What is to be done?
The Philippine educational system is
divided in three educational levels:
• Secondary; and
• Provide knowledge and develop
skills, attitudes, values essential to personal
development and necessary for living in and
contributing to a developing and changing
• Provide learning experiences which increase the
child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the
changes in the society
• Promote and intensify knowledge, identification
with and love for the nation and the people to
which he belongs; and
• Promote work experiences which develop
orientation to the world of work and prepare the
learner to engage in honest and gainful work.
Aims of Secondary Education
• Continue to promote the objectives of
elementary education; and
• Discover and enhance the different aptitudes
and interests of students in order to equip
them with skills for productive endeavor and
or to prepare them for tertiary schooling.
Tertiary education - refers to college and university
formal education based on the curricula of the
• Provide general education programs which
will promote national identity, cultural
consciousness, moral integrity and spiritual
• Train the nation’s manpower in the skills
required for national development;
• Develop the professions that will provide
leadership for the nation; and
• Advance knowledge through research and
apply new knowledge for improving the
quality of human life and respond effectively
to changing society.
Example of a School’s Vision:
To train future teachers in the pursuit and
practice of quality teaching, research,
and community extension service to
achieve the highest level of competency
and commitment to the profession.
Example of a School’s Mission:
To produce professional highly competent
teachers through quality
teaching, research skills, community
extension service, and dispositions to
foster lifelong learning in various
Example of School’s Goals:
To develop professional, highly competent,
responsible, self-renewing and ethical
teachers who will serve the community
and who will be effective catalysts of
change in response to the quest for
Three Big Domains of Objectives
(Bloom and his associates)
• Affective; and
Cognitive Domain (Bloom,et al. 1956)
Domain of thought process
Affective Domain (Krathwohl, 1964)
Domain of valuing, attitude and appreciation
Psychomotor Domain (Simpson, 1972)
Domain of the use of psychomotor attributes
Component 2: Curriculum Content or
view of curriculum
The fund of human
knowledge represents the
repository of accumulated
discoveries and inventions
of man down the
centuries, due to man’s
exploration of the world
view of curriculum
Relates knowledge to the
individual's personal and
social world and how he
or she defines reality.
“Knowledge is a model we construct
to give meaning and structure to
regularities in experience.”
Broad Subject Areas in Basic Education
Subject Area Learning Content
Communication Arts Includes skills in listening,
speaking, reading, and writing,
effective use of language in
Mathematics Includes numeric and
computational skills, geometry
and measurement, algebra,
logic and reasoning
Science Includes all branches of the
natural sciences, exploration
and discovery dealing with
natural phenomena and the
use of scientific method of
Subject Area Learning Content
Social Studies Include basic elements of Geography,
History, Sociology, Anthropology,
Economics, Civics, Political Science and
Music Includes basic music theory, practice in
listening, singing, playing musical
instruments and music preparation.
Physical Education Includes health and physical fitness,
individual and team sports, spectatorship
and wise use of leisure
Vocational Education Includes psychomotor and manipulative
skills in basic crafts and trades, design,
work ethic and appreciation of manual
“Content selection is a very crucial stage in curriculum
CRITERIA for the Selection of Subject Matter
Content or Knowledge for the Curriculum
• Helping the learners attain maximum self-
sufficiency in learning but in the most
• Economy means less teaching effort and
educational resources, less learners’ effort but
more results and effective learning outcomes
• Authenticity of the subject matter
• Subject matter should be verified or
checked at regular intervals, to
determine if the content that was
originally valid continues to be.
• Usefulness of the content or subject matter
maybe relative to the learner who is going to
• Subject matter should be within the range of
experiences of the learners.
• Optimal placement and appropriate organization
and sequencing of contents are necessary in
presenting the content so that it can easily be
• Content selection should be considered
within the context of the existing reality
in schools, in society and government.
• Consider time, resources
available, expertise of the teacher, and
the nature of the learners.
• Frequently and commonly used in daily
• Suited to the maturity levels and
abilities of students
• Valuable in meeting the needs and the
competencies of a future career
• Related with other subject areas
• Important in the transfer of learning
Principles of Organizing the
Different Learning Contents
• Curriculum content should be fairly
distributed in depth and breadth of a
particular learning area or discipline.
• Levels of subject matter should be smoothly
connected to the next so as to avoid glaring
gaps and wasteful overlaps in the content.
• There should be logical arrangement of the
• Help learners get a wholistic or unified view
on reality and outlook in life as there will be
seen horizontal connections in subject areas
that are similar so that learning will be related
to one another.
• The constant repetition, review and
reinforcement of learning wherein there is
continuity of application of the new
knowledge, skills, attitudes or values so that
these will be used in daily living.
• This section will not discuss in detail the
different instructional strategies that provide
the experiences. Instead it will link
instructional strategies and methods to
curriculum experiences, the core or the heart
of the curriculum.
Guidelines for the Selection and
Use of Curriculum:
• Teaching methods are means to achieve the
end. They are used to translate the objectives
• There is no single best teaching method. Its
effectiveness will depend on the learning
objectives, the learners and skill of the
• Teaching methods should stimulate the
learners desire to develop the cognitive,
affective, psychomotor, social and spiritual
domain of the individual.
• In the choice of the teaching methods,
learning styles of the students should be
• Every method should lend to the
development of the learning outcomes in the
three domains: cognitive, affective and the
• Flexibility should be a consideration in the
use of the teaching methods.
• According to Worthen and Sanders, (1987) all
curricula to be effective must have the
element of the evaluation.
• Curriculum evaluation here may refer to the
formal determination of the
quality, effectiveness or value of the
program, process, and product of the
• Tuckman (1985) defines evaluation as
meeting the goals and matching them with
the intended outcomes.
• From the definitions, several models of
evaluation came up.
• The most widely used is Stufflebeam’s CIPP
(Content, Input, Product, Process) Model.
• In CIPP, the process is continuous and is very
important to curriculum managers like
principals, supervisors, department head,
deans and even teachers.
• Context – refers to the environment of the
• Input – refers to the ingredients of the
curriculum which include the goals,
instructional strategies, the learners, the
teachers, the contents and all the materials
• Process – refers to the ways and means of
how the curriculum has been implemented.
• Product – indicates if the curriculum
accomplishes its goals.
Steps on the Suggested Plan of
Action for the Process of
• Focus on one particular component of the
• Collect or gather the information.
• Organize the information. This step will
require coding, organizing, storing, and
retrieving data for interpretation.
• Analyze interpretation.
• Report the information.
• Recycle the information for continuous
feedback, modification and adjustments to
Interrelationship of the Component of
Aims and Objectives