UNIVERSIDAD DE GUANAJUATO.
TEACHER HECTOR GORDON.
STUDENT JOSE MARINO ARAUJO
• Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. moench) was probably
initially domesticated in central Africa, in the region
of Etiopia and Sudan.
• Subsecuently, cultivation of sorghum spread
througout Africa and Asia and finally to the
Americas and Australia.
• Today it is one of the world’s major food crops,
particular in Areas of high temperature and low rain
• Its used for human consumption and to feed
different kinds of livestocks such as birds, pigs and
• Sorghum can reach a height from 1-2 metters, it has
flowers in panicles, and seeds of 3 mm with a
circular or egg form, wich it depends of the variety,
with a color the one can be black, red or yellow.
• Its roots can growth 2 metters depending of the soil
and water available to the crop.
• It has flowers with stamens and pistils, but in Sudan
have been found dioicious varietys.
As a crop for climate change
• 1.Moderate input requirements .
• 2.Easy to grow
• 3.Fast growth rate
• 4.Highly responsive to Improved management
• 5.Drought tolerance
• 6.Widely adapted
• 7.Easily extract nutrients from poor soils
• 8.Fit well in many Tillage systems, crop
Diversification programs and cropping patterns
• Sorghum is the third grain most used in the world to
feed human population, 75% of the world sorghums
produccion is destinated for human consumption.
• In places like India, Africa and China , sorghum
provides 70% of the calories of the human diet.
• Sorghum is used to make meals like binder
sausages, flour, milkshakes, beer and also to
produce alcohol an many more uses in construccion
and in the industry.
Sorghum the rich food
• Carbohydrates 70% High
• Protein 8 –15%
• Mean = 9% Average
• Fat 3.4% Average
• Vitamin A 21 RE Average
• Ash 1.5% Low
• Phosphorus 368mg High
• Iron 5.7mg Average
• Calcium 21mg Average
• Potassium 220mg Average
• Amino Acid Profile Poor
• Micro Nutrients Excellent
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS CONTAINED
IN SORGHUM, CORN AND WHEAT.
Sorghum in Mexico.
• The national production in mexico in sorghum
crops is: 46.4% in irrigated crops and 53.6% in
• The sorghum’s crops surface in 2007 in Mexico
was 1.87 millions of has. Wich is 12.35 of the
national surface for the agriculture.
Main sorghum producer states in
• Tamaulipas 60%.
• Guanajuato 21%.
• Sinaloa 10%.
• Michoacan 8%.
• Nayarit 5%.
• The rest of the states 16%.
EMERGENCE. When the plant first breaks through the
soil surface (generally occurs 3 to 10 days after
• Depth and date of planting greatly affect
emergence rate. During this period, growth
depends on the seed for nutrients and food
• Planting should be timed so that germination
and early growth occur during warm
temperatures and so flowering will occur
before the hottest period of summer. The
time required for emergence is impacted by
soil temperature, moisture conditions, depth
of planting, and vigor of the seed.
• Cool, wet conditions during this time may
favor disease organisms that seriously
damage stands. Seed should be treated with
a fungicide before planting.
• Weed control should be considered.
Producers have pre-plant, pre-emergent,
and/or post-emergent herbicides available
for use. Herbicides are generally used due to
the problems encountered with hoeing or
cultivation of large fields. This is very
apparent in years with above average rainfall,
when mechanical practices are limited by wet
• Three-Leaf Stage Leaves are counted
when the collar of the leaf can be seen
without tearing the plant apart. The collar is
the area where the leaf blade and leaf sheath
• It is important that the date of planting be late
enough so that sorghum can grow rapidly during
the three-leaf stage.
• While the plant's growth rate depends largely
on temperature, this stage usually will occur
about 10 days after emergence.
• Since the plant is quite small, relatively slow
growth and poor weed control can seriously
• As the growing point is still below the soil
surface, much of the leaf area can be removed
(by hail or insects) without killing the plant.
However, sorghum does not recover as
vigorously as corn.
• Five-Leaf Stage Approximately 3 weeks after
it emerges a sorghum plant has 5 leaves fully
expanded; its root system is developing
rapidly and roots produced at the lower
nodes may push the lower leaf off the plant.
This usually does not cause difficulty in
identifying the five-leaf stage because the
lower leaf has a rounded tip and the second
leaf is pointed (Figure 1).
• The growing point is still below the soil
surface so leaf loss will not necessarily kill
the plant. Regrowth is more vigorous than at
the three-leaf stage but still less vigorous
• During the five-leaf stage the potential for
the plant to develop is determined.
