Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Tourism for the physically disabled

1,685

Published on

In the European Union there are between 13 and 20 …

In the European Union there are between 13 and 20
million handicapped. That represents between 5% and 9% of
the total population of the EU (Eurostat, 1995). One can
understand the importance of this group for the whole
European society.

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,685
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
41
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. JOSE JAVIER MONROY VESPERINAS Tourism for the physically disabled peopleCOMPARISON BETWEEN EU, NETHERLANDS AND SPAIN
  • 2. C APÍTULO 1INTRODUCTION
  • 3. S ECCIÓN 1 In the European Union there are between 13 and 20 million handicapped. That represents between 5% and 9% ofOVERVIEW OF THE the total population of the EU (Eurostat, 1995). One canPROBLEM AND GOALS understand the importance of this group for the whole European society.OF THE PROJECT Handicapped is a wide concept with two synonyms: Disabled and incapacitated. In fact Disabled is the union of two words Dis- and -able. The meaning is a person who is not able to do things on his/her own. He or she needs some sort of help in normal life. We can apply this first definition to working and leisure time. The handicapped are then a special group with special needs. However, this interpretation can guide us into a misunderstanding. "Special needs" are only special when the environment makes them so (Baker, 1989). On the other hand, Handicapped people are quite different. Firstly, it is necessary to consider the different kind of disabilities (without taking into account mix-disabilities): • SENSORY: Deaf or blind. • PHYSICAL: Wheel-chair. • MENTAL: Autism, Down syndrome, mental retardation, etc. 2
  • 4. • TRANSNATIONAL: In our case the European level (EU)For the purpose of this thesis we will consider only one kind of • NATIONAL: Policies in Spain and the Netherlands.disability: the Physically handicapped. The reason is thatdifferent kind of disabilities build different kinds of socialgroups. It is very difficult to compare them in a transnational To get an idea the current expenditure on socialresearch. Nevertheless we will some times mention the other protection per inhabitant is 4.348 ECUS per year: 5.387 ingroups to have a better idea about the real situation of the The Netherlands and 2.555 in Spain (Eurostat 1992). Thatdisabled in Spain and the Netherlands. marks a big difference in possibilities and programmes. The tourist industry (& the market) has an important part to play in making holidays and tourism available to all. The goal of this research is a comparison between the However we should recognise that the private sector with itstourism opportunities for physically handicapped in Spain commercial basis is not the largest provider of holidaysand the Netherlands: understand the relationships between programmes. Traditionally the National State represented bytourism and handicapped. In our post-Fordist society, despite the ministry of Welfare and health, was responsible for policythe crisis of the Welfare state, Holidays are still a social right. on care and other facilities for disabled people. Two partiesHolidays for handicapped is a social demand. The UN took are involved in the realisation of this policy: Government (atthis point into consideration (Resolution 48/96 based in the central, provincial and municipal level) and communityreport A/48/627) which affirms that tourist organisations, organisations with a volunteer base. The three aspects drawhotels and travel agencies should offer special services for up the framework of our research. Every study about tourismhandicapped (article 11,2). That is our starting point: Tourism opportunities for the handicapped should take into accountas a social right and tourism for handicapped as social three levels of intervention:demand.In most of the European countries the state or thegovernment is responsible for the disabled leisure (and • STATE PROVISIONtourism) policies. Then we can distinguish two further aspectsof intervention from a political and governmental perspective: • VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS • THE TOURIST MARKET 3
  • 5. The comparation of holidays provision for handicappedbetween The Netherlands and Spain should consider this firststatement. How the state arranges holidays programmes withsubventions to volunteer organizations. However thecomparation is difficult because both countries are quietedifferent. The expenditure on social protection as percentageof gross domestic products is 27,1 in the EU. in Spain 33,0and in Nederlands 31,0 (Eurostat, 1992). The Position of theEU give some indications about the subject.. In this UnitedUnion how is "armonize" the holidays programmes orpackages for the phisically disabled? We will see this detailfurthermore. From this perspective we will analyze thesituation in both countries and finally the touristic offer andsupply. The provision offerted for the voluntary organisationand tourism companies. The conclusions andrecommendations will finish this thesis. 4
  • 6. C APÍTULO 2THEORETICALBACKGROUND
  • 7. S ECCIÓN 1 Leisure has a wide field of meanings, related to time off. What is in fact leisure? The answer is a philosophicalDEFINITION OF THE question: Time and space. Time to take some days off. Place toTERMS go away. From this perspective leisure is tourism, following the UN directives (Res. 48/49, 1993). Tourism has too a wide field of meanings: Industries for pleasure travel, everything that arises form travelling away from residence, journeys for temporary stay for leisure and recreations purposes, etc. I would like to reduce this and understand tourism only from a KEY POINTS perspective: as travels or excursions out of home or living place. The UN conference (Roma 1963) ”Tourism and 1. Leisure international travels” define tourist as the person who go 2. Disabled abroad for more as 24 hours for other purposes as work. That is also a wide definition but enough for the purposes of this research. Travel and leisure play an increasingly important part in the life of the late twentieth century. Inability to participate on holidays is an isolating factor and can also undermine heath. As a social right, leisure and tourism are also a social demand. There is an equilibrium between the demand and the offer in the case of the physically disabled? Disabled is synonym of incapacitate. He or she need some sort of help in the Normal life, that mean dependency. Quite a big number of social workers do not like the Word of disable and prefer to call them handicapped. because what they have is really a disability. "Handicap" is used in the context of this thesis to assist in describing a basic congenital or acquired mental or physical defect. Handicapped are then persons with 6
  • 8. a disability (physical, sensory or mental) in his/her life. Thatis in fact the same definition as this one of the Declaration ofthe right of handicapped (Resolution 3447 (XXX) 9-12-1975).However we can also accept the definition of the EuropeanCommission in the foreword of the HELIOS programme. Theterm "disabled people" means: "People with seriousimpairments, disabilities or handicaps resulting fromphysical, including sensory, or mental or psychologicalimpairments which restrict or make impossible theperformance of an activity or function consider normal for ahuman being". 7
