A PUBLIC GOOD APPROACH TO FOOD
Exploring synergies between
right to food & right to science
1
JOSE LUIS VIVERO POL
PhD Res...
2
Recent example
on interactions
between the right
to food & the right
to benefit from
scientific
progress.
Justice Elena
...
3
Primary role of
scientific research is
enhancement of
humankind
GLOBAL PUBLIC
GOOD
Science/Knowled
ge is neither rival
n...
4
WHAT IS THE RIGHT TO FOOD?
It is the right to have
regular, permanent and
unrestricted access, either
directly or by mea...
• Pasamos de la “Seguridad Alimentaria existe
cuando…” a “la realización de un derecho…”,
Leyes de SAN de Guatemala y Bras...
6
WHO OWNS
AGRICULTURAL
RESEARCH?
CGIAR vs. AGRI-
BUSINESS
2012: $900 M CGIAR (research)– $500 M FAO and…
$1.5 Billion Monsanto (Research)
7
8
WHO OWNS
NUTRITIONAL
RESEARCH?
Plumpy Nut
Francia
Vitacereal (GUA):
INCAP (public)
Alimentos de Guatemala
SA (Private)
N...
9
Knowledge-based
Food Elements:
most are commons
but patented seeds
Foto: Finabocci Blue Flickr Creative Commons
10
1. Science-based
agricultural knowledge
by national institutions
Public copyrights
by
Universities
National
Research
In...
11
2. Traditional agricultural knowledge
Fotos:JoseLuisVivero
12
3. Cuisine, recipes &
national gastronomy
Foto:CarlaBq
13
4. Food safety considerations
(Codex Alimentarius)
Foto:LianneMilton
Foto:MarianoBonora
14
5. Genetic
Resources for Food
and Agriculture
WTO TRIPS
Patents prevent
innovation
(Benkler, 2006)
Fashion world, top
c...
15
Right to
Food
Right to
Science Right to
Culture
Cuisine
recipes
Traditional Agricultural
Knowledge (techniques
+ tools)...
16
Science for the
Right to Food
a. Open agricultural
innovations
b. Public Agricultural
Research
c. Nutritional informati...
17
But what about patents?
They reflect the ancient tension
between knowledge enclosure and
open-access knowledge
The Righ...
18
Who has more capacity to
innovate: thousands of researcher
or hundreds of millions of farmers?
IITA Creative Commons in...
19
I am eager to exchange on hunger
eradication & the right to food and
I welcome any comment to this
presentation.
@josel...
20
REFERENCES
De Schutter (2011). Human Rights Quarterly 33
Vivero (2013). SSRN Repository
Helfer (2004). Neth Q. Hum. Rig...
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The interactions between right to food and right to science: the public good approach

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In this presentation, I explore the interactions between the right to food, the right to enjoy the scientific progress and the right to cultural manifestations, with concrete examples such as the agro-biodiversity, plant genetic resources, traditional knowledge, public funded research knowledge, cuisine recipes and food safety considerations. Whose science for what farmers? Who owns agricultural and nutritional innovations? do patents prevent or deter innovation for humankind? What does it mean the public approach to food?

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The interactions between right to food and right to science: the public good approach

