etraining of teachers and trainers

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etraining of teachers and trainers

  1. 1. e-Training of Teachers and Trainers José Lagarto (Universidade Católica Portuguesa) Roberto Carneiro (Universidade Católica Portuguesa) Outubro de 2008 Index1. Definition/description of the territory ........................................................................................ 22. Innovation paradigms in the training of teachers and trainers .................................................. 3 2.1. What was hoped ................................................................................................................. 5 2.2. What happened................................................................................................................... 8 2.3. Analysis and awareness levels .......................................................................................... 10 2.4. Present Challenges - The use of ICT in e-training of teachers and trainers ...................... 113. Main trends and developments ................................................................................................ 124. Policies supporting the development of the territory ............................................................. 155. Table summarising the content of chapter 2 ............................................................................ 206. Annex -Innovation yellow pages ............................................................................................... 21 1 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  2. 2. Definition/description of the territoryThe training of teachers and trainers is a crucial issue in modern societies. Indeed, educators areplaying an ever more important role in the fields of youth education and training. The world ischanging very quickly and everyday new sets of skills are needed.According to the Permanent Representatives Committee of the Council of European Union(Brussels, 26 October 2007) there was complete consensus on the following conclusions: - High-quality teaching is a prerequisite for high-quality education and training. - Equally importantly, teaching provides a service of considerable social relevance: teachers play a vital role in enabling people to identify and develop their talents and to fulfill their potential for personal growth and well-being. - The ability of teachers to meet the challenges of increasing social and cultural diversity in the classroom is crucial for the development of more equitable education systems and for progress towards providing equal opportunities for all. - The education and training of teachers is a crucial element in the modernization of European education and training systems.In the same document, the representatives of Member States were invited to: a) Endeavour to ensure that teachers: i) hold a qualification from a higher education institution which strikes a suitable balance between research-based studies and teaching practice; ii) possess specialist knowledge of their subjects, as well as the pedagogical skills required; iii) have access to effective early career support programmes at the start of their career; iv) have access to adequate mentoring support throughout their careers; v) are encouraged and supported throughout their careers to review their learning needs; vi) acquire new knowledge, skills and competences through formal, informal and non-formal learning, including exchanges and placements abroad. b) Endeavour to ensure that teachers with leadership functions, in addition to possessing teaching skills and experience, have access to high quality training in school management and leadership. c) Aim to ensure that provision for teachers initial education, early career support and further professional development is coordinated, coherent, adequately resourced and quality assured. d) Consider the adoption of measures aimed at raising the level of qualifications and the degree of practical experience required for employment as a teacher. 2 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  3. 3. The formal systems designed for the training of teachers or trainers stand little chance ofencompassing all these training needs particularly if we think in terms of continuous training. So,an important role is addressed to eLearning training systems.The situation of teachers and trainers is dissimilar whether we speak of initial training or ofcontinuous training. While teachers’ duties are performed in formal systems of education – sothey are imbued with certain public, even specific characteristics - trainers develop their work withemployed or unemployed adults, people that in general are not enrolled in educational systems.Traditionally the training of teachers is accomplished in two phases. Initial training is normallycarried out under the responsibility of Universities or Teacher Training Colleges. Continuous or in-service training adopts different shapes throughout Europe: Teacher Training Centres, Universitiesand / or in service training networks, are some of the different formats of continuous trainingprovision. Professional continuous training is quite often mandatory, but it can also be done in aninformal way.To acquire a full-fledged teacher status most European systems require a formal teacherqualification, which in most cases has to be achieved prior to the moment of entering into theprofession: Teacher is a person who is acknowledged as having the status of a teacher according to the legislation and practice of a given country … The title “trainer” is even less clearer than the definition of teacher. In many cases “trainer” carries no formal acknowledgement in terms of national/regional legislation and no requirement to hold a teaching qualification (CEDEFOP, 2007, p.19).1. Innovation paradigms in the training of teachers and trainersThis paragraph intends to propose, first of all, a conceptual framework to analyse emerginginnovation paradigms into e-training of teachers and trainers in Europe. Secondly it aims atdescribing these innovation paradigms, referencing examples and empirical evidences. Finally, itpinpoints the prevailing role that ICT carries in view of a full learning scenario. 