  • 9. S ECCIÓN 2 How has the issue been addressed in the past? We can begin the research in the last century. The Beginning of theSTATEMENT XX century the social policy and provision for the handicapped was largely paternalistic. The voluntary and religious sector was the only one involved. Religious groups (Catholic and Protestant in the Netherlands and only catholic in Spain) We will not consider the fact of the religion wars between Spain and Flanders. as a "previous tourism flows" that generate mutilate. This effect is clear in the two Word KEY POINTS Wars. Middle class organisations with religious connotations or origins were in charge of all kinds of provisions for 1. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES handicapped (Hugo van der Poel, 1991). After World War I a 2. INTEGRATION new kind of physically handicapped people appear: veterans wounded and permanently disabled by war. Most of the 3. INDEPENDENT LIVING provisions between the wars was oriented towards the 4. MARKETING AND INFORMATION re-insertion of this group. In England and Holland this case is very clear after World War II and, with special connotations, 5. ATTITUDES AND STAFF TRAINING in Spain after the civil war. 6. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF TOURIST INSTALLATIONS AND SIGHTS; BUILDING REGULATIONS AND DESIGN The voluntary sector acquired a national dimension during the growth and maturing of the Welfare State 7. TRANSPORT (1944-1976)with the help of the national State The Welfare State offer a paternalistic provision of services relating to holidays for handicapped. Here the development of The Netherlands and Spain are different because of their different political histories. The voluntary sector is independent when providing holidays for disabled people, but it needs of the State assistance to survive. 8
  • 10. policy changes in other European Union countries as we observe in the British and Dutch cases (Van der Poel, 1995). The Netherlands current policies are affected by the two Mild tatcher policies. There was a general turn to the rightWorld Wars and the post war period of reconstruction. and the Neo-liberal system. The social services are affected byConsumption growth, with subsidy by social security was not cost cuttings. It is very interesting to compare this point withknown in the long Spanish post war period. The provision of the actual political situation in Spain. Change of governmentsocial services was channelled thorough the “pillars” of the to the (probable) the right (PP). It is possible that SpainDutch society: Catholic, Protestant and non confessional (lay) follows this trend after a change of government. However thevolunteer associations. In Spain the pillar was the Church and state still as a source of financing for “leisure” andthe National Movement of Franco. The role of the Church in “recreation” for disabled. Politic, more as sociology, is thethe provision of Welfare for handicapped is one of the most main trend.important but this is not widely recognised. In theNetherlands in the mid 1960s the emblematic Ministry ofculture, recreation and Social Work was established. Other To compare both previous statements in TheNorth European countries also created similar ministries. The Netherlands and Spain one should find the criteria of theimpact of the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s on the actual situation. The first factor is the political one in aDutch society was considerable, provoking an unemployment transnational level. Tourism opportunities for therate which peaked at approximately 20%. The same rate as handicapped people is not actually a clear issue in the policiescurrently in Spain. The effect of the crisis also spread to the of the European countries. Other countries in the EU Englandprovision of “leisure” and tourism for disabled people. in the person of the Mary Baker for the Working Party has a clear programme about tourism for all. Most of the efforts of the European countries are oriented to accessibility. This The political transition occurred at he same time in point is very important. Our post modernist society hasSpain. The JOC (Juventudes obreras cristianas - Christian changed values. Values are the meanings of the society. Theyouth workers) was like a new vision inside the Church, which new emergent values of our time demand new opportunities,was traditionally related to the Regime. The transition was and handicapped people need integration into thesefollowed by the increasing intervention of the private market opportunities to achieve an independent living. We canin the provision of leisure and tourism for handicapped summarise these values in the HELIOS programme of thepeople. There are important similarities in the direction of Commission of the European Communities (Directorate 9
  • 11. General "Employment, Industrial Relations, Social Affairs". * INDEPENDENT LIVING: Whatever their disability, allDivision "Integration of disabled people, 1994): disabled people must be able to lead their lives, as far as possible, independently. How does this affect tourism? Travel can be a physical and also a psychological barrier. A * EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES: whatever their disability, handicapped tourist normally needs one or two assistants.all disabled people should have the same opportunities in life However, the ideal is to overcome architectural barriersas other citizens. Opportunities also in the tourism field. without help. And psychologically, not all handicapped haveTourism is a social right since 1936 (The Front populaire in the confidence to travel abroad. The case of the physicallyFrance). Most Europeans today think the same. The right to a disabled is special. Some of them acquire the disability aftermonths holidays is one of the most important issues of the an accident and they remember their former independentWelfare state. Disabled people should have the same living. That is another category of physically disabled toopportunities to take holidays at least once per year. The consider.Human rights declaration (1948) affirm the same right. andalso the United Nations (Standard Rules on the Equalisationof Opportunities for Person with Disabilities, 1992): In all The common state regulation include the values orsocieties of the world there are still obstacles preventing orientations of the EU. But this directives are set up inperson with disabilities from exercising their rights (...). It is different ways in Spain and Nederlands (Dutch name forresponsibility of states to take appropriate action to remove Holland). We should then analyse this policies in the aspectsuch obstacles. related to tourism for disable. There is a special department for this services in both Welfare Ministries? * INTEGRATION: A disability in itself should not be anobstacle to participating in social and cultural life and to Organising a tourist programme for handicapped peopleaccess to transport and public services. The European Union is a hard business. On one hand the political level and on therecognise this but only from an accessibility perspective. other the basis work. If we want to compare this kind ofTourism include the increasing role of the transport and provision in two countries we need some more accordingpublic services. criteria. We can accept the document "Accessible tourism for handicapped people in the 90s" of the WTO (Buenos Aires, 1991). The definition of handicapped is quite interesting, 10
