Mohammed and the rise of the kingdoms of islam. rhodes

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Revised version of a historical and theological accunt of the biography of Mohammed and the spread of Islam from the 6th to the 14th century C.E.

Revised version of a historical and theological accunt of the biography of Mohammed and the spread of Islam from the 6th to the 14th century C.E.

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  • 1. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam
  • 2. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The A Historical Study by Joseph David Rhodes, M.A., M. Divinity World History Class Bethany Christian School (High School Department) Plano, Texas November, 2007 A.D
  • 3. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • 1. The World of Mohammed
      • The cradle of Islam – the desert and arid steppes of Arabia.
      • About Arabia – it is a large peninsula which lies between the continents of Africa and Asia, bounded in the east by the Persian Gulf and in the west by
      • the Red Sea.
      • The total land area is about one-third that of the United States.
      • It is a very hot and extremely dry land, mostly an arid wilderness of blazing deserts of sand and stony plains. There is little green vegetation and trees are
      • excessively rare, except in irrigated areas and oases.
      • There is rarely any significant rainfall and frequent hot desert winds and
      • dust storms ( a few places such as the Sahara in North Africa, the Gobi in
      • central Asia, or the Mohave in southwest America are worse ).
  • 4. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • 2. The Man Mohammed : A Brief Biography
      • About five years after the death of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian ( ca. 565 A.D .), Muhammed ibn Abd ’ Allah محمد was born, the son of Abd ’ Allah and Minah, of the Banu Hashim branch of the house of Abd Manaf. His family was quite poor.
      • According to Islamic legends, miraculous signs accompanied his nativity : These say that he was born clean, already circumcised, with and his navel cord cut. Again, he supposedly fell to the ground, took a handful of dust, gazed into heaven, proclaiming, “ God is Great” ! 1
    • 1 Cf. Norman L. Geisler and Abdul Saleeb, Answering Islam ( Grand Rapids, Michigan : Baker Books, 1993 ), pp. 68-69, cited in Serge Trifkovic, The Sword of the Prophet : Islam: History, Theology, Impact on the World ( Boston, MA. : Regina Orthodox Press, 2002 ) , p. 25. The phrase in Arabic is “ Allah Akbar .”
  • 5. Mohammed & The Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Mohammed’s biographical dates are 570 to 632 A.D.
    • What is more significant, is that he would later claim to be the last and greatest
    • prophet of the one true God, whose proper name is Allah. (More on that later).
    • Significantly also, Mohammed traced his lineage in the Qurayash tribe back to the
    • son on of Malik ibn an-Nadr (Qais), the son of Kinana, son of Khuzaimah, son of
    • Mudrikah ( Amir ), son of Ilyas, son of Mudar, son of Nizar, son of Ma'ad ibn
    • Adnan, whom the northern Arabs believe to be their common ancestor . Adnan in turn
    • is said to have been a descendant of Ishmael , son of Abraham ( Cf. Genesis 17-22) 2
    • 2 Cf. “ Muhammed” in the Wikipedia article at D:World HistoryMuhammad – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.mht . Cf. also the account of the ninth century biographer, Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammed , translated & edited by A. Guuillaume (London: Oxford University Press, 1955), pp. 287-288. See further Ar- Raheeq Al- Makhtum: The Lineage and Family of Muhammed by Saifur Rahman al- Mubarakpuri.
  • 6. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Yet, according to some historical scholars ( e.g., Montgomery Watt ) , although Mohammed was born into a pagan culture, there were some proto-monotheistic tendencies and traditions already present, i.e., Judaism and heretical Christian cultures which had affected the North Arabian civilization. Three important facts of the pre-Islamic Arabic society are known:
      • Some individuals known as hunafa had already given up rank paganism and
        • polytheism without having converted formally to Judaism or Christianity.
      • Mohammed later claimed that the Biblical patriarch Abraham was himself
        • a hanif , because he was neither a Jew nor a Christian (!).
      • Because of the important trade routes through northern Arabia, particularly
        • Mecca, which was at the center of the spice and silk trade coming from distant
        • China to the Middle East and the Levant ( Palestine and Syria ), Mohammed’s
      • home city and cultural enviroment had been affected by many streams of Judaism and Christianity coming from Egypt, Israel, Syria, and even the
      • Byzantine world.
  • 7. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 8. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam
    • The Geneaology of Mohammed
    • According to Islamic Tradition :
    • Hagar ------------ Abraham ------------ Sarah
    • ------------ -------------
    • Ishmael Isaac
      • Jacob
    • __________________ __________________
    • 12 Arabian Tribes 12 Tribes of Israel Esau
  • 9. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The 2. The Man Mohammed : A Brief Biography
    • Born into the powerful Quraysh tribe in Mecca 570 A.D.
    • Tradition has it that he was born clean, circumcised, with his
    • navel cord cut. ( His mother died when he was six).
    • First raised by grandfather, who died when he was nine.