  1. 1. A PUBLIC GOOD APPROACH TO FOOD Exploring synergies between right to food & right to science 1 JOSE LUIS VIVERO POL PhD Research Fellow in Food Governance Ursus Wehrli. The art of clean up. Foto by Siusson in Flickr
  2. 2. 2 Recent example on interactions between the right to food & the right to benefit from scientific progress. Justice Elena Kagan: “…that would result in less incentive for innovation”
  3. 3. 3 Primary role of scientific research is enhancement of humankind GLOBAL PUBLIC GOOD Science/Knowled ge is neither rival nor excludable SCIENCE: What for? 1. Profit ? 2. Soft Power/Dominance ? 3. Public Interest/Welfare ? 4. To simply know ? Science to address common needs Foto Jimmy Smith. Flickr Creative Commons
  4. 4. 4 WHAT IS THE RIGHT TO FOOD? It is the right to have regular, permanent and unrestricted access, either directly or by means of financial purchases, to quantitatively and qualitatively adequate and sufficient food corresponding to the cultural traditions of the people to which the consumer belongs, and which ensures a physical and mental, individual and collective, fulfilling and dignified life free of fear.” Jean Ziegler, A/HRC/7/5, para 17. ICESCR Is a binding treaty for the member states Foto: Jorge Salamanca ICESCR (1976) OG 12 (1999) Voluntary Guidelines (2005) Optional Protocol (2009) Growing FNS Laws, Constitutions & jurisprudence
  5. 5. • Pasamos de la “Seguridad Alimentaria existe cuando…” a “la realización de un derecho…”, Leyes de SAN de Guatemala y Brasil (2005 y 2006) • De “situación” a “derecho”, que se ha de garantizar (por el Estado) y se puede exigir (por los ciudadanos) • El DA está desarrollándose desde hace 20 años (PIDESC), luego su reconocimiento en los países y ahora con la justiciabilidad. The Right to Food has the same category, protection & demandability than the right not to be tortured and the right to freedom of speech Foto:SandeepThukal
  6. 6. 6 WHO OWNS AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH? CGIAR vs. AGRI- BUSINESS
  7. 7. 2012: $900 M CGIAR (research)– $500 M FAO and… $1.5 Billion Monsanto (Research) 7
  8. 8. 8 WHO OWNS NUTRITIONAL RESEARCH? Plumpy Nut Francia Vitacereal (GUA): INCAP (public) Alimentos de Guatemala SA (Private) Nutriset holds US patent 6346284 (2002)
  9. 9. 9 Knowledge-based Food Elements: most are commons but patented seeds Foto: Finabocci Blue Flickr Creative Commons
  10. 10. 10 1. Science-based agricultural knowledge by national institutions Public copyrights by Universities National Research Institutions Foto: Argonne National Laboratory
  11. 11. 11 2. Traditional agricultural knowledge Fotos:JoseLuisVivero
  12. 12. 12 3. Cuisine, recipes & national gastronomy Foto:CarlaBq
  13. 13. 13 4. Food safety considerations (Codex Alimentarius) Foto:LianneMilton Foto:MarianoBonora
  14. 14. 14 5. Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture WTO TRIPS Patents prevent innovation (Benkler, 2006) Fashion world, top cuisine & software are rather innovative without patenting systems (Raustiala & Sprigman 2012) ITPGRFA made seeds a global common good Foto:Edd.ie
  15. 15. 15 Right to Food Right to Science Right to Culture Cuisine recipes Traditional Agricultural Knowledge (techniques + tools) Agro-biodiversity (seeds & breeds) FOOD COMMONS (non-patented): knowledge + physical assets (seeds + dishes + cooking/cropping tools)
  16. 16. 16 Science for the Right to Food a. Open agricultural innovations b. Public Agricultural Research c. Nutritional information on Junk Food d. Open acces to scientific research AGORA-OARE e. Distributing science: Extension Services Foto:Bioverity International
  17. 17. 17 But what about patents? They reflect the ancient tension between knowledge enclosure and open-access knowledge The Right to Science & Culture are the rights to benefit from human knowledge
  18. 18. 18 Who has more capacity to innovate: thousands of researcher or hundreds of millions of farmers? IITA Creative Commons in Flickr A patent system PROMOTES or DETERS human creativity and innovation for the common good?
  19. 19. 19 I am eager to exchange on hunger eradication & the right to food and I welcome any comment to this presentation. @joselviveropol joseluisviveropol http://hambreyderechoshumanos.blogspot.com http://hungerpolitics.wordpress.com Jose Luis Vivero Pol joseluisvivero@gmail.com
  20. 20. 20 REFERENCES De Schutter (2011). Human Rights Quarterly 33 Vivero (2013). SSRN Repository Helfer (2004). Neth Q. Hum. Rights. 167 Benkler (2006). The wealth of networks. Raustiala & Sprigman (2012). The knock off economy

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