  • 12. because it includes "elderly" and "other people who need followed closely by kindness and friendliness. All touristspecial care" .Some countries accept the inclusion of elderly businesses should develop customer care programmes as partand disabled in the provision of “social tourism” despite both of their in-service training and these should automaticallygroups being different. This perspective is more oriented to cover the full range of potential customers. The WTO doesntthe private market and is related to the sustainability of consider special kind of travel agencies run out only byholidays for disabled without State intervention. The WTO handicapped such “Accessible travel S.A.” in Madrid.considers the right to holidays for all in society. Handicappedpeople form a social group with growing importance. Themost important guide lines and recommendations to assure C: GE NE RAL RE QU IRE M E NTS OF TOU RISTthe success of this special kind of provision are: INSTALLATIONS AND SIGHTS; BUILDING REGULATIONS AND DESIGN: Most of the European countries have an Approved Document (AD) giving design guidance. Those A: MARKETING AND INFORMATION: A frequent guide lines stipulate that the entrance door to each bedroomcomplaint from customers was that accommodation should be accessible for wheelchairs (which generally requirepurporting was not suitable for their particular needs. Social a clear minimum opening width of 75 cm) and that atourism (tourism for special groups) should always begin with minimum of one bedroom in each hotel, etc. should bepublicity. Accommodation guides are especially important. suitable, in terms of dimension and layout, for people who useThe second point is oriented to the information in the holiday wheelchairs. Newly-built accommodation is required to beplace. A not uncommon remark from accommodation accessible to people in wheelchairs. The WTO recognises theproviders was that they had converted rooms suitable for use importance of including the needs of all in the buildingby disabled people “ but no-one has come to use them”. This regulations and offers in the document the followingwas often because they had not been marked in any way. In indications:both countries one can detect a lack in this problem. Adequate parking with a disabled symbol. Basic accessibility (Ramps, etc.) B: ATTITUDES AND STAFF TRAINING: The Each hotel should have one or more rooms adapted torecommendations of the WTO are that the staff in the travel disabled (toilet, wide corridors, etc.).agencies, hotels, etc. can deal with and provide a good servicefor the disabled . Information is the main point in this case, 11
  • 13. Displaying information of public notices in hotels, travel Englands tourism. The partner in the voluntary sector (theagencies and transport enterprises. same model as in The Netherlands) is the Holiday care Service. This entity is the UKs central source of holidayElevators adapted for disabled and special toilets. information for people. The report was written by MaryAn adequate number of restaurants should be adapted to the Becker as represent of the Working Party. That show us theuse of handicapped. importance of the political side of the phenomena. The first recommendation is that the tourist industry should realise that the "special needs" of the "social tourism" are only "special" if the environment makes them so. The factors, D: TRANSPORT: The WTO take into consideration only which taken in isolation or together, make holidays-takingbuses. Some buses should be adapted to wheel-chair users. In difficult or impossible for the physically handicapped are theother countries as the United States the main question in the follow:actual debate is aerial accessibility. One should understandthe different role played for the aerial transport in this hugecountry. The market is big enough and the competence arise.In the State, groups of pressure change the legislation and Problems of mobility experience: (wheel-chair)accessibility is low right. Caring for a dependent relation (between the handicapped and the volunteer or member of the family. And the need of volunteers in all kind of excursion and tourist opportunities, We can find a syntheses with other political directives exchanges, etc.).oriented to the private market. It is important to contrast theformer guide lines (WTO) with other recommendations. One Low income (The first problem facing the private market. Theof the questions of this research is to weigh the importance of state is the only one able to fund tourist programmes)the new right theories and the Neo liberalism in the provisionof holidays for disabled? We can look first at the Englishregulation to understand the common points. The English The private market is a new sector for this provision. Thetourist board published in 1989 the book "Tourism for All". old dream of the New Right: Give responsibilities to privateThe English Tourist Board is a statutory body created by the organisations. The case of disabled organisations is specialDevelopment of Tourism Act 1969, to develop the market because they are “dependant" on the state despite the idea of 12
  • 14. an "independent" existence. That is the problem. Is it possiblefor private organisations (e.g. a travel agency) to provide thesekinds of services? The sector or market is not very commercialand profitable. Most of the handicapped population in Spainand the Netherlands depend of the family or State care. Thisrole of the “nanny state” (in Thatchers words) would beachieved through subsidies. A small part of the budget for“social services” is oriented to holidays programmes. Oneshould also consider the personal role of holidays. Theprovision in Spain (INSERSO) and in the Netherlands(Ministry of Welfare) is basis of this thesis and the way tofulfils this need at a reasonable price. The basic elements tocreate a Market are set up and the next question is if theprivate market could be interested in this business. 13
  • 15. C APÍTULO 3METHODOLOGY
  • 16. S ECCIÓN 1 The objective of this research is the comparison of the holidays provision for the physically disable people in TheMETHODOLOGY Netherlands and Spain. A quantitative research is difficult to carry out. For this thesis I prefer to choose a qualitative research. That means, to select different case studies of holiday programmes for disabled people at both countries and at European Union level. This selection should be according to specific criteria. The general schema was mention in the first part of this thesis. Every study about tourism opportunities KEY POINTS for handicapped people should take into account three levels of intervention: 1. The European Union • State provision. 2. The Netherlands • Volunteer organisations. 3. Spain • The tourist market. The case studies used was were restricted to Brussels (Mobility International), Utrecht (SRG), Tilburg (Red Cross), Bilbao (Coordinadora de Disminuidos Físicos de Bizkaia) and Madrid (Accessible travel), cities visited during the PELS programme. However one can get a good idea about the holidays possibilities with these examples. The cases studies presented in this thesis will follow this scheme: 15