    • Later, raised and employed as camel driver by his powerful uncle, Abu Taleb. He suffered some economic and personal
      • set-backs because of his display of cowardice in a battle between
      • Mecca and some Ethiopian warriors.
    • Married a wealthy widow Khadija 15 years his senior.
    • In 610 A.D. (at 40) Muhammad receives his calling from the angel Gabriel.
  • 10. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • The Man Mohammed : A Brief Biography
      • After marrying widow Khadija, Mohammed lived a life of material comfort
      • even though hispast actions and detached character alienated him from most of
      • the people of Mecca, especially the tribal leaders.
      • Some suggest that Mohammed was a comtemplative mystic; others that
      • he withdrew from normal society in a negative pyscho-pathic fashion.
      • In any case, in his late twenties and thirties, Mohammed was a solitary wanderer in the bleak hills around Mecca, given to ponderous meditation,
      • and sitting in an almost catalytic state in the caves of Mt. Hira, especially
      • during the holy month of Ramadan. 3
    • 3 Serge Trifkovic, The Sword of the Prophet , p. 27. See further the account of Muhammed’s early life in the 11th Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica ( London, U.K. : Britannica Publishers, 1911 ), cited by http://www.1911encyclopedia.org.Mahomet.
  • 11. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • More Milestones In Mohammed the Prophet’s Life
    • 610 A.D. (at 40) Muhammad allegedly receives his calling from the angel Gabriel.
    • Devout Muslims refer to this event as “ the Night of Destiny” which marked the
    • beginning of Mohammed’s career as the messenger of God – rasul Allah.
    • These messages were collected from 610 until Mohammed’s death in 632. Later,
    • many various scribes and shieks collected several versions of these and they were
    • first published as the whole Qu’ran ca. 650 A.D. Some scholars suggest the official
    • standard version of the Koran was not published until at least 685 or 700 A.D.
    • At first, Mohammed was quite reluctant to accept and proclaim his revelations he
    • received from “ Gabriel,” even thinking they were an illness or demonic deceptions .
  • 12. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • More Milestones In Mohammed the Prophet’s Life
      • According to Islamic legend the teenage Mohammed had been supposedly first identified as a true prophet by a heteredox Syrian monk named Buhaira.
      • Later, his wife Khadija gave him her full assurance and support in his special mission from Allah. Thereafter, a few other disciples ( including Abu Taleb’s son – his cousin and Abu Baker ) confirmed Mohammed’s prophetic gift.
      • With the help of Khadijah’s cousin Waraqah b. Naufal, a hanif ( a literate Arabian who himself later became a Christian ), Mohammed came to interpret his night messages as Divine revelations similar to those sent by God through Moses and the other prophets to the Jews and Christians.
      • Thus, Mohammed became convinced of his commission to communicate the message of “ the true God and his prophet” to his fellow tribesmen and Arabs.
  • 13. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Mohammed’s Preaching Before the Hegira.
      • Mohammed turned from private disclosure of his messages to public proclamation of Allah and Islam in ca. A.D. 613.
      • His original followers were his wife, his slave and adopted son, Zaid, his cousin Ali, and Abu Baker. For a few years he had only 39 disciples.
      • When the first group or congregation of Mohammed’s converts had reached 70, the opposition of the citizens of Mecca was strong and there was some bitter resistance and even mild persecution of the disciples of Mohammed.
      • In 616 A.D., a group of Meccan opponents led by Abu Jahl, zealously confronted Mohammed and his followers. They also orchestrated a boycott of the Hashim clan by the other tribal clans because its elders had failed to
      • restrain what they saw as Mohammed’s blasphemy and anarchical ideas.
  • 14. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Mohammed’s Preaching Before the Hegira.
    • A.D. 619 : Mohammed’s alleged journey to “Heaven” via Jerusalem ( and
    • the Temple ) on a winged horse ( mule ) with the help of the angel Gabriel. He supposedly prayed two rakkahs there at the Furtherest Mosque ( Arabic: Masjid al-Asqa ). ( See Sura 17:1 ).
    • This then troubled some of his followers, however, who realized that the Second Temple had been destroyed by the Roman armies under Titus in 70
    • A.D. The present day “ Dome of the Rock” , Masjid Qubbat As-Sakhrah , was built between 687 and 691 by the 9th Caliph, Sultan Abd-al-Malik.
    • Fascinatingly, in his early Meccan revelationsMohammed firmly stated : “. . . Do not argue with the People of the Book, but say, We believe in the Revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you.”
    • ( This is found in Sura 29 : 46 ).
  • 15. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • 4 . Mohammed’s Preaching Before the Hegira.
      • The Quraysh tribe took a dim view of Mohammed’s proselytizations of out-siders, which further alienated his kinsmen in Mecca, who came to view him
      • as a renegade and rebel against authority.
      • Mohammed also lost his protective uncle Abu Taleb in A.D. 619 and his faithful wife, Khadija a few months later ( 620 A.D. ).