3 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  4. 4. The Common European Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications (p.2)1 describes avision for the future European teaching profession as: - A well-qualified profession where teachers are graduates from higher education institutions (and those working in the field of initial vocational education are highly qualified in their professional area and have a suitable pedagogical qualification). Every teacher has extensive subject knowledge, a good knowledge of pedagogy, the skills and competences required to guide and support learners, and an understanding of the social and cultural dimension of education. - A profession of lifelong learners. Teachers are supported to continue their professional development throughout their careers. - A mobile profession: mobility is a central component of initial and continuing teacher education programmes. Teachers are encouraged to work or study in other European countries for professional development purposes. - A profession based on partnership: teacher education institutions organise their work collaboratively in partnership with schools, local work environments, work based training providers and other stakeholders.To achieve the main goals set in the Lisbon Agenda by the Council of the European Union (2000) –to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable ofsustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion – it isprimordial to invest in the quality of education.With this purpose in mind, the Council of Ministers identified concrete future objectives ofeducation and training systems (European Council, 2001). In these objectives, three major goalswere emphasized: - to improve the quality and effectiveness of EU education and training systems; - to ensure that they are accessible to all; - to open up education and training to the wider world.To achieve these goals, the Ministers of Education agreed on a detailed work programme –Education and Training 2010 – encompassing thirteen specific objectives (European Council, 2002).Concerning the training of teachers and trainers, the work programme identifies four key issues:1 These Common European Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications were drawn up incooperation with experts appointed by the Member States and tested in 2005 at a European Conference ofsenior policy makers, experts in the field of teacher education and major stakeholders. 4 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  5. 5. a) Identifying the skills that teachers and trainers should have, given their changing roles in the knowledge society. b) Providing the conditions which adequately support teachers and trainers as they respond to the challenges of the knowledge society, including through initial and in- service training in the perspective of lifelong learning. c) Securing a sufficient level of entry to the teaching profession, across all subjects and levels, as well as providing for the long-term needs of the profession by making teaching and training even more attractive. d) Attracting recruits to teaching and training who have professional experience in other fields.The Education and Training 2010 work programme, elicited three main trends to promote thecontinuous training for teachers: - Peer Learning, throughout peer learning activities (PLA) - teachers learn through direct contact and practical cooperation and from the experiences of their counterparts elsewhere in Europe. - Schools as learning organization - in the concluding discussion and reflection on the PLA in Dublin, it had become obvious how the awareness for schools to define themselves as learning organizations can have a decisive effect on teachers’ encouragement and motivation to fully engage in their personal professional development. The Dutch model of ‘Schools as Learning Communities for their Teachers’ was a challenging and exciting topic for a follow-up PLA. - Partnerships between schools and companies - teachers learn and exchange experiences throughout partnerships between schools and companies. There appeared to be large differences between countries concerning the organization of company-based training and the roles and qualifications of company trainers. 1.1. What was hopedThe Lisbon Strategy was adopted in March 2000 and aimed to make the EU the most dynamic andcompetitive economy by 2010. This strategy involved several policy areas, from research andeducation to environment and employment.22 Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European parliament, The eLearning ActionPlan, Designing tomorrow’s education, Brussels, 28.3.2001, COM(2001)172 final 5 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  6. 6. The eLearning initiative, which complements the eEurope Action Plan, groups together specificmeasures within an education-oriented framework, inline with the wishes expressed by the LisbonCouncil in 2000.The “eLearning: Designing tomorrow’s education” initiative set out the principles, objectives andlines of action of eLearning, defined as the use of new multimedia technologies and the Internet toimprove the quality of learning by facilitating access to resources and services as well as remoteexchanges and collaboration.Having in mind teachers and trainers, precise targets have also been laid down under eEurope: – to provide all teachers with appropriate training; – to adapt teacher training curriculum accordingly; – to introduce measures to encourage teachers to make real use of digital technology in their lessons, by the end of 2002.From the The eLearning Action Plan it was possible to identify a list of outcomes related to thetraining of teachers and trainers: 1. Report on the development of eLearning indicators and identification of sources and methods in order to monitor progress in the use of ICT in formal and informal education, in the context of the