  • 17. HELIOS I & II PROGRAMMS The basic information to describe the holidaysTHE EUROPEAN UNION programmes was provided by the organisations. themselves.POLICY The direct source was written information and personal Case Study: Mobility interviews. To compare the provision of holidays and the International different programmes we need a model. The success of a holiday programme depend of all the recommendation that I mentioned before in the chapter "statement". In Nederlands and Spain there are several tourist programmes for the State: The Ministry ofTHE NETHERLANDS physically disabled. arranged traditionally for Voluntary or, in Welfare some cases, by private organisation or travel agencies. These (case study: THE RED organisations offer a product: A Voyage. That is what we will CROSS) compare: a holiday package specially arranged for the (case study: SRG Stichting physically disabled. The success depend of the following Recreatie Gehandicapten, aspects: Haarlem) SPAIN STATE: MINISTERIO DE 1.- Type of product: ASUNTOS SOCIALES (INSERSO as state provision) 1.a.- Domestic or foreign holidays. (case study: COCEMFE) 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 1 or 2 weeks normally with (case study: FEDERACION some exceptions in case of special packages. COORDINADORA DE DISMINUIDOS FISICOS DE 1.c.- Funding: State or private funding. This aspect has an VIZCAYA) important impact on the ability for physically disabled people (Case study: Accessible Travel to take holidays. Traditionally the founding was mainly from SA., Madrid) the State. However, with the new political tendencies, funding is becoming more privatised. 16
  • 18. 3.- Customers:2.- Organisation: For this study just the physically disabled. However some organisations do not offer package just for the physically2.a.- Real cost: Very important data, not always available for disabled and have programmes for disabled people in generalthis study because some organisations consider this (SRG, Utrecht or Mobility International, Brussels)information as secret.2.b.- Cost to users: Aspect related logically to the funding(state or private) That is the model to follow in all the case studies. But still another factor to consider: the psychological satisfaction2.c.- Staff: Full-time and/or seasonal workers, voluntary of the customers. Aspect quite difficult to measure in aworker, etc. qualitative research. Our target group of tourist is the2.d.- Activities: Excursion, parties and other social events. physically disabled people. Some of whom have previousThat is a key point for the success of the holidays from a experiences of "normal holidays" (I refer to people whopsychological point of view. became disabled after an accident) and other not. How valuable are holidays from a social and personal perspective2.e.- Facilities: transport, hotel, etc. Accessibility is the key for the European physically disabled? That is maybe the realword of this point. The infrastructure for "normal" holidays importance of this paper from a political point of view withinshould be adapted to "special" holidays. That is what we call the Social Europe.accessibility. In fact the new regulations for hotel buildingconsider the accessibility for the physically disabled people.Old hotels are normally not accessible at all and conversion isvery expensive and not affordable. Considering the transport,most of the organisations recognise the problem to findaccessible buses to transport the group to hotels or onexcursions. 17
  • 19. C APÍTULO 4RESEARCHSRESULTSTOURISM PROVISION FOR THEPHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED IN THEEUROPEAN UNION, SPAIN AND THENETHERLANDS.
  • 20. S ECCIÓN 1 POLICY ON DISABLED PEOPLE INTHE EUROPEAN UNION THE EUPOLICY ON DISABLED The European Union understands the importance ofAND TOURISM FOR tourism for the European economy. Tourism industry is a big market but approximately 40% of the Europeans do not takeHANDICAPPED PEOPLE: holidays. The reasons for this fact are economical problems but also disabilities or health problems. Handicapped, elderly, KEY POINTS unemployed, etc. build a special group called social tourism. In building a united Europe, social cohesion must be 1. Case study: Mobility International encouraged. The Community is trying to ensure-harmonious development to avoid unfair gaps between regions or social groups. The treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) includes this objective of social cohesion in the official text, whilst fully respecting the autonomy of the national authorities (the principle of subsidarity). That is the general political framework. In the decision of the council (92/421/CEE) the European Union offer a community action programme to assist disabled people. Some of this actions are directly related to tourism opportunities. The HELIOS programme in favour of integration and independent living of disabled people fall within the context of the construction of a Social Europe. Helios mean "Handicapped people in the European Community living independently in an open society." The 19
  • 21. HELIOS II programme covers the period from 1 January 1993 Europe, A) The national procedures and regulations whichto 31 December 1996. The budget is 37 millions of ecus. One disabled people should follow to obtain theses technicalobjective of the HELIOS programme is to encourage the aids. This information is compiled in a data bank in nineparticipation of disabled people in Community programmes languages and supplied on CD-ROM, which is accessible inin areas such as vocational training, studying abroad, the centres designated by the 12 Member States.language studies, etc. Some of this areas could be consider as HANDYNET also includes a multilingual electronic journaltourism. HELIOS II works around annual priority themes, so and a electronic mail system.all projects, seminars, meetings, training courses, exchangesof experiences must be short term events involving at least 3European Member States and be around the theme of: Three are the main ideas or values of the HELIOSAccessibility, Transport, Sport, Leisure & Culture, programme: Equal opportunities, integration andAssociations & Integration, Removal of Social & Psychological independent living. On the basis of these principles, theBarriers to Independence. HELIOS is the only community HELIOS programme covers five top-priority areas:programme exclusively dedicated to disabled people, but itoperates in synergy with other Community initiatives, e.g.: • Functional rehabilitation.• HORIZON: an initiative which aims at improving access to • Educational integration. employment for disabled people and for other disadvantage • Vocational training and rehabilitation. social groups such as the long-term unemployed. • Economic integration• TIDE: A Research and Development initiative concerned with the use of technology in the rehabilitation of disabled • Social integration. and elderly people.• HANDYNET: A specialised, computerised information system which makes available tens of thousands of items of Tourism opportunities for handicapped is not actually a information to disabled people and rehabilitation clear issue in the policies of the EU. Most of the efforts are professionals. This information relates to: A) Technical aids, oriented to accessibility in our information society. This point B) The manufacturers and distributors of theses products in is very important. handicapped people need integration into 20