      • Early in 620, Mohammed unsuccessfully attempted to establish a new base of Islam in the town of al-Taif. But, then having the promise of patronage and protection from the head of another clan returned to Mecca a despised, undesired outcast.
      • In the summer of 621, Mohammed had his first major change of fortune when about a dozen pilgrims from Yathrib declared themselves to the Prophet
      • as Muslims, promising to propagate the new message to Arabia.
  • 16. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Hijra ( هِجْرَة ) Not many more in Mecca were willing to listen to the teachings Muhammed was preaching and their opposition and persecution kept growing. After receiving invitation from the people of Yatrib for him and his followers, they decided to emigrate from Mecca. He and his followers emigrated to the city of Yathrib , 320 km north of Mecca, in September 622. Yathrib was soon renamed Madinat un-Nabi, the City of the Prophet, Medina in English. The Muslim year during which the Hijra occurred was des-signated the first year of the Lslamic calender by Umar in 638 , 17 AH ( anno hegirae = "in the year of the hijra" ) . In the following chronology the city will be referred to as Medina, and the region surrounding it as Yathrib.
  • 17. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Significant Timeline Facts Observed (1) :
      • Muhammad was deathly afraid of the source of his revelation.
      • At first he thought it came from a jinn, or even a demon.
      • Khadija convinced him it was from God. He made other disciples.
      • After a three year period of silence, the messages began to come again ( 613 A.D. and afterward for twenty years ) .
      • Hijra ( the flight ) occurs in September, 622 A.D.
  • 18. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam
    • Significant Timeline Facts Observed :( 2 )
    • Over a year and a half, Mohammed and his seventy muhajirum had
    • established the Prophet as the de facto absolute ruler of Medina.
    • Spurred on by the itch for financial prosperity and the vindication
    • of the revelation of Allah, Mohammed approved several armed
    • raids ( “ghazawait” ) against Mecca merchant caravans.
    • Over the next eight years there were three failed raids and several
    • successful military battles of the followers of Islam against
    • other Arabian tribes and cities.
    • In early 624 A.D., Muslim warriors, on the basis of sealed orders
    • from the Prophet, had a successful raid at Nakhlah against a
    • caravan from Yemen.
  • 19. Mohammed & The
    • Significant Timeline Facts Observed :( 3 )
    • E.g., Battle of Badr, 624 A.D., The Muslims defeat Meccans.
    • Battle of Uhud, 625 A.D. The Meccans defeat the Muslims temporarily.
    • In Medina, Muhammad managed to unite the conflicting tribes, and after eight
      • years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to
      • ten thousand, conquered Mecca. Muhammed is both victorious and swift in seeking
      • full venegance on those who had insulted and opposed him.
    • During this time Mohammed formulates both his justification for violent jihad
    • and the rationale dividing the plundered booty of the conquests of his followers
    • ( including the fifth part for Allah and his messenger ! ) ( Suras : 2.217; 8:12; 8:41;
    • 48:20-21; 69:30-37; and cf. Hadith: Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 4, Book 52, 46. )
    Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam
  • 20. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Origins of the Qur’an
    • Muhammad often retreated to Mount Hira near Mecca. Islamic tradition holds that the angel Gabriel began communicating with him here in the year 610 and commanded Muhammad to recite the following verses :
      • Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,- He Who taught (the use of) the pen,- Taught man that which he knew not. ( Surah 96:1-5) 4
    • 4 Cf. Article on “Muhammed,” Wikipedia, http://wikipedia .org/wiki/Muhammad .
  • 21. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Qur’ān ( Arabic : القرآن al-qur'ā n ) , literally "the recitation"; is also sometimes transliterated as Quran , Koran , or Al-Qur'an ). It is the central religious text of Islam . The Muslims believe the Qur'an to be the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind and consider the text in its original Arabic to be the real word of Allah revealed to Muhammed by Gabriel over a period of 23 years and view the Qur'an as God's final revelation to humanity.
  • 22. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Muslims regard the Qur'ān as the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with those revealed to Adam— regarded, in Islam, as the first prophet — and including the Suhuf-i-Ibrahim ( Scrolls of Abraham ) , the Tawrat ( Torah ) , the Zabur ( Psalms ) , and the Injil ( Gospel ) . The aforementioned books are recognized in the Qur'ān, and the Qur'anic text assumes familiarity with many events from the Jewish and Christian scriptures, retelling some of these events in distinctive ways, and referring obliquely to others. It rarely offers detailed accounts of historical events; the Qur'an's emphasis is typically on the moral significance of an event, rather than its narrative sequence. Details to historical events are contained within the Hadith of Muhammad and the narrations of Muhammad's Companions ( Sahabah ). 5 5 E xegesis of Bible and Qur'an , H. Krausen. http : //www.geocities.com/athens/thebes/ 8206/hkrausen/exegesis.htm.