• Weed competition, nutrient and water stress,
or other problems such as insect damage at
the five-leaf stage, can seriously reduce yields
if they are not corrected.
• The plant enters its "grand period of growth"
in the five-leaf stage. Dry matter accumulates
at nearly a constant rate until maturity, if
growing conditions are satisfactory.
• Growing Point Differentiation About 30 days
after sorghum emerges.
• About one-third of the total leaf area has
fully developed; 7 to 10 leaves depending on
maturity class. The lower 1 to 3 leaves may
have been lost.
• Growth and nutrient uptake are rapid during
the growing point differentiation stage.
Adequate supplies of nutrients and water are
necessary to provide maximum growth.
• Growing point changes from vegetative (leaf
producing) to reproductive (head producing).
The total number of leaves has been
determined and potential head size will soon
• Sorghum plants are now quite competitive
which helps maintain good weed control the
remainder of the growing season.
• Time from planting to growing point
differentiation generally is about one-third of
the time from planting to physiological
maturity (maximum dry weight).
• Flag Leaf Stage Following growing point
differentiation, rapid culm elongation and
rapid leaf development occur simultaneously
until the flag leaf (final leaf) is visible in the
• Most leaves are fully expanded except the
final 3 to 4 leaves.
• About 80 percent of the total leaf area is present.
Light interception is approaching maximum.
• The lower 2 to 5 leaves have been lost. Any reference
to leaf number from now on should be from the top,
counting the flag leaf as leaf number 1.
• Growth and nutrient uptake continue at a rapid rate.
While only about one-fifth of the total growth has
occurred, nutrient uptake is far greater with more
than 40 percent of the potassium already being taken
up. Adequate supplies of nutrients and water are
necessary to provide maximum growth.
• The head is developing.
• Sorghum plants are now quite competitive which
helps maintain good weed control the remainder of
the growing season
Boot Stage .
• All leaves are now fully expanded,
providing maximum leaf area and light
interception. The head has now developed to
nearly full size and is enclosed in the flag-leaf
• Rapid growth and nutrient uptake are
• Severe moisture stress or herbicide injury
during the Boot Stage may prevent the head
from exerting completely from the flag-leaf
sheath. This prevents complete pollination at
• Except for the peduncle (see Figure 1) culm
elongation is essentially complete.
• Peduncle elongation is beginning and will
result in exertion of the head from the flag-
• Potential head size has been determined.
• Half-Bloom Stage
• Half-bloom is usually defined as when one-
half of the plants in a field or area are in
some stage of bloom. However, because an
individual sorghum head flowers from the tip
downward over 4 to 9 days, half-bloom on an
individual plant is when the flowering has
progressed half-way down the head.
• Time required from planting to half-bloom
depends on the maturity of the hybrid and
environmental conditions; however, it usually
represents two-thirds of the time from planting
to physiological maturity.
• Following the boot stage the peduncle grows
rapidly extending the head through the flag-leaf
sheath. Even in combine sorghums, the
peduncle is not reduced in length as is the rest
of the stalk. Although height of combine-
sorghum plants has been reduced, heads are
well above the leaves, which makes combining
• At half-bloom approximately one-half of the
total dry weight of the plant has been
produced. However, nutrient uptake has
reached nearly 70, 60, and 80 percent of total
for N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively.
• At this time grain formation begins;
therefore, any limitation in plant size, leaf
area, or plant numbers can no longer be
• If environmental conditions are favorable,
the sorghum yield can still be increased by
increasing the seed weight.
• Sever moisture stress can result in "blasting"
and poor head filling.
• As mentioned earlier hybrid maturity and
planting date should be chosen so flowering
will not occur when severe hot, dry weather
• Soft-Dough Stage Between half-bloom and soft-
dough the grain fills rapidly; almost half of its dry
weight is accumulated in this period.
• The stalk weight increases slightly following half-
bloom; then, because grain is forming rapidly, the
stalk loses weight. The loss in stalk weight may
account for as much as 10 percent of the grain
• Final yield depends on the rate that dry
matter accumulates in the grain and the
length of time that it accumulates.
• As long as the hybrid is able to mature before
frost, the dry matter accumulation will be
high if environmental conditions are
• The selection of later maturing grain sorghum
hybrids has an advantage over early maturing
varieties if: 1) the hybrid can mature before
frost and 2) flowering does not coincide with
severe moisture stress.
• Dry matter accumulation rates do not vary
much among hybrids.