Report on the concrete future objectives of education systems in the European Union; 2. Work on basic skills in information and communication technologies in the context of the Report on the concrete future objectives of education systems. In conjunction with the business and education spheres, improving definition of the skills required and access to training; 3. Report and recommendations on a European diploma for IT skills with decentralized issuing procedures; 4. An inventory of projects run at European level and analysis of models developed, for initial and continuing teacher training; recommendations for consolidation of the European networks; 5. Construction of the eLearning Internet site; 6. Implementation and promotion of the programme: "eLearning Standards: towards a new knowledge-based Europe" ; 7. Organization of eLearning conferences in cooperation with the successive European Union Presidencies.Some important policy papers from the European Union have shown a political intention ofstrengthening and fostering a new digital environment inside schools mainly using as strategy thetraining of teachers and trainers. 6 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  7. 7. In fact it is vital for the European Union to have well trained teachers in digital environments, ableimplement change from the old to the new paradigms of learning, much more centred on studentsthan previously.However, the main objectives and concrete proposed actions have not taken into account thestrong resistance to change shown by teachers and trainers, their fears of being replaced by thenew technologies and some fear in showing, when face to face with their students, their lack ofknowledge when compared with the student’s technological proficiency.From an article of Frida Barriga (2008) we have picked up an extract that shows us that in LatinAmerica the problem of digital literacy is more or less the same as in European Union. We find that the fears and resistances are higher in teachers than among students. Many teachers, representing older generations, have a generational anguish and a cultural prejudice against ICT and all digital tools, also regarding skills and competences needed. Students’ fears are mostly related to the damage of equipment. After a first approach, they quickly develop their competences and lose initial fears. In the case of teachers, in many situations there was a lack of proposal for new pedagogical use of new technologies, overcoming the mere reproduction of a traditional lecture model, where the centre gravitates around teaching and content. The absence of a theoretical foundation guiding the educational practice became evident. We found high or positive attitudes towards the use of ICT that did not correspond with low levels of use and ownership in schools. The authors argue that the results are directly related to the existence of a school culture conducive or inhibitory of learning environments among teachers, with the kind of innovation projects and programmes of teacher training in the ICT field.However, we can take note from the Barcelona Summit that the set of objectives for educationand training were quite explicit.At the Barcelona European Council meeting, the Education Council and the Commission jointlyproposed the following work programme, together with a detailed timetable for working towardsthe concrete future objectives of education and training systems, with particular reference to keyissues. Strategic and Indicators for measuring Key issues associated objectives progress - Identifying new basic skills and ways - people completing of integrating them into the curricula, secondary education, alongside the traditional basic skills; - continuous training ofDeveloping the skills - Making attainment of basic skills teachers,needed for a genuinely available to everyone, - literacy and numeracyknowledge society including those who are less "learning to learn"Starting period: second advantaged or have special needs, attainment levels,half of 2001 school drop-outs and adult learners; - percentage of adults failing - Promoting official validation of basic to complete upper skills, in order to facilitate ongoing secondary education who education and training, as well as have participated in any 7 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  8. 8. Strategic and Indicators for measuring Key issues associated objectives progress employability. form of education or training, by age group. - Percentage of teachers that have been trained in ICT use - Providing adequate equipment and in schools,Ensuring access to ICT educational software; - percentage of pupils andfor everyone - Encouraging the best use of teaching students using ICT in theirStarting period: second and learning techniques based on ICT studies,half of 2001 (information and communication - percentage of learning technologies). sessions in teaching and training institutions during which ICT are used.In: http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/cha/c11086.htm 1.2. What happenedGiven the expectations set by the Lisbon Summit in 2000, and in the "eLearning - tomorrowseducation" programme, the results appear to be significant in all that relates to structural issues: - The ratio of students per computer decreases throughout the Union; Isto é mesmo decreases??? - There were at least three major European events related with eLearning issues, normally associated with the presidencies of the European Union (Lisbon 2007, Helsinki 2006, Brussels 2005); - Creation of web sites backed by EU institutions that allow the dissemination of experience and research articles on the eLearning field. In particular the portal elearningeuropa.info was developed permitting the creation of the “elearningpapers” which will be the paradigm for this type of initiative; - Numerous community projects under the Socrates and Leonardo da Vinci programmes promoting digital literacy of teachers and European schools (European SchoolNet, eTwinning,…) were developed; - EURYDICE a network related to information delivery was established. Dedicated to increasing and improving cooperation between Member States in the field of education, and to facilitate the drafting of initiatives at national and Community levels, the EURYDICE network is the main instrument for information on national and Community 8 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  9. 