  • 23. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Qur'anic verses were originally memorized by Muhammad's companions as Muhammad recited them, with some being written down by one or more companions on whatever was at hand, from stones to pieces of bark. In the Sunni tradition, the col- lection of the Qur'ān compilation took place under the Caliph Abu Baker , this task being led by Zayd ibn Thabit Al-Ansari. "The manuscript on which the Quran was collected, remained with Abu Baker till Allah took him unto Him, and then with ‘Umar till Allah took him unto Him, and finally it remained with Hafsa bint Umar ( Caliph Umar's daughter ) .” 6 An original copy of the Uthman’s standard version of the Qur’an from his time is on display at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul. 7 6 However, the Qur’ an in a single manuscript form was only made during the reign of the Caliph Uthman who ordered the production of several copies. Cf. Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 6, Book 60, Number 201. 7 Article on the “ Qur’an” in the internet Wikipedia, http :// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qur%27an.
  • 24. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam 9th century Qur’an ( Left Top ). 11th Century North African Qur'an in the British Museum ( Above )
  • 25. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Quran has many other names. Among those found in the text itself are al-Furqan ( "discern-ment" ), Umm al-Kitab ( the "mother book", or "archetypal book" ) , al-huda ( "the guide" ) , Dhik-rallah ( "the remembrance of God" ) , al-Hikmah ( "wisdom' ) , and Kalamallah ( "the word of God" ) . Another term found in the Qur'an is al-Kitab ( "the book" ) , though it is also used in both the Qur'an and the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels . The term mushaf "written work" ) is usually used to refer to particular manu-scripts of the Qur'an but is also used in the Qur'an to identify earlier revealed books.
  • 26. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam
    • The Qur'an consists of 114 chapters of varying lengths, each known as a sura . The title of each sura is derived from a name or quality discussed in the text or from the first letters or words of the sura. Muslims believe that the Prophet himself, on God's command, gave the suras their names.
    • In general, the longer chapters appear earlier in the Quran, while the shorter ones appear later. As such, the arrangement is not connected to the sequence of revelation.
    • Each chapter, with the exception of one, com-mences with the Basmalla bismillah Al rahman Al rahimm.
  • 27. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Each Sura is formed from several Ayahs or verses which originally means a sign or portent sent by God. The number of the ayahs aren't the same in various Suras. An individual ayah may be just few letters or several lines. The ayahs are unlike the highly refined poetry of the pre-Islamic Arabs in their content and distinctive rhymes and rhythms, being more akin to the prophetic utterances marked by inspired discontinuities found in the sacred scriptures of Judaism and Christianity . Since the beginning of Islam, the proper number of ayahs has been a controversial issue among Muslim scholars, some recognizing 6,000, some 6,204, some 6,219, and some 6,236, although the words in all cases are the same. The most popular edition of the Qur'an, which is based on the tradition of the school of Kufa , contains 6,236 ayahs. 7b 7b Article on the “ Qur’an” in the internet Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Qur% 27an.
  • 28. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Mohammed Died in 632 .
    • “ Muhammad, it will be recalled,
    • was not only a prophet and a
    • teacher, like the founders of other
    • religions; he was also the head of a
    • polity and of a community, a ruler
    • and a soldier.” 8
    8 Professor Bernard Lewis ( Princeton University ) , “The Roots of Muslim Rage,” Atlantic Monthly , September 1990.
  • 29. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • الإسلام ; al-`Islam is the religion based on the teachings or revelations of Mohammed in the Qur’an.
    • The word Islam itself means submission,” or the total surrender of oneself to Allah ( to الله , ).
    • A Muslim is someone who does willingly submit to the will of Allah and receives the
    • Prophet Mohammed as his last and best messenger.
    • It is estimated that today, there are between 1.4 and 1.8 Billion Muslims in the world.
  • 30. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Islam & Previous Divine Revelations
    • Muslims believe that God revealed the Qur’an to Muhammad, God's final prophet ,
    • and regard the Qur'an and the Sunnah (words and deeds of Muhammad) as the
    • fundamental sources of Islam.
    • They do not regard Muhammad as the founder of a new religion, but as the restorer
    • of the original monotheistic faith of Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets.
    • Islamic tradition holds that Judaism and Christianity distorted the messages of these
    • prophets over time either in interpretation, in text, or both.
  • 31. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Islam – Beliefs
    • ( Theology )
      • Monotheism
      • Shirk (Idolatry)
      • Angels and Jinn
      • Satan
  • 32. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Anthropology
      • Adam was the first man, created in heaven and removed after he
      • sinned.
      • Mankind was created innocent, but chose to sin.
      • Mankind is misled but not fallen.
      • We are intrinsically weak, frail, and imperfect.
      • We are forgetful of God.
  • 33. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Sin “ ...Islam teaches that people are born innocent and remain so until each makes him or herself guilty by a guilty deed. Islam does not believe in ‘original sin’; and its scripture interprets Adam’s disobedience as his own personal misdeed-a misdeed for which he repented and which God forgave.” Faruqi
  • 34. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Revelation
    • Every people have had a prophet ( 124,000 ) and a book.
