RedTacton JOSE THOMAS.P Computer Science & Engineering Semester 7 TocH Institute of Science&Technology Date:17/9/2010 Presented By,
Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>What is RedTacton? </li></ul><ul><li>How it works? </li></ul><ul><li>Functional features </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with other networks </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>RedTacton is a new Human Area networking technology , which is under development that uses the surface of the human body as a safe, high speed network transmission path. </li></ul><ul><li>Technically, it is completely distinct from wireless and infrared technologies as it uses the minute electric field emitted on the surface of human body as medium for transmitting the data. </li></ul><ul><li>RedTacton can achieve duplex communication over the human body at a maximum speed of 10 Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>RedTacton involves initiating communication with a touch that could result in a wide range of actions in response. Transmission path is formed when a part of the human body comes in contact. </li></ul><ul><li>RedTacton works through shoes and clothing as well. </li></ul>
HISTORY <ul><li>The concept of intra-body communication was first proposed by IBM in 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>This communication mechanism was later evaluated and reported by several research groups around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>All those reported technologies had two limitations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The operating range through the body was limited to a few tens of centimeters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The top communication speed was only 40 bit/s!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These limitations were overcome by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) located in Tokyo, Japan by using photonic electric field sensors and finally in 2005 they came up with a human area networking technology called ‘REDTACTON’ </li></ul></ul>
What is RedTacton? <ul><li>Red : a warm color to emphasis warm and cordial communications. </li></ul><ul><li>TACTON : A ction triggered by T ouching . </li></ul><ul><li>RedTacton utilizes a point to point network, known as a Pico net that allows information to be exchanged between two transceivers without the need for a server to store or process information. </li></ul>Above Figure shows RED TACTON Device
How Red Tacton works ? Figure shows the working of the REDTACTON device over the surface of our body.
How it works? <ul><li>RedTacton operates on the idea that optical properties of an electro-optic crystal can vary according to the changes of a weak electric field. </li></ul><ul><li>After contract with another RedTacton enabled device, the transmitter induces a weak electric field on the surface of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The weak electric fields pass through the body to a RedTacton receiver, where the weak electric fields affect the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal. </li></ul><ul><li>The extend to which the optical properties are changed is detected by laser light, which is then converted to an electrical signal by a detector circuit. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Receiving data is more complicated because the strength of the electric field involved is so low. RedTacton gets around this using a technique called electric field photonics : A laser is passed though an electro-optic crystal, which deflects light differently according to the strength of the field across it. These deflections are measured and converted back into electrical signals to retrieve the transmitted data. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple transceivers can be used simultaneously. This is because RedTacton uses a proprietary CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) protocol that allows multiple access with the same medium from multiple nodes. Each transceiver card has an unique MAC address </li></ul>
Mechanism of communication with RedTacton Figure shows the various electric fields on the surface of our body induced by the RED TACTON device. .
<ul><li>Only a portion of the induced electric field is sensed by the receiving RED TACTON device . The remaining electric fields are dissipated to the ground </li></ul>The electric field Es that reaches the receiver is Es = Ea – (Eb + Ec) <ul><li>The crackling sensation one feels when shocked by static electricity is caused by an electric current of several dozen milli-amperes suddenly flowing into the body from the outside. </li></ul>
HUMAN SAFETY <ul><li>RedTacton transceiver electrodes are covered with an insulating film, so there is no way that current from RedTacton can flow into the user's body. </li></ul><ul><li>Note however that, just like the weak electromagnetic waves produced by most common electrical appliances, a faint modulating displacement current does pass through the body when using RedTacton . </li></ul><ul><li>The level of displacement current involved is considered harmless and is in full compliance with the "Radio Frequency-Exposure Protection Standard <RCR STD-38> established by the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB). </li></ul>
WHAT DOES IT NEED? <ul><li>Each device we wish to communicate with must be equipped with a RedTacton transceiver that is able to detect the messages programmed into our own device. </li></ul><ul><li>We are able to program our devices to exchange specific types of information by using a programmable transceiver that connects to any computer and allows users to customize their transmission settings through a graphical user interface. </li></ul><ul><li>Once our transmitter, is programmed to recognize and exchange information with other devices we select, we will be able to communicate with them easily. </li></ul>
WHAT DOES IT DO? <ul><li>When using a RedTacton device, the human body effectively becomes an Ethernet cable, so the body can use its electrical field to connect devices to networks or the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if a person wearing a RedTacton device sat at a table with RedTacton capabilities that was connected to the Internet, the laptop would immediately be connected to the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Seems similar to a wireless network connection, but it is not. There is a physical connection, the person . </li></ul><ul><li>The connection is more secure and does not slow down if many people are using the same connection, as a wireless connection does. </li></ul>
RED TACTON TRANSCEIVER Block diagram of Red TACTON transceiver.
