Curriculum development

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  • 1. •WHAT IS AN IDEAL LEARNER? •WHAT IS AN IDEAL LEARNING INSTITUTION? •WHY IS THERE A NEED FOR MAN TO LEARN?
  • 2. CURRICULUM: CONCEPTS, NATURE AND PURPOSES •THE CONCEPT OF CURRICULUM IS AS DYNAMIC AS THE CHANGES THAT OCCUR IN OUR SOCIETY •CURRICULUM IS VIEWED MERELY AS A LISTING OF SUBJECTS TO BE TAUGHT IN SCHOOL. •IT REFERS TO THE TOTAL LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF INDIVIDUALS NOT ONLY IN SCHOOLS BUT IN SOCIETY AS WELL.
  • 3. CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW •TRADITIONAL POINTS OF VIEW •PROGRESSIVE POINTS OF VIEW
  • 4. CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW •TRADITIONAL POINTS OF VIEW •PROGRESSIVE POINTS OF VIEW
  • 5. CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW •IT IS A BODY OF SUBJECTS OR SUBJECT MATTER PREPARED BY THE TEACHERS FOR THE STUDENTS TO LEARN •IT IS SYNONYMOUS TO “COURSE OF THE STUDY” OR “SYLLABUS”
  • 6. CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW •ROBERT HUTCHINS- VIEWS CURRICULUM AS “PERMANENT STUDIES,” WHERE THE RULES OF GRAMMAR, READING, RHETORIC AND LOGIC AND MATHEMATICS FOR BASIC EDUCATION ARE EMPHASIZED. BASIC EDUCATION SHOULD EMPHASIZE THE 3R’S.
  • 7. CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW •ARTHUR BESTOR- BELIEVES THAT THE MISSION OF THE SCHOOLS SHOULD BE INTELLECTUAL TRAINING, HENCE CURRICULUM SHOULD FOCUS ON THE FUNDAMENTAL INTELLECTUAL DISCIPLINES OF GRAMMAR, LITERATURE AND WRITING. IT SHOULD ALSO INCLUDE MATH, SCIENCE, HISTORY AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE.
  • 8. CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW •JOSEPH SCHWAB- CURRICULUM IS DIVIDED INTO CHUNKS OF KNOWLEDGE- SUBJECT AREAS. •MOST OF THE TRADITIONAL IDEAS VIEW CURRICULUM AS WRITTEN DOCUMENTS OR A PLAN OF ACTION IN ACCOMPLISHING GOALS.
  • 9. CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW • TRADITIONAL POINTS OF VIEW •PROGRESSIVE POINTS OF VIEW
  • 10. PROGRESSIVE POINTS OF VIEW OF CURRICULUM •A LISTING OF SCHOOL SUBJECTS, SYLLABI, COURSE OF STUDY, AND LIST OF COURSES OR SPECIFIC DISCIPLINE DO NOT MAKE A CURRICULUM. THESE CAN ONLY BE CALLED CURRICULUM IF THE WRITTEN MATERIALS ARE ACTUALIZED BY THE LEARNER.
  • 11. PROGRESSIVE POINTS OF VIEW OF CURRICULUM •“CURRICULUM IS DEFINED AS THE TOTAL LEARNING EXPERIENCES OF THE INDIVIDUAL.” THIS DEFINITION IS ANCHORED ON JOHN DEWEY’S DEFINITION OF EXPERIENCE AND EDUCATION. HE BELIEVED THAT REFLECTIVE THINKING IS A MEANS THAT UNIFIES CURRICULAR ELEMENTS. THOUGHT THAT IS NOT DERIVED FROM ACTION, BUT TESTED BY APPLICATION.
  • 12. PROGRESSIVE POINTS OF VIEW OF CURRICULUM •CASWELL AND CAMPBELL VIEWED CURRICULUM AS “ALL EXPERIENCES CHILDREN HAVE UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF TEACHERS.” •SMITH, STANLEY AND SHORES DEFINED CURRICULUM AS “A SEQUENCE OF POTENTIAL EXPERIENCES SET UP IN THE SCHOOLS FOR THE PURPOSE OF DISCIPLINING CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN GROUP WAYS OF THINKING AND ACTING.”
  • 13. POINTS OF VIEW ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT RALPH TYLER MODEL: FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES •WHAT EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES SHOULD THE SCHOOL SEEK TO ATTAIN? •WHAT EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES CAN BE PROVIDED THAT ARE LIKELY TO ATTAIN THE PURPOSES? •HOW CAN THESE EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES BE EFFECTIVELY ORGANIZED? •HOW CAN WE DETERMINE WHETHER THESE PURPOSES ARE BEING ATTAINED OR NOT?
  • 14. HILDA TABA: GRASSROOTS APPROACH •DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNERS NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS OF THE LARGER SOCIETY •FORMULATION OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES •SELECTION OF LEARNING CONTENT •ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING CONTENT •SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES •ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES •DETERMINATION OF WHAT TO EVALUATE AND THE MEANS OF DOING IT.
  • 15. TYPES OF CURRICULUM OPERATING IN SCHOOLS 1.RECOMMENDED CURRICULUM 2.WRITTEN CURRICULUM 3.TAUGHT CURRICULUM 4.SUPPORTED CURRICULUM 5.ASSESSED CURRICULUM 6.LEARNED CURRICULUM 7.HIDDEN CURRICULUM
  • 16. MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM
  • 17. PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS •PERENNIALISM •ESSENTIALISM •PROGRESSIVISM •RECONSTRUCTIONISM