9. structures, systems and developments in the field of education. In this way EURYDICE serves as a form of highlighting both the diversity of education systems and their common trends.Some evaluation reports and projects in the form of observatory were able to see the positivechanges that took place all over Europe since then.Particularly interesting is the report "Progress Towards the Lisbon Objectives in Education andTraining - Indicators and Benchmarks", prepared by the Commission of the European Communitiesin 2008, which reinforces the idea of achievement of some of the objectives of the Lisbon Agenda2000 and particularly of the set of actions related to the eLearning action plan. In 2005 the i2010 Strategy was then adopted, however, without explicit goals for education. As regards the eEurope 2002 goal of linking all schools to the internet, according to a study by Empirica (2006), this goal was nearly accomplished in 2006 in most EU countries. All Member States have more than 90% of the schools connected to the internet. As a consequence, interest has shifted from connectivity to the use of computers in schools. Data, however, is still scarce on the effective use of ICT in schools. … An IEA study on ICT use in schools, SITES 2006 (Law, N. et al., 2008, p. 189), found that in general terms, teachers with higher level of qualifications tend to use ICT more for their teaching. However, little information is available on teachers’ actual participation in professional development.There are also some references in the European Unions portal on the implementation of measuresand objectives achieved against the expectations and goals set in Lisbon 2000. 3 The lifelong learning programme 2007-2013 encompasses all the European programmes in the field of lifelong learning. It is therefore based on the previous programmes for the period 2000-2006: Socrates , Comenius, Leonardo da Vinci, Grundtvig, eLearning and the Jean Monnet action. A single Community support programme in the field of education and training is more rational, coherent and effective. It should thus lead to greater interaction between the different areas, and better visibility, particularly with regard to the capacity to respond to developments in this field and better cooperation. It should therefore help achieve the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy, including the environmental dimension, and of the European area for higher education (the Bologna process), particularly the objective of making education and training a global quality benchmark by 2010 and of focusing on learning foreign languages in line with the conclusions of the Barcelona European Council in 2002. It also falls within the framework of the specific future objectives for education systems in the Education and Training 20103 (http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/cha/c11082.htm). 9 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  10. 10. work programme, the action plan for skills and mobility and the action plan promoting language learning and linguistic diversity.However, the emphasis on the training of staff was not properly considered and does not seem tohave been planned to enable a massive adhesion of teachers to the new tools. Paradigm changesin the school environment are not achieved by ministerial decision, rather by political consensuswith involvement of teachers, leading them to understand through innovative practices that theadoption of new technologies in school is inevitable. And not in order to be just one more tool butto build a learning environment where students, teachers and parents share knowledge, alwaysguided by a renewed teacher´s role, much less informant and self centred and much more amanager of learning pathways of their pupils. 1.3. Analysis and awareness levelsIn terms of a general analysis we can ask ourselves the reason why the objectives of Lisbon 2000strategy and other key documents of UE, in terms of using ICT in learning processes, were notachieved?Some answers can be given to this question.The main reason is probably supported by a missing global strategic vision about the use of ICT inthe classrooms or training spaces. The overall policies did not take into account the huge difficultythat teachers and trainers would have in changing their professional paradigms, shifting from theteacher centred approach to the learner centred one. This means that policy makers did not knowthe real ability of teachers and trainers in accepting the changes imposed by new tools available inan Information Society.A second main issue is rooted on the continuing controversy between technologists andpedagogues concerning the interpretation of main policy documents.It appears to be easy to find money to buy equipment, to provide broadband to all Europeanschools and to have a low rate of students per computer. However is not so easy to transform theminds of teachers and trainers. There has not been a general European objective towards trainingteachers in using ICT as a performing tool to be used as a learning aid for their students.The general statistics show the progress done in terms of hardware policies. The same was notpossible to witness in the real changes in teachers behaviors. 10 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  11. 11. In general, it can be said that teachers and trainers are in a first level of skills on ICT. Teachers arein general able to work with the most common software to help them with their work (research,writing documents, producing presentations…). But few are able to deal with ICT tools inside thetraining arena, except in showing their presentations, which are a little more attractive than theolder transparencies.This is probably the next step to take – a strong effort in building a training policy in ICT strategiesfor learning, dedicated to European teachers. 