REDTACTON TRANSCEIVER: <ul><li>The signal from the interface is sent to the data sense circuit and the transmitter circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>The data sense circuit senses the signal and if the data is present it sends control signal to the transmitter which activates the transmitter circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>The transmitter circuit varies the electric field on the surface of our body. </li></ul><ul><li>This change in the electric field is detected by the electro-optic sensor. </li></ul><ul><li>The output of the electro-optic sensor is given to the detector circuit, which in turn given to the interface of the receiving RedTacton device. </li></ul>
WORKING PROCEDURE <ul><li>Transmitter sends data </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitting transceiver creates a change in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Field from human body dissipates into earth </li></ul><ul><li>Electric field is received using sensing technology </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving transceiver recognizes the change in the electric field </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing technology measures the weak electric fields induced. </li></ul><ul><li>Electro-optical crystal uses laser to convert and read the signal </li></ul>
Why RedTacton? <ul><li>Bluetooth, infrared etc. were the most commonly used techniques for data transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>But these short-range wireless communication systems have some problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughput is reduced by packet collisions </li></ul><ul><li>The principle drawback of infrared communications (IrDA) is the tight directionality of beams between terminals needed for the system to be effective </li></ul>
<ul><li>The ultimate human area network solution to all these constraints of conventional technologies is “intra body” communication, in which the human body serves as the transmission medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Human area networks would solve all the problems including throughput reduction, low security, and high net -work setup costs. </li></ul>
FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF RED TACTON <ul><li>RedTacton has three main functional features: </li></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband & Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Any media </li></ul>
TOUCH Communication with just a touch or a step! <ul><li>Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or obtaining data. </li></ul><ul><li>Using RedTacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations through physical contact according to the human's natural movements. </li></ul>
BROADBAND & INTERACTIVE Bandwidth does not deteriorate even with duplex operation & simultaneous access by many users ! <ul><li>Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time . </li></ul>Figures shows difference between wireless LAN and RedTacton
ANY MEDIA Works with many transmission media common in human life! <ul><li>In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as transmission media. Conductors and dielectrics may also be used in combination. </li></ul>A communication environment can be created easily and at low-cost by using items close at hand, such as desks, walls, and metal objects. But there is one limitation on the length of the conductor to be propagated, on installation locations, and on the thickness of the dielectric to be passed through. DIELECTRICS (Signals can pass through materials) CONDUCTORS (Signals travel along surface)
APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Information recorded in the RedTacton device is sent to the touched objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate service is provided based on the information received by the RedTacton receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of Human Errors : </li></ul>One to One services <ul><li>RedTacton devices embedded Medicine bottles transmit information of medicine attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>If the patient touches the wrong medicine, an alarm will trigger on the terminal he is carrying. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients wearing the device could quickly and securely transmit their medical history to doctors. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of risks at construction sites: an alarm sounds if special equipments are handled by anyone other than supervisors </li></ul>
<ul><li>Communication is triggered by totally natural human actions and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer songs to portable music players from notebook PC’s with just a touch. </li></ul><ul><li>No need to insert smart cards, connect cables, tune frequencies, or any of the other inconveniences usually associated with today's electronic devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine holding your digital camera in one hand and touching a printer with your other which initiates the transfer of images from your camera to your printer. In an instant you have downloaded your pictures and are ready to print them out without the need for connecting cables and intermediary devices such as a computer. </li></ul>Intuitive Operations
Device personalization <ul><li>Personalization of mobile phones : </li></ul><ul><li>You own phone number is allocated & billing commences. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic importing of personal address book and call history. </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization of automobiles : </li></ul><ul><li>The seat position and steering wheel height adjust to match the driver just by sitting in the car. </li></ul><ul><li>The driver’s home is set as the destination in the car navigation system. </li></ul><ul><li>The stereo plays the driver's favorite song. </li></ul><ul><li>Car alarm systems could also get more secure </li></ul><ul><li>using RedTacton. </li></ul>
<ul><li>New behavior patterns : </li></ul><ul><li>Tables, walls, floors and chairs can all act as conductors and dielectrics, turning furniture and other architectural elements into a new class of transmission medium. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a user could have instant access to the Internet merely by placing a laptop onto a conductive tabletop </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing applications : </li></ul><ul><li>By touching or standing in front of items </li></ul><ul><li>they are interested in, </li></ul><ul><li>consumers can get more in-depth information. </li></ul>Inside a shop, shoppers can view related information on their mobile terminals immediately after touching a product.