    • Prophets are sinless ( almost ).
    • The Qur’an is “Mother of the Book” ( 43:4, 13:39 ).
    • The Qur’an (Koran) is perfect and inviolable.
    • Hadith – Contains the historical narratives of the prophet
    • and his examples and judgments.
  • 35. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • A More Critical & Historical View of the Qur’ an
      • Dependence on the Jewish Talmud, Jewish apocrypha, Christian
      • apocrypha, and Zoroastrian doctrines.
      • Borrows important practices from pre-Islamic and pagan Arabia
      • such as those surrounding the visits to the hills of Safa and the
      • Marwas in the hajj ceremony, and also the throwing of stones
      • against a stone pillar symbolizing Satan
  • 36. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Qur’an ( Koran ) Angel Gabriel Muhammad Companions Zayd ibn Thabit Uthman
  • 37. Mohammed & The Kingdoms of Islam .
    • A More Critical & Historical View of the Qur’ an
      • The Qur’an is slightly shorter than the NT. Divided into 114 chapters or suras. 86 chapters came to Muhammad during the Meccan period and 28 at Medina.
      • They are not in chronological order.
      • We do not have the original Uthmanic Codex . The oldest test of the Qur’an still extant dates from the second century after the Hijrah and is compiled on vellum in the early al-mail Arabic script. Sir Norman Anderson states, “So, although it is true that today the Kufan text of Hafs is accepted almost everywhere in the Muslim world, the claim commonly made by Muslims that they have the ipsis- sima verba of what Muhammad actually said, without any variant readings, rests upon an ignorance of the facts of history.” 9
    • 9 Norman L. Geisler and Abdul Saleeb, Answering Islam , p. 303 . See the details of the early Wikipedia articles on Islam, the Qur’an, and Mohammed.
  • 38. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • A year after Muhammad’s death a number of those who had memorized the Qur’an
    • lost their lives in battle (battle of Yamamah, 633 A.D.). Zayd writes, “during the
    • lifetime of the prophet the Qur’an had all been written down, but it was not united in
    • one place nor arranged in successive order.” 10
    A More Critical & Historical View of the Qur’ an
    • Umar (second caliph) told Abu Bakr to order that the Qur’an be collected. This was
    • recorded by Al Bukhari (d. 870), one of the most trusted traditionalists in Islam.
    • A crisis occurred later when different groups of Muslims were using different versions
    • of the Qur’an.Uthman, the third caliph, ordered Zayd to create a revised version in the
    • dialect of the Quraish and have them sent to the major centers of Islam. Old copies
    • were collected and burned.
    10 Norman L. Geisler and Abdul Saleeb, Answering Islam , p. 90.
  • 39. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The اركان الدين The Five Pillars of Islam ( Salvation )
    • The Shahadah * لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله
    • Šahādah) is the basic creed or tenet of Islam : " 'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa
    • 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh ", or "I testify that there is no god ( ilah ) but
    • Allah , and I testify that Muhammed is the messenger of Allah". As the most im-
    • portant pillar, this testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in
    • Islam.
    • This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam (although technically the Shi'a do not consider the shahadah to be a separate pillar, just a belief). Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required recite the creed
  • 40. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • اركان الدين The Five Pillars of Islam ( Salvation )
    • Pillar Two : صلوة
            • Salah , or ritual prayer, which must be performed five
            • times a day.
            • Each salah is performed facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca.
      • Salah is intended to focus the mind on Allah; it is seen as a personal communication with Allah, expressing gratitude an worship. According to the Qur'an, the benefit of prayer “re-
            • strains one from shameful and evil deeds". Qu r’an 29:40 ) .
  • 41. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
      • اركان الدين The Five Pillars of Islam ( Salvation )
    Pillar Three : Zakāt زكوة ; Zakah , or alms-giving , is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all who are able to do so. It is considered to be a personal responsibility for Muslims to ease economic hardship for others and eliminate inequality. Zakah consists of spending a fixed portion of one's wealth for the benefit of the poor or needy, including slaves, debtors and travellers. A muslim may also donate more as an act of voluntary charity ( sadaqah ) , in order to achieve additional divine reward.
  • 42. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
      • اركان الدين The Five Pillars of Islam ( Salvation )
    Sawn, or fasting during the month of Ramadan : Muslims must not eat or drink (among other things) from dawn to dusk during this month, and must be mindful of other sins. The fast is to encourage a feeling of near-ness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly. Pillar Four : صوم
  • 43. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Hajj , which is the pilgrimage during the Islamic month of Dhu-al-Hajj in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. When the pilgrim is about ten kilometers from Mecca, he must dress in Ihram clothing , which consists of two white seamless sheets. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba , touching the Black Stone , running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah , and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina . The pilgrim, or the hajji , is honored in his or her community, although Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God instead of a means to gain social standing.
