Chemistry

REDOX REACTIONS
Balancing by the Ionelectron method
(acid medium)

José Manuel Bélmez Macías
Rendered by: David...
Chemistry

REDOX REACTIONS: Balancing by the ion-electron method (acid medium)

What are they?
REDOX balancing
The ion-...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

What are they?
 A redox process is a reaction in which we fi...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

Balancing redox reactions
 The redox reactions adjustment li...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
1) Calculate the oxidat...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
1) Calculate the oxidat...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
1) Calculate the oxidat...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
1) Calculate the oxidat...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
1) Calculate the oxidat...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
1) Calculate the oxidat...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
1) Calculate the oxidat...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
2) Identify which eleme...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
3) Write down the half-...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
4) Balance each half-re...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
4) Balance each half-re...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
4) Balance each half-re...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
4) Balance each half-re...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
5) Multiply each half-r...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
6) Add up boths semi re...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías

The ion-electron method (acid medium)
7) Turn the ionic react...
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REDOX reactions Balancing by the Ion-electron method (acid medium)

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REDOX reactions Balancing by the Ion-electron method (acid medium)

  1. 1. Chemistry REDOX REACTIONS Balancing by the Ionelectron method (acid medium) José Manuel Bélmez Macías Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías KALIUM academia www.kaliumacademia.com (+34) 924 104 283 - 655 840 225
  2. 2. Chemistry REDOX REACTIONS: Balancing by the ion-electron method (acid medium) What are they? REDOX balancing The ion-electron method Calculating oxidation no. Identifying of semi-reactions Ionic half-reactions Balancing Half-reactions Multiplying half-reactions Global ionic reaction Molecular reaction José Manuel Bélmez Macías Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías KALIUM academia www.kaliumacademia.com (+34) 924 104 283 - 655 840 225
  3. 3. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías What are they?  A redox process is a reaction in which we find an electron transfer.  In this reactions the element or compound (A) increases its oxidation no. (from n to n+1) so it is said that it has been oxidized.  And then another element or compound (B) diminishes its oxidation no. (from m to m-1) so it is said that it has been reduced. THIS PROCES THEN COULD BE UNDERSTOOD AS THE ADDITION OF TWO HALF-REACTIONS: Where A transfers an electron to B causing its reduction and we would say that A is the REDUCING AGENT OXIDATION: However, if it is B which gets the electron from A, it becomes oxidized, then we would say that B is the OXIDIZING AGENT REDUCTION: INDEX
  4. 4. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías Balancing redox reactions  The redox reactions adjustment lie in the balance of the chemical equation: 2KMnO4  16HCl  2MnCl2  5Cl2  2KCl  8H 2O The easiest way is the: ION–ELECTRON (HALF-REACTION) METHOD Before going on we recomend you to download a quick guide of this method in our Facebook webpage INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  5. 5. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 1) Calculate the oxidation numbers of each atom in each chemical. KMnO4  HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O RULES: The oxidation state of a simple one-atom ion is the same as its charge INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  6. 6. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 1) Calculate the oxidation numbers of each atom in each chemical. KMnO4  0 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O RULES: The oxidation state of a simple one-atom ion is the same as its charge The oxidation state of a free element is zero INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  7. 7. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 1) Calculate the oxidation numbers of each atom in each chemical KMnO4  +1 0 +1 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O RULES: The oxidation state of a simple one-atom ion is the same as its charge The oxidation state of a free element is zero The oxidation state of H in its combinations is +1, with the exception of the metal hydrides, where it is -1 INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  8. 8. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 1) Calculate the oxidation numbers of each atom in each chemical -2 KMnO4  +1 0 +1 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O RULES: The oxidation state of a simple one-atom ion is the same as its charge The oxidation state of a free element is zero The oxidation state of H in its combinations is +1, with the exception of the metal hydrides, where it is -1 The oxidation state of O in its combinations is -2, with the exception of the peroxides, where it is -1 and in its combination with fluorine, where it will be +2 INDEX -2 GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  9. 9. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 1) Calculate the oxidation numbers of each atom in each chemical +1 -2 KMnO4  +1 0 +1 +1 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O RULES: The oxidation state of a simple one-atom ion is the same as its charge The oxidation state of a free element is zero The oxidation state of H in its combinations is +1, with the exception of the metal hydrides, where it is -1 The oxidation state of O in its combinations is -2, with the exception of the peroxides, where it is -1 and in its combination with fluorine, where it will be +2 The oxidation state of the alkaline metals in its combinations is +1 (group 1 of the P.S.) and +2 for the alkaline earth metals (group 2 of the P.S.) INDEX -2 GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  10. 10. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 1) Calculate the oxidation numbers of each atom in each chemical +1 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 0 +1 -1 +1 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O RULES: The oxidation state of a simple one-atom ion is the same as its charge The oxidation state of a free element is zero The oxidation state of H in its combinations is +1, with the exception of the metal hydrides, where it is -1 The oxidation state of O in its combinations is -2, with the exception of the peroxides, where it is -1 and in its combination with fluorine, where it will be +2 The oxidation state of the alkaline metals in its combinations is +1 (group 1 of the P.S.) and +2 for the alkaline earth metals (group 2 of the P.S.) In the case of the binary salts, the halogen elements behaves with -1, the elements in the group of O with -2, the elements in the group of N with -3, C and Si -4 and B -3 INDEX -2 GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  11. 11. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 1) Calculate the oxidation numbers of each atom in each chemical +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 -1 0 +1 -1 +1 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O RULES: The oxidation state of a simple one-atom ion is the same as its charge The oxidation state of a free element is zero The oxidation state of H in its combinations is +1, with the exception of the metal hydrides, where it is -1 The oxidation state of O in its combinations is -2, with the exception of the peroxides, where it is -1 and in its combination with fluorine, where it will be +2 The oxidation state of the alkaline metals in its combinations is +1 (group 1 of the P.S.) and +2 for the alkaline earth metals (group 2 of the P.S.) In the case of the binary salts, the halogen elements behaves with -1, the elements in the group of O with -2, the elements in the group of N with -3, C and Si -4 and B -3 The algebraic sum of all the oxidation numbers of each atom in a neutral compound is zero. If the compound is an ion, this addition will be the same as the charge of the ion INDEX -2 GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  12. 12. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 2) Identify which element is reduced and which is oxidized. +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 0 +1 -1 +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION INDEX -1 OXIDATION GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  13. 13. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 3) Write down the half-reactions in the ionic mode +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 OXIDATION -  Mn  Cl2 MnO 4 Cl - 2+ *¡¡CAREFUL!!: Only the acids, hydroxides and salts are written the ionic mode The electric charge (q) comes from the addition of oxidation numbers, then as an example in the premanganate ion: +7 -2 MnO4 INDEX +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 q=7+4·(-2)=-1 GUIDE - MnO 4 BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  14. 14. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 4) Balance each half-reaction +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 OXIDATION -  Mn  Cl2 MnO 4 2 Cl - 2+ A) First, elements which are not hydrogen or oxygen are balanced INDEX +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  15. 15. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 4) Balance each half-reaction +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 OXIDATION - 2+  Mn  4H 2O  Cl2 MnO 4 2 Cl - A) First, elements which are not hydrogen or oxygen are balanced B) Oxygen is balanced by adding H2O where necessary INDEX +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  16. 16. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 4) Balance each half-reaction +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 OXIDATION - MnO 4  8H 2 Cl - + 2+  Mn  4H 2O  Cl2 A) First, elements which are not hydrogen or oxygen are balanced B) Oxygen is balanced by adding H2O where necessary C) Hydrogen is then balanced by adding H+ where necessary INDEX +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  17. 17. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 4) Balance each half-reaction +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 OXIDATION - MnO 4  8H 2 Cl - 2+ 5e- + Mn  4H 2O  Cl2 2e- A) First, elements which are not hydrogen or oxygen are balanced B) Oxygen is balanced by adding H2O where necessary C) Hydrogen is then balanced by adding H+ where necessary D) Then balance the charges by adding electrons (e-) so that at the end the truth charge is the 2+ + same in both parts of the reaction THIS STEP IS NORMALLY CONFLICTIVE BUT IT IS NOT DIFFICULT AT ALL, WE JUST NEED TO BARE IN MIND THAT THE ELECTRONS ARE PLACED ON THE LEFT IN THE REDUCTION AND ON THE RIGHT IN THE OXIDATION AND THAT EACH ONE APORTS A NEGATIVE CHARGE. SO THAT A SIMPOLE EQUATION CAN BE PLANTED: INDEX GUIDE M nO 4  8 H  xe      x  M n  4 H 2O  x=5 BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL  
