Chinese literature final


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Chinese literature final

  1. 1. WELCOME TO CHINA !!!
  2. 2.  The flag of China was officially adopted on October 1,1949. The red of the Chinese flag symbolizes the communistrevolution, and its also the traditional color of the people. The large gold star represents communism, The four smaller stars represent the social classes of thepeople. In addition, the five stars together reflect the importanceplaced on the number five in Chinese thought and history.
  3. 3. China’s Geography
  4. 4. The Peoples Republic of ChinaArea: 9,600,000 sq. kmPopulation: 1.3 billionCapital City: BeijingNational Flag: Five-Stars-Red-FlagLocation: middle and East Asia, bounded on the east bythe Pacific OceanTerritorial Seas: the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the EastChina Sea, and the South China SeaClimate: mainly continental monsoon climate (Tibet:vertical climate zone)
  7. 7.  Chinese history is generallydivided into dynasties or periodsduring which particular family orgroup of people reigned. Chinese states were unified into alarge empire with a centralgovernment.HISTORICAL CONTEXT歷史背景
  8. 8.  The Chinese empire lasted foe overtwo thousand years survivingperiods of internal turmoil, attacksfrom outside invaders and the riseand fall of numerous dynasties The poet T’ao Ch’ien lived duringthe period known as the SixDynasties (220 A.D – 581 A.D),one of the most tumultuous eras inthe Chinese History.
  9. 9.  Shang Dynasty (about 1700-1050 BC) -Development of Chinese Writing The first dynasty for which there ishistorical record and archaeologicalevidence is the Shang Dynasty. It was a small empire in northern centralChina. No documents from that country survive,but there are archaeological finds ofhieroglyphic writing on bronze wares andoracle bones. The hieroglyphic writing system laterevolved into ideographic and partly-phonetic Chinese characters.SHANG DYNASTY (ABOUT 1700-1050 BC)
  10. 10.  Their dynasty lasted for about 800years, The great literary works ofphilosophy and religion that becamethe basis for Chinese religious andsocial belief stem from what iscalled the Spring and Autumn Period(770-476) and the Warring StatesPeriod (475-221). Taoism, Confucian literature, andother prominent religious andphilosophical schools all emergedduring these periods.CHOU DYNASTY (1045-255 BC)BASIC PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS LITERATURE
  11. 11.  The Dynasty had big armies andconquered the others. Once the Ch’in emperor had control, hewanted to keep it, and they squelched anyopposition to his authority. A big philosophical and religious schoolthen was called Mohism. An early form of Buddhism was alsoestablished in China at that time, buttheir temples and literature weredestroyed and even less is known aboutthem.CH’IN DYNASTY (221-206 BC)LITERARY DISASTER AND LEGALISM
  12. 12.  The Han Dynasty era lasted for 400years. At the beginning of the era,Confucianism was revived. Confuciantexts were rewritten andrepublished. The resulting ideology was theofficial ideology of the Han Dynastyand influenced political thinkingafterwards. The era’s major contributions werehistorical texts and scientific works.HAN DYNASTY (206 BC – 220 AD)SCIENTIFIC AND HISTORICAL TEXTS
  13. 13.  The T’ang Dynasty had a big empire thatbenefited from trade with the westalong the Silk Road, battled with theTibetan Empire, and experienced thegrowing influence of organized Buddhistreligions. This era’s main contribution to Chineseliterature was in the poetry of Dufu, LiBai and many other poets. Dufu and LiBai are often thought of as China’sgreatest poets.T’ANG DYNASTY (618-907)EARLY WOODBLOCK PRINTING AND POETRY