  • 22. these opportunities to achieve an independent living. We can equal opportunities. The theory of transfer was also a concernsummarise these values in the HELIOS programme of the in the previous Community programmes for the integration ofCommission of the European Communities (Directorate disabled people (HELIOS I, 1988-1991). The transfer toGeneral "Employment, Industrial Relations, Social Affairs". colleagues in other European countries, normally in theDivision "Integration of disabled people, 1994): typical form of a tourist international seminar, is a form of tourism in another level. In some cases, HELIOS give• EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES: whatever their disability, all participants their first taste of travelling abroad. Practically disabled people should have the same opportunities in life everyone expressed enthusiasm for inter cultural exchange as other citizens. Opportunities also in the tourism field. and their experience of other countries and customs. It is Disabled people should have the same opportunities to take undoubtedly true that the Helios programme has contributed holidays at least once per year. The Human rights to improving communication and co-ordination between declaration (1948) affirm the same right. disability organisations and institutions in Europe. Disabled• INTEGRATION: A disability in itself should not be an workers of workers with disabilities represented for a national obstacle to participating in social and cultural life and to or international organisation can share the benefits of this access to transport and public services. The European Union exchanges. The organisation of this seminars is arranged for recognise this but only from an accessibility perspective. Mobility International, taking the form of exchange tourist Tourism involve different services: transport, programmes: 1996 is the last year of the HELIOS II. The accommodation, activities and excursions, etc. criteria of selection remain the same as last year: you need to involve at least three European Union Member States, the• INDEPENDENT LIVING: Whatever their disability, all maximum amount which can be applied for 25.000 ecus per disabled people must be able to lead their lives, as far as activity (funding at 50% of cost of the whole project). There possible, independently. How does this affect tourism? A are certain priority themes which have to be respected in handicapped tourist normally needs one or two assistants. 1996, and these are: Sport, leisure and cultural Activities, The ideal is to overcome architectural barriers without help. Elimination of Socio-Psychological barriers to independence, That is far away of the reality. etc. The Commission is particularly looking for proposals which show how to each activity relates to the United Nations Standard Rules, and would like to encourage applications Transfer is a valuable and effective means to achieve the relating to the needs of disabled women.HELIOS programmes aims of promoting integration and 21
  • 23. physically disabled, is specially consider as a way of cultural exchange. Since 1995 there has been a lot of Commission activity inthe way of new programmes, proposals and papers which areof interest to individuals and organisations in the disability Leonardo is the new European Union programme forfield. The Commission launched its Medium Term Action "vocational training" and runs from January 1995 toProgramme 1995-1997 following consultations after the Green December 1999, with a budget of 620 million ECU for fiveand White Paper on the future of the European Social Policy. years. Leonardo now incorporates elements of the old PETRA,Although not all social networks are happy with the FORCE, COMETT & EUROTECNET, as well as certain aspectspossibilities for action and travel (relating this point to our of LINGUA. So this, in a way, makes the programme quiteresearch) offered in the Medium Term Social Action complex but also quite broad-ranging in its possibilities andProgramme. The disability NGOs were actually very the so-called "strands" of the programme, such as measures toencouraged by the intentions expressed in the programme support the training policies of the Member States; supportconcerning future actions in the disability field.. However the for the improvement of vocational training measures andnew recommendation are related to the travel conditions of support for the development of language skills. Educationalworkers with motor difficulties. Employment and not holidays tourism is a possibility of this Leonardo grants.still the main trend. Case study: Mobility International Other programme: Youth for Europe III was adoptedearly this year and offers plenty of scope for exchanges It is interesting for our research the role played for Thebetween young people, particularly those with a EU in an international level. Most of the big European"Disadvantage" as well as Youth workers actions, exchanges voluntary organisation in a national level apply for subsidiesbetween European and non-European countries. One of the EU funds in form of European federation of localobjective encourage tourism indirectly: "enabling young organisation. The European Disabled Forum and Mobilitypeople to view the European Community as an integral part of International are designed as responsible of the actionstheir historical, political, cultural and social related to tourism. (Dec. 92/421 CEE) The Funding is relatedenvironment."(DG XXII, 1995). Tourism as exchange of to another European programme: Horizon. Mobility International were designated the co-ordinating European 22
  • 24. NGO for the Independent Living sector of HELIOS II, which because the participants travel to another country; meet newhas as its remit the areas: independent living, transport, people and enjoy the stay. One example could be the seminartourism, creativity, accessibility and sport. Mobility of Intercultura Siciliana (27th May - 4th June 1994): YoungInternational were also chosen as the researchers for the two people from France, England, Northern Ireland, Finland andDGXXIII European guides: Making Europe Accessible to Italy came together to sample the delights of Sicily in a projectDisabled Travellers and Accessible Europe: A Guide for hosted by Mobility International’s member AIAS CaltagironeDisabled Travellers, and participate in the DGXXIII - DGV and subsidised by the European Youth Foundation (Council ofmeetings on independent living and tourism. Europe). In only one week the group had a crash course in basic Italian, discussed different approaches to independent living in their country and learnt to cook typical Sicilian Mobility International is one of the biggest organisations dishes. This stay is not really Tourism because the aim was toin Europe for the physically disabled with branches in 15 participate in the seminar, but all the other activities aredifferent countries. Officially established as an international typical of a tourist stay.non-governmental organisation in 1982, since then theyorganised over 260 different international projects, seminars,exchanges, conferences and languages courses. The aim of Mobility International has produced a guide entitled :this organisation is to promote the integration and Were not ready yet! for voluntary organisations and disabledindependence of people with all kind of disabilities through people. Mobility International publish also a magazine (News)the medium of international exchange. They provide people twice a year marketing those holidays opportunities andwith disabilities the opportunity to meet, understand and offering enough information about other tourism provision inmakes friends with others from different countries. Mobility different countries. We refer to News Autumn 94 & SummerInternational has representation all the European Union 95. Mobility International is the ideal vehicle to informcountries except Spain and Portugal. This organisation is handicapped people about different possibilities for travelspecially interesting for our research because it take full abroad safe and find a accessible hotel.advantage of all the operational programmes of the EuropeanUnion for disabled: Horizon, Helios, etc. MobilityInternational organise different seminars around the year We can take an example of a tourism programme ofabout topics related to Disabled integration and leisure for all. Mobility International to apply the model mentioned before.That could be considered a special kind of “cultural tourism” Most of the projects are aimed at young people (16-30 yr.) 23