1.4. Present Challenges - The use of ICT in e-training of teachers and trainers In the foreseeable future teachers and trainers will make even more use of ICT for professional activities including lesson planning and preparation of didactic materials, recording learning progress of the students and other administrative tasks, as well as their own professional development and continuing education. Many governments are investing in preparing teachers and trainers for a ‘technologically rich’ future: enabling them to acquire proficiency in using technology for education purposes and also challenging their pedagogic practice. (Helios yearly report 2007, p. 35)Open and distance learning (ODL) is one of the most rapidly growing fields of education, and itspotential impact on all education delivery systems has been greatly accentuated through thedevelopment of internet-based information technologies.Teacher training is an important area where ODL, e-Learning and the use of ICTs have made amajor contribution. This includes initial training for formal qualifications, in-service supplementarytraining for formal upgrading and continuing in-service training in particular subjects and topics. In an era where new technologies are becoming an indispensable part of educational systems, the success in expanding and improving the use of technologies in teacher education will directly and strategically benefit Education for All. (UNESCO Portal, http://portal.unesco.org/education/).UNESCO further developed these concepts in a comprehensive framework for teacher and trainereducation with recourse to the support of technologies. 11 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  12. 12. Consequently, to live, learn, and work successfully in an increasingly complex, information-richand knowledge based society, students and teachers must utilize technology effectively. Within asound educational setting, technology can enable students to become: • Capable information technology users. • Information seekers, analyzers, and evaluators. • Problem solvers and decision makers. • Creative and effective users of productivity tools. • Communicators, collaborators, publishers, and producers. • Informed, responsible, and contributing citizens.Through the ongoing and effective use of technology in the schooling process, students have theopportunity to acquire important technological capabilities. The key individual in helping studentsdevelop those capabilities is the classroom teacher.The teacher is responsible for establishing the classroom environment and for preparing learningopportunities that facilitate students’ use of technology to learn and communicate. Therefore, it isfundamental that all classroom teachers are prepared to provide their students with theseopportunities.The productivity factors (capital deepening, higher quality labour and technological innovation)serve as the basis for three complementary, somewhat overlapping approaches, that connecteducation policy with economic development: • Increase the technological uptake of students, citizens, and the workforce by incorporating technology skills in the curriculum—or the technology literacy approach. • Increase the ability of students, citizens, and the workforce to use knowledge to add value to society and the economy by applying it to solve complex, real-world problems—or the knowledge deepening approach. • Increase the ability of students, citizens, and the workforce to innovate, produce new knowledge, and benefit from this new knowledge—or the knowledge creation approach.2. Main trends and developmentsThrough these approaches, a country’s students and ultimately its citizens and workforce acquireincreasingly sophisticated skills needed to support economic, social, cultural, and environmentaldevelopment, as well as an improved standard of living. 12 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  13. 13. The UNESCO ICT Competency Standards for Teachers project encompasses all three of theseapproaches to educational change, so as to address different policy goals and visions.But each approach has different implications for education reform and improvement; and eachhas different implications for changes in the different components of the education system: policy,curriculum and assessment, pedagogy, ICT, school organization and administration, teacherpractice and professional development. ICT plays a different, but complementary role in each ofthese approaches.The UNESCO ICT Competency Standards for Teachers focuses on teachers in primary andsecondary schools. However, these approaches apply to all levels of education and training:primary, secondary, vocational, tertiary, on-the-job training, professional and advanced graduateeducation, and continuing education. Broadly speaking, for these purposes, trainers can beconsidered as teachers as well.The UNESCO ICT Competency Standards for Teachers plays out the implications that each of thethree education improvement approaches have towards changes in each of the components ofthe educational system: policy, curriculum and assessment, pedagogy, the use of technology,school organization and administration, and teacher professional development.The implications of this approach on changes in the curriculum and other components of theeducational system are significant. With this approach, the curriculum goes beyond a focus onknowledge of school subjects to explicitly include the 21st century skills that are needed to createnew knowledge and engage in lifelong learning—the ability to collaborate, communicate, create,innovate, and think critically.Teacher training programmes would coordinate the teachers’ increasingly sophisticatedprofessional skills with the pervasive use of technology to support students who are creatingknowledge products and are engaged in planning and managing their own learning goals andactivities.This is accomplished within a school that is, itself, becoming a continuously improving, learningorganization. In this context, teachers both model the learning process for students and serve asmodel learners through their own ongoing professional development—individually and 13 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  14. 