  14. 14.  Military technology greatly advanced. Theytraded little with the west due to thepresence of warring Muslim states on theold trade routes. There wasn’t territorial expansion, but theempire was continuously attacked bynomadic tribes and countries around them. So the era is divided into two eras calledthe Northern Sung (960-1127) and SouthernSung (1127-1279) eras.SUNG DYNASTY (960-1279)EARLY WOODBLOCK PRINTING, TRAVEL LITERATURE, POETRY,SCIENTIFIC TEXTS AND THE NEO-CONFUCIAN CLASSICS
  15. 15.  The Chinese rebelled against theMongols, and the Ming Dynasty erabegan about 1368. One of the four great classicscalled Journey to the West about amonk going to India was writtenduring this time of isolation. Novels were the era’s maincontribution.MING DYNASTY (1368-1644)NOVELS
  16. 16.  The Mongols established the very richYuan Dynasty. The Mongols were nomadic people whoherded cattle north of the Tang Empireand wandered over a large area fightingon horseback. It was a big empire with high technology,a big population and a big army. It was an era of some historicallyrenowned dramatic playwrights andnovelists who wrote in vernacularlanguage.YUAN DYNASTY (1279-1368)DRAMA AND GREAT FICTIONAL NOVELS
  17. 17. CHINESE LITERATURE1000 B.C.- A.D.1890Know contentmentAnd you will suffer no disgrace;Know when to stopAnd you will meet with no danger.You can then endure.- the Tao Te Ching
  18. 18.  Poetry is a part of everyday life throughout thehistory of China Poets have been among the most highlyregarded members of Chinese Society 2nd -12th centuries A.D. the main Chinesepoetic form was the Shih Ching ( The Book ofSongs) Even the number of lines , each of which has thesame number of words Often expressed personal emotions Many have brooding or trouble tone , but canexpress contentmentLITERARY CONTEXT文藝上下文
  19. 19.  Contrast between Chinese and Westernmodes of philosophic thinking Western philosophers seek out the being ofthings, the essential reality lying behindappearances Chinese principal and establishment andcultivation of harmonious relationships withintheir social structures Chinese thinking is far more concrete , thisworldly and above all, practical.CHINESE PHILOSOPHY中國哲學
  20. 20.  Chinese attitudes and beliefswere shaped by 3 religious andphilosophical schools: Taoism Confucianism BuddhismCULTURAL CONTEXT文化背景
  21. 21.  Tao- path or the way Stresses freedom , simplicity and themythical contemplation of nature(“Tao”) Force that controlled the universe Beyond the scope of human concerns, but can see its workings byobserving natureTAOISM道教
  22. 22.  Avoid human desires Not educating Not honoring men of worth orencourage cleaver to act Cause jealousy and greed Opposite of ConfucianismTAOISM道教
  23. 23.  How people act – moral behavior Social relations based onsubordination: family ruled byauthoritarian father , state ruled byauthoritarian king. Respect and obey those with superiorstatus However, governed by the conceptren – with a loving attitude towardsothersCONFUCIANISM儒
  24. 24.  Tried to teach students to becometrue gentlemen- morally andspiritually Must conduct oneself in a virtuousmanner, those in power serve asmodels Heaven is the supreme moralauthority , which dictates how onemust live.CONFUCIANISM儒
  25. 25.  To lead a moral life To be mindful and aware of thoughtsand actions To develop wisdom andunderstanding Life is sorrow and sorrow is caused bydesires Rid self of desires Does not claim to be God Attain enlightenment throughmeditationBUDDHISM佛教
  26. 26.  Solutions to our problems are withinourselves Beliefs are incorporated into poetrythrough symbols, imagery andlanguage of Chinese Literature Quietude and calmness is a centralnotion in Buddhist thoughtBUDDHISM佛教