      • اركان الدين The Five Pillars of Islam (Salvation)
    Pillar Five : The Hajj حج
  • 44. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • The Islamic Rituals of the Hajj (pilgrimage) include walking seven times around the Kaaba in Mecca.
  • 45. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Pilgrimage to Mecca Fasting during Ramadan Almsgiving or welfare contribution Prayer towards Mecca five times daily Declaration of faith in Allah Hajj Sawm Zakzt Salat Shahada
  • 46. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 47. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 48. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 49. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 50. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 51. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 52. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 53. Mohammed & The Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • The Sword of Islam
    • After Muhammad’s death in AD 632, Muslim armies swept east
    • through the Fertile Crescent and west through Northern Africa.
    • They would have taken all of Europe if the Muslim armies had not been
    • repelled by Charles Martel in Tours, France in AD 732.
    • Muslim armies were eventually defeated again in Europe at the gates of
    • Vienna on September 11, 1683.
  • 54. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Islam as a Way of Life
    • The Islamic system of law, called Sharia, regulated moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community.
    • Unlike the law codes that evolved in the West, the Sharia does not separate religious matters from criminal or civil law.
  • 55. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
      • The Rightly-Guided Khalifs
      • ( Al-Rashidun )
      • Abu Baker ( 632- 634 A.D. / C.E. )
      • ` Umar ( 634-644 A.D./C.E. )
      • ` Uthman ( 644-656 A.D./ C.E .)
      • ` Ali ( 656-661 A.D./C.E .)
  • 56. Mohammed & The Kingdoms of Islam
    • Mohammed & The
      • The Rightly-Guided Khalifs
    • When a heated dispute flaired up over
    • who should wear the mantle of leadership
    • of the late Prophet, Umar ibn al-Kahatib,
    • a close friend of Mohammed, nominated
    • one of the Prophet’s original collaborators,
    • Abu Baker .
    • The new leader’s first task was to renew
    • the struggle between the kingdoms of
    • Islam and the Byzantine forces, reckoned
    • as “infidels.”
  • 57. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • The Generals of Early Islam :
    • Khalid ibn al-Walid ‘ Amr ibn al—‘As
    • Advantages of Muslim Armies :
    • 1. Thorougoing Desperation and Fanaticism.
    • 2. Devious and Bizarre Tactics.
    • 3. Some Billiant and Zealous Generals.
    • 4. Arabs’ Superior Military Horsemanship.
    • 5. Disease and internal strife in Byzantium in the late 6th
    • century.
  • 58. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Other Battles & Conquests
    • The Conquest of Roman Syria & Palestine. ( 634 – 640 C.E. ) .
    • The Overrrun of Roman Egypt ( 639-642 C.E. ).
    • The Battle of Al-Qadisiyah and the Defeat of the Sassanid
    • Persian Empire ( 637-638 C.E. ) .
    • The Battle of Nihawand & The Second Final Conquest of the
    • Persians ( 642 ).
    • The Conquest of Armenia ( 642 C.E. ) .
    • The Conquest of Transoxiana and Chinese Turkestan ( 648 C.E. ).
  • 59. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Umayyads and the Abbassids These powerful caliphates ruled the Islamic world, expanded the Arab empire, and brought about a golden age in Muslim civilization UMAYYADS ABBASSIDS
    • Set up dynasty that ruled until 750 A.D.
    • Conquered lands from Atlantic to the
    • Indus Valley.
    • Relied on local officials to govern the
    • empire.
    • Faced economic tensions between wealthy
    • and poor Arabs.
    Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Overthrew the Umayyads in 750 A.D. Ended Arab dominance and helped make Islam a universal religion Empire of the caliphs reached its greatest wealth and power Muslim civilization enjoyed a golden age
  • 60. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
      • Timeline : Islam to 1000 C.E.
  • 61. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Ummayad Rulers :
    • Umayyad Caliphs at Damascus (I)
    • Muawiyah I ibn Abi Sufyan, 661–680
    • Yazid I ibn Muawiyah, 680–683
    • Muawiyah II ibn Yazid, 683–684
    • Marwan I ibn al- Ḥ akam, 684–685
    • Abd al –Malik ibn Marwan, 685–705
    • al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik, 705–715
    • Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik, 715–717
    • Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, 717–720
  • 62. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Entry to the prayer hall of the Great Mosque of Damascus , built by caliph Al- Walid I .
  • 63. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Ummayad Rulers : Umayyad Caliphs at Damascus (II)
    • Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik, 720–724
    • Hisham ibn Abn al-Malik , 724–743
    • Al-Walid II ibn Yazid II, 743–744
    • Yazid III ibn al-Walid, 744
    • Ibrahim ibn al-Walid, 744
    • Marwan II ibn Muhammad (ruled from Harran in the Jazira)
    • 744–750 ( C.E. )
  • 64. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Events and Conditions :
    • Infighting among prominent Muslim families in Medina.