14. collaboratively. In this regard, schools foster the development of the learning society envisionedby the International Commission on Education in the 21st Century (Delors et al, 2006).The UNESCO Competency Standards provides a framework that allows teacher professionaldevelopment providers to connect their course offerings to these broader educationalimprovement and economic development policy goals.This approach to competency standards for teachers, matches with the three scenarios conduciveto the generation of a learning society, designed by Carneiro (2007), focusing on the interactionsof three key variables: paradigm shifts; delivery modes; and driving forces. According to Carneiro: A summation of the 3 by 3 resulting combinations could be briefly described in the following matrix: - Paradigm shifts: from industry (past), to globalisation (present thrust), and moving towards a New Renaissance period (utopian vision). - Delivery modes: from uniform, rote systems (past) to segmented distribution (present market-driven trend), and gradually accommodating increasing levels of personalisation/customisation (utopian vision). - Driving forces: from bureaucracy-led (past preference for national or State- controlled systems) to market-led arrangements (present move), which, in turn, should give way to empowered communities (utopian vision of a radical devolution to civil society).The following scheme summarises the three scenarios proposed by Carneiro 14 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  15. 15. Following this approach, it is possible to define three innovation paradigms featuring the trainingof teachers and trainers, i.e.:  Clockwork Orange and eTTT, as a first approach to teachers and trainers in using ICT as personal tools.  Knowledge Age and eTTT, where ICT tools are used in the classroom to assist students’ learning.  Learning Society and eTTT, as an ideal approach where ICT tools play a role of knowledge creation based on continuous information research and analysis.The UNESCO ICT Competency Standards for Teachers follow closely this same progression.Teachers must reach the highest competences in ICT. To match student’s main learning objectivesit is important that teachers refrain from using ICT as a mere personal tool. These powerful toolsshould be designed and used as important support in students’ learning and as motivationenhancers.3. Policies supporting the development of the territoryFrom the sixteen core indicators for monitoring progress towards the Lisbon 2000 objectives, theone related with teachers and trainers training is: - Professional development of teachers and trainers 15 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  16. 16. However, within the Five EU benchmarks for 2010 no one indicator is related with trainers andteachers training.4So, we can conclude that the trainers and teachers training is one of main objectives that remainsto be achieved.Remembering the main ideas about teachers and trainers, we quote the document ProgressTowards the Lisbon Objectives in education and training - Indicators and benchmarks, from the Commission(2008). Lisbon set a target that all teachers needed should be skilled in the use of the Internet and multimedia resources by the end of 2002. The importance of providing good training for teachers is recognized by all Member States. Perhaps this has become more important now, as new pedagogical issues arise around ways to encourage people to develop the specific skills to use ICTs in the learning process - such as the selection of relevant information, its analysis and its subsequent transformation into knowledge and skill. For teachers, the issue is also not just about connectivity and training, it is about continuously equipping them with the skills and a selection of high quality software to integrate ICT into 5 their daily practice.Another document, the Detailed work programme on the follow-up of the objectives of Education andtraining systems in Europe, from the Commission, refers: A. Key issues 1. Identifying the skills that teachers and trainers should have, given their changing roles in Knowledge society. 2. Providing the conditions which adequately support teachers and trainers as they respond to the challenges of the knowledge society, including through initial and in-service training in the perspective of lifelong learning. 3. Securing a sufficient level of entry to the teaching profession, across all subjects and levels, as well as providing for the long-term needs of the profession by making teaching and training even more attractive. 4. Attracting recruits to teaching and training who have professional experience in other fields. … All teachers needed are skilled in the use of these technologies by the end of 2002 in order to provide impacts on the outcomes of pupils with a broad digital literacy.64 Commission of the European Communities (2008). Progress Towards the Lisbon Objectives in educationand training - Indicators and benchmarks5 Commission of European communities (2001). Report from the Education Council to the European Council"The concrete future objectives of education and training systems - 5680/01 EDUC 186 Commission of European communities (2002). Detailed work programme on the follow-up of the objectivesof Education and training systems in Europe(2002/C 142/01) Official Journal of the European Communities,14.6.2002 16 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  17. 17. Notwithstanding the policy gaps we can find a significant number of good practices all overEurope.Some good practice examples across the EUEuropean projectsTeachers in Europe (TIE) (http://tie.lernnetz.de/index.php?group=0&ugroup=0)Teachers in Europe is a European teacher training programme, funded by the EuropeanCommission. Forty teachers from four European countries participate in the project. Aims 1. Enhancement of existing national networks in Sweden, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands and development of a European network providing the resources to generate innovative strategies for improving teaching. 