieces are good sources of information about otherpeople‘s culture. You wish to share what you have learned from the conventionwith the young people of this generation who are literally exposed to socialnetworking where they communicate with people from other countries.What would be the best medium to use to send your messages to thesetechno teen bloggers?a. Magazineb. Blogc. Newspaperd. Book