  28. 28.  Red is the Color of Weddings in China Red is central to the wedding theme ofChina. It signifies love, joy andprosperity and is used in a variety ofways in Chinese wedding traditions. The brides wedding down is often red,as are the wedding invitations, andwedding gift boxes or envelopes forcash gifts. Even the bride and groomshomes are decorated in red on thewedding day.CHINESE WEDDING TRADITIONS中國的傳統婚禮
  29. 29.  Before the Chinese Wedding Day Before her wedding celebration, a Chinese bride traditionallygoes into seclusion with her closest friends. This Chinesecustom gives the bride-to-be some time to symbolically mournthe loss of her friends and family.CHINESE WEDDING TRADITIONS中國的傳統婚禮
  30. 30.  Some time before the couple are married, thegrooms family carries wedding gifts in redbaskets and boxes to the brides house. One of the baskets will contain "uang susu" ormilk money. Others will contain personal thingsfor the bride, so that on her wedding day all ofher personal belongings will be in the groomshouse. The bride takes the gifts to another room wherethey are sorted through. Three days before thewedding day, women from the brides familyreciprocate, bearing gifts -- including somereturns-- in red wrappings to the groomsfamily.CHINESE WEDDING TRADITIONS中國的傳統婚禮
  31. 31.  The Day of the Wedding Ceremony Wedding anniversaries in China, arecarefully chosen according to astrologicalsigns. It is also customary for couples tobe married on the half-hour or theirwedding day rather than at the top of thehour. In this way, the couple begins their newlives together on an upswing, while thehands of the clock are moving up, ratherthan down.CHINESE WEDDING TRADITIONS中國的傳統婚禮
  32. 32.  Event: Chinese New YearDate: The first day of a year inlunar calendar, usually betweenlate Jan and early Feb Activities: fireworks display,visiting and greeting, Yangkedancing, lion and dragon dancing,holding temple fairs and manyother great folklore-inspectionevents.CHINESE FESTIVALS中國節日
  33. 33.  This was a time for the Chinese tocongratulate each other andthemselves on having passedthrough another year, a time tofinish out the old, and to welcome inthe new year. Common expressions heard at thistime are: GUONIAN to have made itthrough the old year, and BAINIAN tocongratulate the new year.CHINESE FESTIVALS中國節日
  34. 34.  Event: Lantern Festival Date: 15th ofthe first lunar month Activities: Lanterns expositions,garden parties, firework displays andfolk dances. The New Year celebrations ended onthe 15th of the First Moon withthe Lantern Festival. In the legend, the Jade Emperor inHeaven was so angered at a town forkilling his favorite goose, that hedecided to destroy it with a storm offire.CHINESE FESTIVALS中國節日
  35. 35.  Event: Dragon Boat Festival Date: Date: 5th day of the 5thlunar month Activities: Dragon Boat races andeating Zong Zi (pyramid shapedrice wrapped in reed or bambooleavesCHINESE FESTIVALS中國節日
  36. 36.  Event: Mid-Autumn FestivalDate: 15th ofthe 8th lunar month Activities: Dragon Boat racing, enjoyingmoonlight and eating moon cakes. Probably the second most importantfestival in the Chinese calendar, Zhong qiuhas ancient origins. Abundant meals are eaten during thefestival and moon cakes, round pastriesfilled with nuts, dried fruits, preservedflowers, sesame and/or marinated beef orbacon are eaten.CHINESE FESTIVALS中國節日
  37. 37.  Event: Qing ming Date: 12th of the3rd lunar month, usually aroundApril 4th or 5th. Activities: Cleaning ancestorsgraves and holding memorialceremonies, spring outing, and flyingkites This is a time when ice and snow hasgone and plants are beginning togrow again, and is a time for respectto ancestors . Qing Ming is often marked by anindulgence of the Chinese passionfor kite flying.CHINESE FESTIVALS中國節日