2. Intensive peer-discussions of European instructors about expectations, accurate evaluation and evidence of learning through student work on the Internet and on national and international conferences. 3. Professional vocational training of teachers in the field of eLearning. 4. Preparations to integrate more European - in particular eastern European countries.eTTCampus 2.0 (http://www.ettcampus.org/)The eTTCampus 2.0 project aims at consolidating the European Virtual Campus created in theprevious project for teachers and trainers as a reference of new ICT trends and tools ineducation, opening it to a wider and multi-level target audience, transforming the campusinto a social eLearning environment (eLearning 2.0), integrating mentoring services andensuring the campus as a reference of a knowledge management network of “ICT ineducation and training” professionals.PortugalIn Portugal there are three main Universities that offer elearning Master courses to train teachersand trainers. 17 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  18. 18. Teachers training program at Portuguese Catholic University(http://www.porto.ucp.pt/Ieducacao/mst/mce_informatica_educacional/)The Catholic Portuguese University runs a Master degree course, using eLearning methodologies,in “ICT and Education” since 2003. From its inception to date roughly three hundred students wereenrolled in this advanced university training.Teachers training at Universidade Aberta(http://www.univ-ab.pt/students/guia/eng_detail_curso2.php?curso=34)Portuguese Open University has similar courses to train teachers and one is especially related withtrainers (although not a Master degree course).Teachers training at Universidade of Aveirohttp://www.ua.pt/PageCourse.aspx?id=143&b=1Aveiro University offered its course of “Multimedia and Education” since 2001 till 2008. which isnot specifically tailored for teachers or trainers but addresses a wider audience.FinlandOPE.FIhttp://www.edu.fi/koulutus/opefi/index.htmOPE.FI is a three-step training programme about the use of ICT in education and training that hasbeen produced for the continuous training of teachers by the Ministry of Education of Finland.OPE.FI I: the first phase is to obtain the basic ICT skillsOPE.FI II: the second phase is to learn how to apply ICT in education and trainingOPE.FI III: the third phase is to deepen the knowledge of the second phase and to learn specificskillsAfter taking the programme the participants should be able to modernise their schools’pedagogical practices using ICT. The teachers learn amongst other things collaborative working, 18 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  19. 19. Internet pedagogy and content creation, and teachers can apply their knowledge making a schoolspecific strategy on the use of ICT in education.The programme is available through online material and different organisations dedicated tocontinuous training. The Ministry of Education supports the training so that the programme is freeto its attendees.TieViehttp://www.virtuaaliyliopisto.fi/?node=tievie_etusivu_finTieVie is a nation-wide virtual university project that has been provided training in educationalinformation and communication technology use for the staff of Finnish universities during theyears 2001–2007. The training has been provided by a network of five universities through twotraining packages: TieVie training (5 study weeks), targeted to university teachers and aimed tosupport basic skills in educational ICT use, and TieVie trainer/expert training (10 study weeks/15ECTS), aimed to develop special skills and expertise. The numbers of participants and completedcredits are evidence of the efficiency of the project. During 2001–2007, a total of 1 138participants attended TieVie training events. The participants were representative of the entirefield of Finnish universities and included staff from almost all disciplines. A total of 8062.5 ECTS(=5375 study weeks) have been completed in the training courses. The percentage of completedcredits is 73 % for all training courses, on average, and the computational price per ECTS creditcompleted in 132.10 euro.Spain (Navarra) – The program of new technologies and education(El Programa de Nuevas Tecnologías y Educación (PNTE)) (http://ntic.pnte.cfnavarra.es/portal/)PNTE includes objectives, activities, resources and services that the Department for Education andCulture of the Government of Navarra (Spain) develops in the field of ICT and education.Promoting the use of ICT in education is one of the key areas of the program. The specificobjectives are: - promote the training of teaching staff in ICT 19 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  20. 20. - provide flexible platforms that enable the online learning for teachers (both in ICT and curricular subjects) - provide the teaching staff with knowledge and tools for the diffusion and exchange at the Internet about educative experiences, didactical materials, etc. - enhance the use of open and free softwareThe Department of Education offers annually training activities about ICT through f-2-f and onlinecourses (using PNTE’s learning platform and Moodle virtual class).4. Table summarising the content of chapter 2 WHAT WAS Having in mind teachers and trainers, precise targets have also been HOPED laid down under eEurope: – to provide all teachers with appropriate training; – to adapt teacher training curriculum accordingly;RETROSPECTIVE – to introduce measures to encourage teachers to make real use of digital technology in their lessons, by the end of 2002. WHAT However, the main objectives and concrete proposed actions have no HAPPENED taken into account the strong resistance to change shown by teachers and trainers, their fears of being replaced by the new technologies and some fear in showing, when face to face with their students, their lack of knowledge when compared with the student’s technology proficiency.ANALYSIS AND Low investment level in training matters.AWARENESS LEVELS Missing a global strategic vision in using ICT in learning process. The discussion between technologists and pedagogues (a never ending story).PRESENT CHALLENGES A more holistic vision integrating technology and new models of learning The use of ICT to train teachers New Curricula – based on ICT practices - in teachers training Particular attention is needed in: - Generalisation of technology literacy - Foster the knowledge deepening - Prepare the knowledge creation age 20 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  21. 