• Nitrogen and Phosphorus uptake is still rapid
and Potassium uptake is close to 90 percent
and starting to decline.
• Lower leaves are still being lost with 8 to 12
functional leaves remaining.
• Hard-Dough Stage By hard-dough stage, about
three-fourths of the grain dry weight has
accumulated. Nutrient uptake is essentially
• Severe moisture stress or a freeze before the grain
matures will result in light, chaffy grain.
• The stalk has declined to its lowest weight.
Additional leaves may have been lost.
• Physiological Maturity
• Maximum total dry weight of the plant has
occurred. The time from flowering to
physiological maturity varies with hybrid and
environmental conditions; however, it
represents about one-third of the total time
• Grain moisture content at physiological
maturity is usually between 25 and 35
percent, but varies with hybrid and growing
• If temperature and moisture conditions are
favorable, branches may start to grow from
several of the upper nodes (places where
• Physiological maturity can be determined by the
dark spot on the opposite side of the kernel from
the embryo. The kernel on the left is physiologically
mature; the one on the right is not.
• To reap maximum yields of silage or high-moisture
grain, harvest as near to physiological maturity as
• The plant will not reach physiological maturity
and proper moisture content for normal harvest
at the same time.
• The time required between physiological
maturity and a grain moisture suitable for
harvest depends on the hybrid and weather
• Stalk weight may increase slightly near
• After physiological maturity, the remaining
functional leaves may stay green or die and
• Nutrient uptake is basically complete.
The plants swoing can go from 85,000
to 150,000 plants by ha. Depending on
the seed that the producer’s choose.
Diseases caused by bacteria.
• Bacterial leaf stripe.- pathogen Pseudomonas
• symptoms: irregularly shaped, dark red
lesions on leaves and leaf sheaths.
• Control suggested.- crop rotation, destruction
of crop residue and planting resistant cultivars
Bacterial leaf spot.
• Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.
• Initial symptoms consist en water soacked
spots on the lower leaves, within a short
period these irregular, elliptic lesions assume
a reddish hue.
• Control : crop rotation, destruction of infested
debris and selection of seed from disease- free
Bacterial soft rot.
• Pathogen Erwinia crysanthemi pv.
• Symptoms .-necrotic or heavily pigmented
stripes or blotches on upper leaves; stalk and
leaf tissue rotted in whorls.
Diseases caused by fungi.
• Seedling diseases .-damage weathered or
moldy seed .
• Pathogens. Pythium spp. Fusarium spp.
Aspergillus spp. Rizoctonia spp. Phoma spp.
• Control.- captan, thiram, metalaxyl and fosetyl
Al. wich are systemic products.
Leaf anthracnose .
• Pathogen.-Glomerella graminicola.
• Control.- the use of resistant cultivars.
Gray leaf spot.
• Pathogen C. sorghi Ell &Ev.
• Control.- Use of tolerant or resistant cultivars,
crop rotation and sanitation to reduce
surface residue and kill surviving crop plants.
Panicle and grain anthracnose.
• Pathogen.- Colletotrichum graminicola.
• Control.- the destruction of primary
inoculum, use po pathogen free-seed or seed
treated with fungicides.
Storage molds .
• Symptoms of damage for a fungal colonization
include discoloration in grain(darkening) of the
embryo or germ and molding, heating and
mustiness of the grain.
• Causal organisms and mycotoxins: Aspergillus
spp. Penicillium spp. A.restrictus. A glaucus.
Control.- the most comun method is prevention
by drying or cooling the grain at wich fungi
cannot grow (moisture less than 13% and
temperature below 5 Celcius degrees).
Diseases caused by viruses and virus
• Barley yellow dwarf virus.- attack S. bicolor.-
no symptoms shown. Transmited by an aphid.
• Panicum mosaic virus.- S.bicolor.- symptoms:
fain. Smaal clorotic lesion.- by a mechanical
• Rice stripe virus.-S. halapense.- symptoms.-
chlorosis,chlorotic strip.- transmite by
• Maize rough dwarf virus.- S.bicolor.-
chlorosis – transmited by
• Maize mosaic virus.- S.bicolor.
chlorotic striping. Transmited by
• Control.- cultural practices that
minimize the virus source.
• Root knots or galls.
• Root lesions.
• Abnormal or reduced root development.
• Quarantine and sanitization.
• Cultural practices (crop rotation).
• Physical treatments (steam sterilization or hot
• Biological control (fungi, bacteria, insects and
• Use of resistant cultivars.
• Chemical control(insecticide-nematicides like
carbamates and organophosphates).