  18. 18. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 5) Multiply each half-reaction with a coefficient for it to have the same number of electrons +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: +1 -1 +1 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - INDEX 0 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 5e- + GUIDE 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2 )·5  Cl2 2e- BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  19. 19. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 6) Add up boths semi reactions +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- +1 -2 + GUIDE 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl INDEX +1 -1 OXIDATION - - 0 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 -  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 2+ BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  20. 20. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 +1 -1 KMnO4  +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl - + 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + -  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 2+ THIS STEP IS NORMALLY CONFLICTIVE, HOWEVER IT IS QUITE EASY IF WE BARE IN MIND THAT THE IONIC REACTION IS ALREADY ADJUSTED, SO THEN WE ADD THE IONS WE NEED IN THE SAME CUANTITY AS BOTH PARTS OF THE REACTION INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  21. 21. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: +1 -1 +1 -2 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- + 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl - 0 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 -  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 2+ EACH PERMANGANATE ION (MnO4-) CARRIES ONE POTASSIUM ION (K+) IN THE ORIGINAL REACTION INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  22. 22. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: +1 -1 +1 -2 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- + 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl + 2K - 0 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 -  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 + 2K 2+ EACH PERMANGANATE ION (MnO4-) CARRIES ONE POTASSIUM ION (K+) IN THE ORIGINAL REACTION As in each ionic reaction there are two permanganate ions, we add two ions potassium (K+) to each part of the reaction INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  23. 23. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: +1 -1 +1 -2 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- + 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl + 2K - 0 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 -  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 + 2K 2+ THE PROTONS (H+) AND THE CHLORIDE IONS (Cl-) MUST MAKE UP THE HYDROCHLORIC ACID, AND IT IS USEFUL TO LEAVE THE ACIDS TO THE END INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  24. 24. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: +1 -1 ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- -2 + 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl + 2K -  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 + 2K 2+ EACH Mn2+ ION CARRIES TWO CHLORIDE IONS (Cl-) IN THE ORIGINAL REACTION INDEX +1 OXIDATION - - 0 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  25. 25. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: +1 -1 +1 -2 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- + 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl + 2K 4 Cl - 0 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 -  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 + 4 Cl 2K 2+ EACH Mn2+ ION CARRIES TWO CHLORIDE IONS (Cl-) IN THE ORIGINAL REACTION As in the ionic reaction there are two Mn2+ ions, we add four chloride ions (Cl-) to each part of the reaction INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  26. 26. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: +1 -1 +1 -2 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- + 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl + 2K 4 Cl - 0 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 -  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 + 4 Cl 2K 2+ EACH POTASSIUM ION (K+) CARRIES ONE CHLORIDE ION (Cl-) IN THE ORIGINAL REACTION INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  27. 27. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 + + 2K 4 Cl 2Cl 4 Cl 2K 2Cl - + - 2+ EACH POTASSIUM ION (K+) CARRIES ONE CHLORIDE ION (Cl-) IN THE ORIGINAL REACTION As in the ionic reaction there are two potassium ions (K+), we add two chloride ions (Cl-) to each part of the reaction INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  28. 28. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 + + 2K 4 Cl 2Cl 4 Cl 2K 2Cl - + - 2+ THE REST OF SPECIES: WATER (H2O) AND CHLORINE (Cl2) BOTH IN THE ORIGINAL AND IN THE IONIC REACTION ARE THE SAME SO THAT THERE IS NO NEED TO ADD ANYTHING INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  29. 29. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 + + 2K 4 Cl 2Cl 4 Cl 2K 2Cl - + - 2+ NOW WE GROUP UP THE IONS IN ORDER TO FORM THE SPECIES OF THE ORIGINAL REACTIONS 2KMnO4 16 HCl  2 MnCl2  Cl2  2KCl  H 2O INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
  30. 30. José Manuel Bélmez Macías, Rendered by: David Bélmez Macías The ion-electron method (acid medium) 7) Turn the ionic reaction into molecular +1 +7 -2 KMnO4  +1 -1 +2 Oxidation: 0 +1 -1 +1 -2 HCl  MnCl2  Cl2  KCl  H 2O REDUCTION Reduction: -1 OXIDATION - ( MnO 4  8H ( 2 Cl - 5e- 2+ Mn  4H 2O )·2  )·5  Cl2 2e- + 2 MnO 4 16H  10Cl  2Mn  8H 2O  5Cl2 + + 2K 4 Cl 2Cl 4 Cl 2K 2Cl - + - 2+ IN THE CASE OF THE MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES WE PRESERVE THE COEFFICIENTS 2KMnO4 16 HCl  2 MnCl2  5 Cl2  2KCl  8 H 2O INDEX GUIDE BASIC MEDIUM ESPAÑOL
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