21. 5. Annex -Innovation yellow pagesEuropean organisation dealing with innovation into Teacher and Trainer Education at nationallevel Austria Koordinationsstelle für IT-Zertifikate an Schulen http://www.ccit.at/ IT in der Bildung GmbH http://www.it4education.at/ Belgium Ministry of the Flemish Community - Education Department http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/ict/english/ Belgium (Flanders) - National ICT Policies for Education http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/ict/english/insight_country_report_Vlaanderen.pdf Czech Republic Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports http://www.msmt.cz/ Institute for Information on Education http://www.uiv.cz/ Cyprus Ministry of Education and Culture http://www.moec.gov.cy/ Denmark The Danish National Centre for Technology-supported Education and Training http://eng.uvm.dk/publications/9Informationtec/eng_app2.htm Estonia Ministry of Education and Research http://www.hm.ee/ Tiger Leap Foundation http://www.tiigrihype.ee/ Finland Ministry of Education http://www.minedu.fi/ A renewing, human-centric and competitive Finland: The National Knowledge Society Strategy 2007–2015 http://www.tietoyhteiskuntaohjelma.fi/esittely/en_GB/introduction/_files/762226901887888 31/default/Strategia_englanti_181006final.pdfThe National Knowedge Society Strategy 2007– 2015 France Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale http://www.education.gouv.fr/ 21 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  22. 22. Éducnet http://www2.educnet.education.fr/sections/formation/programme/competences/ Germany Federal Ministry of Education and Research http://www.bmbf.de/ Greece Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs http://www.ypepth.gr/ Information Society – the official Greek Portal http://www.infosoc.gr/infosoc/en-UK/epktp/priority_actions/paideia- politismos/hiddenchannel01/Page2.htmIceland Iceland Ministry of Education, Science and Culture http://eng.menntamalaraduneyti.is/ MENNT - Samstarfsvettvangur atvinnulífs og skóla http://www.mennt.net/ Ireland Department of Education and Science http://www.education.ie/ FAS - Training and Employment Authority http://www.fas.ie/ Italy Ministry of Education, Universities and Research http://www.miur.it ISFOL - Istituto per lo sviluppo della formazione professionale dei lavoratori http://www.isfol.it/ Latvia Latvian Education Informatization System (LIIS) http://www.liis.lv/LIIS/english/main.htm Academic Information Centre - Latvian National Observatory http://www.aic.lv/ Lithuania Centre of Information Technologies of Education http://www.ipc.lt/english.htm Methodological Centre for Vocational Education & Training http://www.pmmc.lt/ Luxembourg Ministère de lÉducation Nationale et de la Formation Professionnelle http://www.men.lu/ Malta Ministry of Education. Department Further Studies and Adult Education http://www.education.gov.mt/edu/studies_adult_vepd.htm STC Training http://www.stcmalta.com/ Netherlands ICT at School Foundation 22 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  23. 23. http://www.ictopschool.net/ CINOP, Centrum voor Innovatie van Opleidingen http://www.cinop.nl/ Norway Ministry of Education and Research http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/kd.html?id=586 TI - Teknologisk Institutt http://www.teknologisk.no/ Poland Minister of National Education and Sport http://www.men.gov.pl/menis_en/education/computer_rooms.pdf BKKK Co-operation Fund - National Observatory http://www.cofund.org.pl/ Portugal CRIE-Ministério da Educação http://www.crie.min-edu.pt IEFP- Instiuto do Emprego e da Formação Profissional http://www.iefp.pt Slovak Republic SIOV/SNO - State Institute of Vocational Education (SIOV)/Slovak National Observatory (SNO) http://www.siov.sk/ Slovenia National Institute for Vocational Education and Training http://www.cpi.si/ Spain CNICE-Centro Nacional de Información y Comunicación Educativa. http://www.cnice.mec.es/profesores/ INEM - Instituto Nacional de Empleo http://www.inem.es/ Sweden Swedish National Agency for Education, or Skolverket http://www.skolverket.se/ Swedish Agency for flexible learning http://www.cfl.se/ United Kingdom Becta http://www.becta.org.uk/ QCA - Qualifications and Curriculum Authority http://www.qca.org.uk/ 23 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa
  24. 24. 6. BibliographyAceto,S. & Delrio, C & Dondi,C. (2007). e-learning for innovation – Helios Yearly Report 2007.Brussels: MenonCarneiro, R. (2007). “The Big Picture: understanding learning and meta-learning challenges”.European Journal of Education, Volume 42, Issue 2, Page 151-172, Jun 2007Delors, J. et al. (1996). Learning: The Treasure Within. Paris: UNESCOCEDEFOP (2007). Recognition and validation of non formal and informal learning for VET teachers and trainers in the EU Member States. Luxembourg: CEDEFOPEuropean Commission (sd). Common European Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications. Directorate-General for Education and CultureEuropean Commission (2007). Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament - Improving the Quality of Teacher EducationUNESCO (2008). ICT Competency Standards for Teachers - Policy Framework. Paris: UNESCO 24 Learnovation Project – Universidade Católica Portuguesa

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