    • Some Umayyads rebel ; name alternative Caliph - Mu'awiyya
    • Sunni/ Shi’a Split – Ali’ (at Kufa in Iraq) and the Ten Imans
    • The Sects of the Shi’a and the Qat'iyya
    • Civil War between the Shi’a and the Khawarijites
    • The Umayyad Dynasty marred with degenercy and cruelty
    • A New Secular Method for Electing Caliphs from Tribal chiefs
    • The Second Umayyad Civil Wars : 680-694 A.D.
    • Conqest of Byzantine Egypt and Visigothic Spain
    • Al-Walid’s Armies Conquer East as far as the Indus River
    • Al-Walid Pushes for the Full Arabization of Islamic Culture
    • Muslim Armies defeated at Tours in 732 A.D. by the Franks
    • ‘ Abbasids Defeat and Murder Marwan II and end the Dynasty.
  • 65. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Muslim (green area) Domination of the Mediterranean World in 800 AD. M
  • 66. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Abbasid Dynasties - "Islamic Golden Age" The 'Abbasid caliphate ( 758-1258 ) was founded on two disaffected Islamic populations: non-Arabic Muslims and Shi'ites . For the most part, the Islamic impetus to the Abbasid revolution lay in the secularism of the Umayyad caliphs. The Umayyads had always been outsiders—as a wealthy clan in Mecca, they had opposed Muhammad—and the secularism and sometime degeneracy that accompanied their caliphate delegitimized their rule for many devout Muslims. 1 1 11 Professor Richard Hooker (Washington State U.) in Islam , Unit of World Civilzations Class/wbsite at h ttp:/ /www.wsu.edu/ ~dee/WORLD.HTM
  • 67. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • Abu'l-'Abbass assumed the caliphate from 750-754 AD / 132-136 AH.
    The Abbasid Dynasties - "Islamic Golden Age"
    • This dynasty was unique because of the heavy reliance on client Muslims, or the
    • mawali . The mawali were foreigners who had converted to Islam. ( Some Islamic
    • historians argue that there was a decisive shift from Arabic to Persian or Iranian
    • culture as a result. )
    • By shifting the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, the 'Abassids brought about
    • a dynamic fusion of Persian and Semitic culture.
    • In 756, the Umayyads established a rival empire in Spain, though they did not
    • set up a rival caliphate until 929. They were aided in their seizing of power by
    • Khawarijite North Africans and, in particular, Berbers, who had been instru-
    • mental in the conquest of Spain earlier. ( Establishment of the Moorish culture ) .
  • 68. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Abbasid Dynasties - "Islamic Golden Age"
      • The Early Years: Diverse Populations and Uneasy Rule
    • Rival Islamic states were set up by Berber Kharwarijites in North Africa in
    • 801.
    • The Shi'ites were a particular thorn in 'Abbasid’s rule . Although this group
    • had aided in setting up Abbasid rule, their rhetoric and political actions were
    • a thorny problem for Abbasid rulers because of their radical divisiveness.
    • An uprising in Mecca in 786 led to a massacre of Shi'ite 'Alids — the
    • survivors, however, fled to the western region of Africa, or the Maghreb , and
    • there was established a new and independent kingdom, the Idrisid kingdom .
  • 69. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 70. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Abbasid coins during Al-Mu'tamid's reign ( Left Top ) Julius Köckert's painting of Harun al-Rashid receiving the delegation of Charlemagne demonstrates diplomatic contacts between their respective domains.
  • 71. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Abbasid Caliphs in Baghdad
    • Abu'l Abbas As-Saffah 750-754
    • Al- Mansur 754 – 775 Al-Mu’tazz 866 - 869
    • Al-Madhi 775 - 775 Al-Muhtadi 869 - 870
    • Al- Hadi 785 – 786 Al-Mu’tamid 870 - 892
    • Harun al-Rashid 786 - 809 Al-Mu’tadid 892 - 902
    • Al-Amin 809 - 813 Al-Muktafi 902 - 908
    • Al- Ma’mun 813 - 833 Al-Muqtadir 908 - 932
    • Al-Mu’tasim 833 – 842 Al-Qahir 932 - 934
    • Al -Wathig 842 - 847 Ar-Radi 934 - 940
    • Al-Mutawakki 847 - 861
    • Al-Muntasir 861 - 862
    • Al-Musta’in 862 – 866
  • 72. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Abbasid Caliphs in Baghdad
    • Al-Muttaqui 940 - 944 Al-Mustanjid 1160 - 1170
    • Al-Mustakfi 944 - 946 Al-Mustadi 1170 - 1180
    • Al-Muti 946 - 974 Al- Nasir 1180 - 1225
    • At-Ta’I 974 - 991 Al-Zahir 1225 - 1226
    • Al-Qadir 991 - 1031 Al- Mustansir 1226 - 1242
    • Al-Qa’im 1031 - 1075 Al- Musta’ sim 1242 - 1258
    • Al-Muqtadi 1075 - 1094
    • Al- Mustazhir 1094 - 1118
    • Al-Mustarshid 1118 - 1135
    • Al-Rashid 1135 - 1136
    • Al-Muqtafi 1136 - 1160 العبّاسيّون , al-‘Abbāsīyūn