  • 25. with any kind of disabilities. Other projects are more open to 1.a.- Foreign holidays. Linda Gartshore and her team organisepeople over 30 years as well. Mobility International assist in a English course (Holidays course) in Lord Mayor Treolarthe setting up of networks based on common interest. They College in Alton, south of England.offer the rare opportunity to meet other people with and 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 17 - 31 July 1995, 11 days.without special needs (Integration objective of Helios). Newnetworks have started this way. Mobility International has 1.c.- Funding: Private funding. The students pay the totalstatus with United Nations, Council of Europe and the cours fees.Of course it is open the possibility to get a grantCommission of European Union. The activities are funded from the state or other private institution.mainly by the EUs Measures for Disabled Persons SocialAction Programme: Helios. This organisation has a excellentcontacts to arrange tourism programmes. We can take one 2.- Organisation:example to use as case study to analyse: That could be theAlton Linguability Language Course. 2.a.- Real cost: Very important data but not available for this study. 2.b.- Cost to users: 500 £HOLIDAYS PROVISION PROGRAMME 2.c.- Staff: Full-time seasonal workers fully trained.ALTON LINGUABILITY COURSE 2.d.- Activities:The English classes are the main activity. There will also be a programme of visits to London and and Strandford upon Avon, and this is included in the cost of the1.- Type of product: Cultural tourism. The formula is holiday course.Parties and social events are also arranged byholidays + language course. That is the new trend of tourism the school.as cultural tourism for the physically disabled. 2.e.- Facilities: Lord Mayor is a residential college for students with disabilities, designed for wheelchair users and people with mobility problems. Accommodation is in single or double 24
  • 26. rooms, and all personal assistants are fully trained. Theaccessibility is total in all classrooms and swimming pool.Flights are met at Londons Heathrow airport, and adaptedcoaches complete de Journey to Alton.3.- Customers: In this case just physically disabled peoplewith mobility problems. 25
  • 27. S ECCIÓN 2 POLICY ON DISABLED PEOPLE INTOURISM PROVISION THE NETHERLANDSFOR THE PHYSICALLY It is difficult to five a clear indication of how manyDISABLED IN THE disabled people are in Holland. 1.5 million of the 15 millions inhabitants of the Netherlands are generally regarded asNETHERLANDS suffering from a physical disability (1 in 10 people), while some 100,000 to 120,000 (1 in 150 to 125 people) are mentally handicapped (Study conducted in 1986 by the Social KEY POINTS Science Research Institute of the University of Brabant in 1. POLICY ON DISABLED PEOPLE IN THE Tilburg, Fact sheet W-2-E 1992). To give an impression of the NETHERLANDS number of services available in 1990, approximately NLG (Nederlands Gulden ) 4 billion were spent on these services. 2. THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY Estimates for 1991 budget to approximately NLG 4.2 billions. ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY DISABLED. The Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs is 3. Case Study:. THE RED CROSS IN TILBURG responsible of the disableds policy in the Netherlands. In fact in 1982 culture and recreation were separated out of the 4. THE HOLIDAYS MARKET FOR THE ministry responsible for social Welfare considering disable. PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN THE Outdoor recreation was placed under the Ministry of NETHERLANDS. Agriculture and Fishery, while culture and groups with "special needs" was divided off into a new Ministry of Health, 5. Case Study: stichting recreatie gehandicapten Well Being and Culture. The Ministry is responsible for policy on care and other facilities for disabled people (including indirectly tourism). Although two parties are involved in this 26
  • 28. policy: The Government and the private, community based, The Dutch Council for the Disabled, embracing nationalorganisations. To simplify: organisations of disabled people, patients and parents. The government provides the regulations, FUNDS (most The Netherlands Federation of Centres for the Physicallyimportant aspect for tourism opportunities), plans, Disabled, the umbrella organisation of activity centres andmonitors, advises and "co-ordination". housing schemes (aspect very related to the housing needs of all tourist programmes).The private organisations provide the services, theinfrastructure and the basis work; ensuring that the qualityis maintained. They have a non-profit making basis. The In fact is the same schema in Spain with COCEMFE &private organisations are divided into: COAMIFICOA. The Services for the Disabled Association, the national network of care workers and social service organisations need of the State to exist. The objectives of the• Religious (Protestant and Catholic) disableds policy in Netherlands are: integration, participation• Non-confessional (The Red Cross for example). and equal opportunities. The same as the HELIOS programme of the European Union. Coming to the praxis, the state policy encouraged that people in need of assistance can play the fullest possible part in society. In the Last few The ministry has a separate department (The decades existing facilities have changed radically and newInter-ministerial Steering Committee on the Disabled) but types of services have emerged. One new trend is theaspects such sport are responsibility of others departments. Domiciliary care. It is very important this point because theWe can observe a dualism between State and Private State pay the "Care" to the private organisations and theOrganisations. The relations between The Ministry and the organisations them self determine which services they willdifferent organisations are regulated and conducted by a offer. Anyway the cost of the services for the handicapped areconsultative committee (GOC - WVC) represented for high but covered largely from social insurance funds. Thisdifferent organizations: Like in Spain exists two principal social Welfare state (not in a big crisis at the moment) provideOrganisations of and for persons with a physical handicap: the support for innovatory projects for work and leisure. The innovatory services are introduce in the form of pilot projects (the same way as in Spain as we will observe afterwards), 27