  38. 38.  Confucius once said: "Eating isthe utmost important part of life". Food is a central part of theChinese culture. Chinese cuisine is one of thegreatest methods of cooking. The Chinese people enjoy eatinggood food at all levels of society,so cooking has developed into avery sophisticated art.CHINESE FOOD AND COOKING中國食品和烹飪
  39. 39.  Vegetables are the mainingredients. The Chinese people like well-prepared food. Chinese also like to eat together, atradition that can be traced back along time ago. Tea drinking is an integral part ofChinese life and the Chinese foodexperience.CHINESE CUISINE IS NOTED FOR THEFOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS:
  40. 40.  A good education has always been highlyvalued in China, as the people believe thateducation ensures not only the future anddevelopment of the individual but also thefamily and the country as a whole. The great master Confucius taught that itis a pleasure to learn something and to try itout at intervals. Similarly, numerousstudents have been convinced that readingbooks excels all other careers.EDUCATION教育
  41. 41.  As far back as the Shang Dynasty(16th century BC - 11th century BC),inscriptions on bones or tortoiseshells were the simple records ofteaching and learning. In the Western Zhou Dynasty (11thcentury BC - 771 BC), nobles builtschools to teach their children, astheir offsprings would be theofficials of the future, while thosewho were gifted but of poor familiescould but dream of approachingstate affairs.EDUCATION教育
  42. 42.  The development of education system led to aform of evaluation that became the means bywhich dynastic China appointed those withtalents as officials. In general, this process can be divided intothree periods - chaju and zhengpi in theHan Dynasty, the jiupin zhongzheng systemfrom Han to the Northern and SouthernDynasties, and the Imperial Examinationwhich survived from the Sui Dynasty (589 -618) right through to the last feudal dynastyQing Dynasty (1644 - 1911).EDUCATION教育
  43. 43.  Chinese ( 漢 語 ) comprises of seven main dialects,Mandarin (官話), Cantonese (廣州話, 廣府話), Hakka (客家話), Wu (吳語), Min (閩語), Xiang (湘語), and Gan (贛語) . The variety of Mandarin based on the speech in thecapital Beijing is the official national language ofmainland China and is termed Pŭtōnghuà, Commonlanguage (普通話). The de facto common language in Hong Kong andoverseas Chinese communities is Cantonese.Amongst the official languages of Taiwan areMandarin, Taiwanese, and Hakka .THE CHINESE LANGUAGE中國語言
  44. 44.  All varieties of Chinese belong to theSino-Tibetan family of languages.Members of the Sinitic family aretypically tonal, meaning that differenttones, or intonations, distinguish wordsthat otherwise are pronouncedidentically. Chinese by origin is monosyllabic. Thevocabulary of dialects more recent in thelinguistic tree such are Mandarin tend tobecome more polysyllabic (compoundwords) as an adjustment to the loss of anumber of sounds compared to ancientChinese.THE CHINESE LANGUAGE中國語言
  45. 45. THE CHINESE ALPHABET中國字母表 In the Chinese alphabet, small letters are written like capitalletters, and vice versa.A 诶 ēiB 比 bǐC 西 xīD 迪 díE 伊 yīF 艾弗 ài fúG 吉 jíH 艾尺 ài chǐI 艾 àiJ 杰 jiéK 开 kāiL 艾勒 ài lèM 艾马 ài mǎN 艾娜 ài nàO 哦 óP 屁 pìQ 吉吾 jí wúR 艾儿 ài érS 艾丝 ài sīT 提 tíU 伊吾 yī wúV 维 wéiW 豆贝尔维 dòu bèi ěr wéiX 艾克斯 yī kè sīY 吾艾 wú àiZ 贼德 zéi dé
  46. 46.  The 100 yuan note has picturesof four of the founders of thePeoples Republic of China.From right to left these are:Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, LiuShaoqi, and Zhu De.CHINESE MONEY AND COUNTING中國貨幣和計數
  47. 47.  Kong Qui, better known as Confucius,was born in 551 B.C. in the Lu stateof China. His teachings, preserved inthe Analects, focused on creatingethical models of family and publicinteraction, and setting educationalstandards. He died in 479 B.C.Confucianism later became theofficial imperial philosophy of China,and was extremely influential duringthe Han, Tang and Song dynasties.CONFUCIUS孔子