    • An-Nasir 1180 - 1225
  • 73. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Abbasid Caliphs in Cairo
    • Al-Mustansir 1261 – 1262 Al-Mutawakkil I (restored) 1389 - 1406
    • Al-Hakim I ( Cairo ) 1262 - 1302 Al- Musta’im 1406 - 1414
    • Al- Mustakfi I of Cairo 1303 - 1341 Al- Mu’tadid II 1414 - 1441
    • Al- Wathiq I 1340 - 1341 Al- Mustakfi II 1441 - 1451
    • Al- Hakim II 1341 - 1352 Al-Qa’im 1451 - 1455
    • Al- Mu’tadid I 1352 - 1382 Al- Mustanjid 1455 - 1479
    • Al- Mutawakkil I 1362 - 1383 Al- Mutawakkil II 1479 - 1497
    • Al -Wathig II 1383 – 1386
    • Al –Mu’tasin 1386 - 1389
  • 74. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Why The Abbasid Caliphate Declined It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks . Within 150 years of gaining power across Iran , they were forced to cede power to local dynastic amirs who only nominally acknowledged their power, and had to cede Al Andalus to an escaped Umayyad royal and the Maghreb and Ifriqiya to independent entities such as the Aghlabids and the Fatamids . Their rule was ended in 1258, when Hulagu Khan , the Mongol conqueror, sacked Bagdad . While they continued to claim authority in religious matters from their base in Egypt , the dynasty's secular authority had ended. Descendants of the Abbasids include the al-Abbasi tribe who live northeast of Tikrit in modern-day Iraq .
  • 75. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
  • 76. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Rift with the Shia The Abbasids also found themselves at odds with the Shi’as , many of whom had supported their war against the Umayyads , since the Abbasids claimed legitimacy by their familial connection to Muhammed. Once in power, the Abbasids embraced Sunni Islam and disavowed any support for Shi'a beliefs. That led to numerous conflicts, culminating in an up-rising in Mecca in 786 , followed by widespread bloodshed and the flight of many Shi'a to the Maghreb , where the survivors established the Idrisid kingdom . Shortly thereafter, Berber Kharijites set up an independent state in North Africa in 801 .
  • 77. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The The Shî'a , or "Faction" of 'Alî held that he was the proper Successor to the Prophet and that only his descendants qualified for the office. Soon, he and his successors were also believed to have a unique divinely inspired understanding of the meaning of the Qur'ân. Thus, the Shî'ite office of Imâm became a source of doctrinal authority such as was missing from Orthodox Islâm, which relied on tradition and consensus to establish Islâmic law and doctrine . Ali was the cousin, son-in-law and one of the Ahl-al-Bayt of the prophet Muhammed . This mosque near Al-Najaf, Iraq , is believed by Shi’as to house the tombstone of Ali ibn Abi Talib ( علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب )
  • 78. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The 765-760 Ismâ'îl 7 731-765 Ja'far al-S.âdiq 6 712-731 Muh.ammad al-Bâqir 5 680-712 'Alî Zayn al-'Âbidîn 4
        • Martyred at Karbalâ', 680
    669-680 H.usayn 3 661-669 H.asan 2
        • First Cousin & Son-In-Law of the Prophet & Fourth Rightly Guided Caliph
    632-661 'Alî 1 THE SHÎ'ITE IMÂMS
  • 79. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The
    • 7 Mûsâ al-Kâz.im 765-799
    • 8 'Alî al-Rid.â 799-818
    • 9 Muh.ammad al-Jawâd 818-835
    • 10 'Alî al-Hâdî 835-868
    • 11 al-H.asan al-'Askarî 868-874
    • 12 Muh.ammad al-Muntazar al-Mahdî 874-878
    • Disappears ca. 878 A.D.–
    • Later leadership becomes the "Hidden Imâm“
    • Thi is the basis of "Twelver“ & later Iranian Shi'ism
  • 80. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Early Schism In the Islamic World The followers of Isma'il become the Seveners" or the "Ismailis." This is the basis of the Shî'ism of the Fatimids , the Assassins , and Shi’a in India.
  • 81. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Independent Emirates rising in Abbasid Caliphate
  • 82. Mohammed & The the Kingdoms of Islam Mohammed & The Problems Bringing the Downfall of the Abbasid Emirates I. The Loss of North Africa to Independent Dynasties. 2. Caliphs and Viziers were confronted with communication problems in a highly diverse and extensive Islamic empire. 3. A Steady and Irreversible Process of the Fracture of Central Authority ( The Samanid, Tahirid, Alid , and Saffarid Dynasties Defect and Estalish Independent Kingdoms ). 4. By the early 10th century, the Abbasids almost lost control to the growing Persian faction known as the Buwayhids that replaced the Samanids as the Buwayhids were quietly able to assume real power in the bureaucracy at Baghdad.