  • 29. which provide the opportunity to examine how an idea works FACILITIES FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPEDin practice. Later on a consultative "body" analyses the PEOPLEprojects. Targeting the social sector of this research, theministry is involved in providing the following facilities for FACILITIES NUMBER PLACESperson with a physical and/or sensory handicap: Long-term Activity centres 33 1.130accommodation and guidance are provided in large housingunits. small housing units and housing units for young people. Hostels 4 800Other option in the normal life are the Activity centres thatoffer activities for people with disabilities. Many of the Source: Netherlands Federation of Centres for theparticipants suffer from a motor disorder. The most Physically Disabled (1990); Financial Overview ofimportant facilities for our research are the Holiday homes, the Care Sector 1991.which provide the opportunity for disabled persons and theirfamily to take a holiday. The Blauwe Guids is a good exampleof the market generated. I speak about market because allproduct has a target. Holidays for disabled his a product withoriented to a specific social sector. The physically disabled are THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARYour target here. ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY In 1990 the Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS) and the DISABLED.Netherlands Institute for Social Work Research publisheddata from the 1986-1988 period. These data confirmed thateven more as 10% of the Dutch population suffer from a Voluntary organisations or NGOs (Non governmentalserious or very serious disability. The number of disabled Organisations) are the basis of the Social work with thepeople grow as the population age. The state finance handicapped. It is not possible to sustain the provision ofprogrammes for disabled spending in 1990 NLG. 4 billion. services for handicapped without this kind of benevolentEstimating for 1991 amount to approximately NLG 4.2 billion. organisations. This also affects the provision of holidays for disabled. A lot of disabled people could not go on holiday without the participation and contribution of volunteers. 28
  • 30. The role of the volunteer who offers his/her time and work The Red Cross was founded in Holland in 1863. Bywithout a salary is the key to maintain the organisations and definition it is a non-profit organisation. The Red Cross is onethe services. The voluntary organisations use people who may of the largest voluntary organisations in The Netherlands. Weor may not have medical training. analyse first the work of the Red Cross in general. Holland is a small country and the Red Cross is organise the same way inLogically when the volunteers have a medical training they are every region. The Red cross has different programmes withasked to use it. The volunteers accompany the handicapped the aim to aid people who are in difficulties. It organises apeople during excursions and shopping, trips, etc. They give variety of activities for people who are likely to becomesome help during different recreational activities and assist socially isolated for any reason, etc. Concerning to our topicpeople when there is a demand, by washing, dressing and the Red Cross organised holidays, both in the Netherlandsundressing, at meal times, going to the toilet, etc. To get an and abroad, for people who can not go on holiday on theiridea, the Red Cross provides services in The Netherlands for own because of a chronic disease or handicap.5500 disabled per year, and for that need the help of 3700volunteers (Vakanties 1994, Vrijwilligers. Het NederlandseRode Kruis). The motivations of the volunteers are different The Red Cross in Tilburg was founded in 1910. The workbut generally they are young people who want to spend their is carried out by between 300 and 350 volunteers and onlyfree time doing something for others. Some volunteer one paid worker who is retired. All the members pay a annualorganisations are religious but that is not the main trend. fee of 25 NLG. The department of Mrs Kleyn in Tilburg is in charge to select the disabled participants for the holiday programmes in the Brabant Region.Case Study:. THE RED CROSS IN The Red Cross in Holland has three holiday -TILBURG accommodations; the holiday ship of J. Henry Dunant, the holiday houses: "Ijssel vliedt" and "De Valkenberg". These two houses "Ijssel vliedt" and "De Valkenberg" are situated in a pleasant environment. There are both adapted to the needs of handicapped people. These two houses offer 29
  • 31. holidays to the disabled. In addition the Red Cross offers also 2.a.- Real cost: The total cost is 1.100 NLG per weekthe possibility of taking holidays outside the country. As case 2.b.- Cost to users: The participants need to pay just 325 NLG.study we will consider the just holiday ship J. Henry Dunant 2.c.- Staff: One payed doctor and several nurses (depending of the participants level of disability). On the ship there is place for 68 participants (26 for people selected for the Tilburgs department) and 50 volunteers (including several nurses andHOLIDAYS PROVISION PROGRAMME: one doctor).THE HOLIDAY SHIP J. HENRY DUNANT 2.d.- Activities: People have the possibility to go on land when the ship anchors. Each evening there is a programme organised on land or in the ship. Parties and other social1.- Type of product: events organized by the local Red Cross.1.a.- Domestic holidays: The holiday ship J. Henry Dunant 2.e.- Facilities: Accessible transport to the ship arranged bywas built in 1970 thanks to the large income of money from the Red Cross In the ship the accessibility is total (toilettes,the Television charity show "Ship Ahoy". The ship travels by furniture, etc).day and gives the opportunity to people to see a constantlychanging landscape in The Netherlands.1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 1 or 2 weeks. 3.- Customers: 68 physically disabled.1.c.- Funding: private funding. The Netherlands State do not 3. THE HOLIDAYS MARKET FOR THEsupport this association and the money comes from some PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN THEcampaigns to raise funds. NETHERLANDS.2.- Organisation: The possible sustainability of holidays programmes for disabled without State intervention is the ideal solution according to the theory of the New Right. The experience in 30
  • 32. England points to the importance of the private market to offered by SGR are in groups but each has an individualensure the provision. That is not that easy. The private character. The opinion of each participant concerningmarket, by definition, seeks profit. The sector of the disabled excursions during their holidays is taken into account. Thedo not offer huge benefits. The disabled sector is a field participants choose the holiday best adapted to their personaltraditionally related to the voluntary sector. needs. The participants must not be bedridden nor mentally handicapped and they must be aged between 18 and 65 years,Apart from this fact, some private enterprises work in the approximately. The helpers are all volunteers, although mostsector. In most of the cases the State or the Ministry in charge of them do not have any medical background. SGR providespays the holidays through the channel of a voluntary disabled some medical aid during the holiday. The volunteers have justorganisation which arranges the programme. That seems the one days training which gives explanations about the trip andideal solution. The main question now is if the tourist industry the service to disabled people.can take into account the wider profile of potential consumerswith special needs by preparing market profiles similar tothose already available for the retired market. They organised a total of 33 programmes for 1994: 20 abroad and 13 in The Netherlands. To get a clear idea about the organisation we will mentione two of them. PLACE COUNTRY DAYS FROM/TO SERVICES GRANCase Study: stichting recreatie CANARIA SPAIN 15 16/10...30/10 Fly + hotelgehandicapten TIETJERK HOLLAND 8 1/7......8/7 Bungalows The Stichting Recreatie Gehandicapten (SGR) is a Travelagency that provide services for disabled who can not go on HOLIDAY PROGRAMME IN GRANholiday alone and need some kind of help. They offer travelinformation and arrange programmes of holidays and CANARIAexcursions on the basis of an individual service. The holidays 31