<ul><li>Security applications : </li></ul><ul><li>User verification and lock management at entrance: RedTacton could be installed on doors, cabinets and other locations calling for secure access, such that each secure access could be initiated and authenticated with a simple touch </li></ul><ul><li>Gun Security : If a RedTacton transceiver were implanted in the gun and programmed to a transceiver worn by a soldier, then only that soldier </li></ul><ul><li>could fire the weapon. </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential document </li></ul><ul><li>management </li></ul>User verification and unlocking with just a touch
Applications <ul><li>Instant private data exchange </li></ul>Touch printer to print Electronic business cards can be shared by shaking hands User verification and unlocking with just a touch
ADVANTAGES <ul><li>RedTacton does not require the electrode to be in direct contact with the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Can transmit data at a rate higher than that of peer technologies. (max. of 10Mbps) </li></ul><ul><li>RedTacton transceivers are programmable and we can decide what to share with whom and what devices you communicate with. </li></ul><ul><li>Each communication occurs in separate channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission speed does not deteriorate even though the number of users increases. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Data loss during transfer is less </li></ul><ul><li>Use of minimum amount of power (of some milli-volt range) </li></ul><ul><li>Security is more. </li></ul><ul><li>No problem of hackers . It is very hard to pick up stray electronic signals radiating from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>More secure than Bluetooth. </li></ul><ul><li>Superior than infrared technology & Wi-Fi. </li></ul>
Comparison with other Intra-body communication methods "Intra-body communication" using the human body as a transmission medium has been reported, but the electric field photonics method employed by RedTacton is superior to conventional methods in terms of communication distance, speed, and interactivity. P: Possible N: Not possible P*: Possible under certain conditions
COMPARISON WITH OTHER NETWORKS <ul><li>Wireless communication creates connections when signals arrive, allowing for easy connections because connectors are unnecessary. However, seen from another aspect, the arriving signals can be intercepted, so security becomes an issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Wired communication transmits data between two connection points, so interception is difficult and security can be considered to be high. However, connectors and cables are a nuisance. </li></ul>
<ul><li>RedTacton is situated directly between wireless and wired communication. In other words, RedTacton allows for easy connection without connectors, while at the same time allowing transmission of data only between two contact points. It thus has the feature of being difficult to intercept. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus on ubiquitous service has brought about the shortening of distances in communication. RedTacton is positioned as the last 1m solution to ultimate close-range communication </li></ul>
COMPARISON WITH OTHER NETWORKS Above Figure shows the comparison of RED TACTON device with other networks with respect to distance.
ADVANTAGE OVER BLUETOOTH <ul><li>RedTacton claims to be able to send data over the human skin surface at transfer speeds of up to 10Mbps, or better than a broadband T1 connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum speed offered by Bluetooth is 3Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Tom Zimmerman , inventor of the IBM personal networking system, body-based networking is more secure than broadcast systems , such as Bluetooth, which have a range of about 10m.The issue is that with Bluetooth, it is difficult to rein in the signal and restrict it to the device you are trying to connect to. In a busy place there could be hundreds of Bluetooth devices within range. The signal can be tapped into and used by others. </li></ul>
CHALLENGES <ul><li>The obvious barrier to entry is that the cost and time to develop HAN TECH. is very expensive. </li></ul><ul><li> As a new technology HAN need to gain popularity among users to help pull the technology into the marketplace instead of having it pushed upon them. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread marketing campaigns will need to be developed to highlight the benefits of HAN technology to facilitate its adoption. </li></ul><ul><li>Not useful unless many people adopt it . </li></ul><ul><li>It can be useful within few centimeters only. </li></ul>
CONCLUSION <ul><li>Many areas can benefit from this technology. Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, where everything is networked. RedTacton is gearing up to compete with Bluetooth, Zigbee, IrDA (infrared data association), UWB (ultra wide band). </li></ul><ul><li>So we can clearly say that, this technology will spawn revolutionary changes in the modern communications and become a pivot technology. When we compare RedTacton with other technologies, RedTacton will give a better performance over other. If RedTacton is introduced into cyber market it brings a marvelous & tremendous change and will be adopted by many more people. </li></ul><ul><li>So, in few years from now everything is going to fall under this super technology. And, finally I conclude, </li></ul><ul><li>“ FUTURE BELONGS TO RED TACTON ” </li></ul>