  48. 48.  An anthology of brief passages thatpresent the words of Confucius and hisdisciples. Describe Confucius as a man, and recountsome of the events of his life. The Analects includes twenty books, eachgenerally featuring a series of chaptersthat encompass quotes from Confucius,which were compiled by his disciples afterhis death.THE ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS孔子的“論語”
  49. 49.  "The Master said, At fifteen I set my heartupon learning. At thirty, I had planted myfeet firm upon the ground. At forty, I nolonger suffered from complexities. At fifty, Iknew what were the biddings of Heaven. Atsixty, I heard them with docile ear. Atseventy, I could follow the dictates of myown heart; for what I desired no longeroverstepped the boundaries of right."Book II, Ch.4, p. 88THE ANALECTS“論語”
  50. 50.  "The Master said, From the very poorestupwards - beginning even with the man whocould bring no better present than a bundleof dried flesh - none has ever come to mewithout receiving instruction."Book VII, Ch. 7, p. 124THE ANALECTS“論語”
  51. 51.  "The Master said, A horn-gourd that isneither horn nor gourd! A pretty horn-gourdindeed, a pretty horn-gourd indeed."Book VI, Ch.23, p. 120THE ANALECTS“論語”
  52. 52.  Po Chu-i was a gentleman poet andgovernment official during the goldenage of the Tang dynasty in China. Po Chu-i eventually retired to amonastery when he was in his 50s.One of his legs was paralyzed at theend of his life. His poetry often has the easy, retiringquality of Chan poetry of the time.PO CHU-I白居易
  53. 53.  Lao Tzu ("old man" or "old sage") was the ancientauthor of Tao Te Ching, the most widely translatedChinese work of all time and the classic book ofthe religion or philosophy known as Taoism. A general history of China from the first centuryB.C. describes Lao Tzu as an older contemporaryand teacher of Confucius (551-479 B.C.). It says he wrote the two-volume Tao Te Ching atthe request of the keeper of a "pass" while on awestward journey. Lao Tzu takes a more mystical approach to tuninginto the natural order of things as a way ofachieving personal and social harmony.LAO TZU老子
  54. 54.  Tao Chien (365-427) was one of Chinasforemost poets in the five-word shih style,and his influence on subsequent poetswas very great. Also known as Tao Yüan-ming One of Taos best-known poems is adebate among "Substance, Shadow, andSpirit, " who speak respectively forhedonism, Confucian fame, and a kind ofTaoist stoicism which accepts life in itstotalityTAO CHIEN錢陶鑄
  55. 55.  Tu Fu was a great Chinese poet of the Tangdynasty, a family that ruled China from 618 to907. He is known as a poet-historian for hisportrayal of the social and political disordersof his time and is also noted for his artistryand craftsmanship. His poetry he introduces an intense, dramatic,and touching personalism through the use ofsymbols and images, irony and contrast.TU FU國節
  56. 56. IvoryChopsticks
  57. 57. ordered chopsticksmade of ivoryWhen King Chow
  58. 58. Chi Tzuwas mostperturbedFor hefearedthat once the kinghad ivorychopsticks
  59. 59. but would want cupsof rhinocerosand jadehornHE WOULD NOT BE CONTENT WITH EARTHENWARE,
  60. 60. and instead ofbeansand vegetableshe would insist on suchdelicacies as elephantstailand babyleopard
  61. 61. He would hardly be willingeither to wear roughhomespunor live under a thatched roofbut would demand silks and splendid mansions.
  62. 62. It is fearof what thiswill lead to" said Chi Tzu
  63. 63. that upsets meFive years later, indeedKing chow
  64. 64. had agarden filled with meattortured his subjects with hot irons
  65. 65. and caroused in alake of wine.And so he lost his kingdom.
  66. 66. REPORTERSMark BahianFranzelle Mae G. LignesKevin Malinda
  67. 67. The End