  • 33. 1.- Type of product: 2.d.- Activities: There are possibilities of excursions to the capital or elsewhere following the wishes of the holiday makers.Each evening, there is in the hotel a show or an1.a.- Foreign holidays in the sunny Canarias island. orchestra. The city is full of wonderful shops just for tourist.1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 2 weeks (15 days). 2.e.- Facilities: The hotel Buenaventura Playa is on the beach. It is a very big hotel with accessible accommodation1.c.- Funding: Private funding. There are no subsidies and facilities (14 lifts, 3 bars, 2 restaurants, a hairdresser, aorganised through the company, either for the holiday maker sauna, etc.) The beach is too wide and varied in levels to allowor for any helpers travel costs. access for disabled people to the sea. Accessible transport from the airport to the hotel is also arranged2.- Organisation: 3.- Customers: 13 physically disabled.2.a.- Real cost: Data not provided by the travel company.2.b.- Cost to users: Basic price: 2,241 NLG HOLIDAY PROGRAMME IN TIETJERK Possible supplements 1,452 NLG 1.- Type of product: Total: 5,693 NLG The prices include travelling, airport taxes, the holidaycost, some excursions and the cancellation insurance. The 1.a.- Domestic holidays in Tietjerk (Friesland)possible supplements are depending of the Degree of 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 8 days.dependence. For foreign holidays, accident and luggageinsurance in included. 1.c.- Funding: Private funding. There are no subsidies organised through the company, but as domestic holidays, the2.c.- Staff: The holidays in Gran Canaria made for 13 holiday maker pay the helpers travel costs.participants and 9 voluntary workers. 32
  • 34. participants may go outside, to the shop or the water side without any problems.2.- Organisation: 3.- Customers: 10 physically disabled.2.a.- Real cost: Data not provided by the travel company.2.b.- Cost to users: Basic price: 502 NLG Supplements: 439 NLG Total: 941 NLG The prices include transport, , the holiday cost, someexcursions and the cancellation insurance. As in the casementioned before, possible supplements are depending of theDegree of dependence. For all holidays within Holland,accident and luggage insurance are excluded.2.c.- Staff: The trip to Tietjerk in Friesland (The Netherlands)is for 10 participants and 10 voluntary helpers.2.d.- Activities: A lot of trips are organised through the typicallandscape of the country. Dinner is normally taken in thebungalows with an occasional outing to arestaurant.Entretainment programme is organized by "Dekleine Wielen"2.e.- Facilities: The holidays take place in full accessiblebungalows for 5 people in the Bungalow park "De kleineWielen". Each bungalow has a roomy living room, a bathroomcompletely adapted and the bedrooms for 2 to 3 people. The 33
  • 35. S ECCIÓN 3 1. POLICY ON DISABLED IN SPAINTOURISM PROVISIONFOR THE PHYSICALLY The policy on disabled in Spain does not follow same scheme as Nederlands. Spain is divided in 17 AutonomousDISABLED IN SPAIN. Communities have legislative powers specific to their own territory. They have their own autonomous government, and jurisdictional powers in the application of laws approved by their parliaments. The Spanish State is, however, not a federal KEY POINTS state, since power is delegated downwards, from the centre to the Autonomous Communities. The municipalities are 1. POLICY ON DISABLED IN SPAIN perhaps the weakest element in this system, since their 2. THE INSERSO. budgets are dependent on subvention from various higher levels of government, and there is a lack of definition as to 3. THE ROLE OF THE NGO IN THE their specific competences. In fact, the transference of power PROVISION OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE to the different Autonomous.The main difference between PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN SPAIN. The Netherlands and Spain is the structure of the government (at central, provincial and municipal level). The Netherlands 4. Case Study: COCEMFE is a small country and these three levels are not a barrier for 5. THE ROLE OF NGO IN THE PROVISION OF the provision of holidays for disabled."Las Autonomías" are HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY the autonomical regions in Spain. Euskadi, Catalunya, Galicia, DISABLED IN EUSKADI. Andalucía y Valencia are the most representatives During this research the responsibilities of the Central Social security 6. Case Study: FDFB services are now concernant to the local Social security service 7. THE HOLIDAYS MARKET FOR DISABLED with his own policy. This struggle for the power also in IN SPAIN. Case Study: ACCESSIBLE TRAVEL Welfare benefits between the Central Government and the Autonomías is not really good for the provision of services for S.A. (Madrid) disabled in Spain. The Central government holidays programmes for handicapped started in 1986 with 212 34
  • 36. participants. The number increase since 1989 but only with for managing Social Services which are supplementary to thehandicapped citizens from the areas where the INSERSO has benefits available under the Social Security System. We canresponsibility. This situation is unfair for the rest of Spanish call it: Welfare Ministry. Under the provisions of Royal Decreedisabled and in 1993 began a new directive open this 530/1985, INSERSO assumed all the Central Administrationsprogramme for all the disabled in Spain. Other problems power in respect of managing Social Services. Under Royalcomme now because handicapped from Catalunya or Valencia Decree 727/1988 INSERSO was brought under the scope ofhas free access to programmes of the INSERSO and the Ministry of Social Affaires.programmes of his own Autonomous Community. That meanthat they have more chances as other Spaniards fromExtremadura or Castilla. The INSERSO has different areas related to groups with "special needs": Handicapped, elderly & Refugees. The "Responsibilities" most important for our research concerning Leisure policy for the elderly and handicapped take into tourism for handicapped are:consideration the social tourism (a small but increasingsupply of cheap holidays and trips), these are provided byboth public and private institutions to take responsibility for Declaring handicapped individuals to meet Social Securitywhat started as private ventures, and the emergence of eligibility requirements as well as examining and registeringvoluntary sector centres for the elderly. the handicapped. Managing the social and income benefits foreseen in Title V of Act 13/1982, on Social Integration of the Handicapped. Setting up and running Residential Centres for the physically,THE INSERSO. mentally and sensorial handicapped, offering them permanent attention and personal as well as other social services. The Instituto Nacional de Servicios Sociales (INSERSO)was set up under Royal Decree-law 26/1987, of 16 November,under the Institutional Management of Social Security, Healthand Employment, as the Social Security Agency responsible 35
  • 37. This three responsibilities are quite important for our directly-managed Basic Centres in operation. The INSERSOtopic. Physically Handicapped who want to take part in a had 4 Centres for the Recuperation of the physicallyprogramme of the INSERSO should have more as 50% of handicapped in operation, located in Salamanca, Lardero (Ladisability (Responsibility one). Secondly the "Residential Rioja), Albacete and San Fernando (Cádiz). This kind ofCentres" oriented to insertion in society through a productive centres are ideal to provide accommodation and services for awork, could be use as Residential Hostel in the Summer. In holidays programme for physically handicapped. Thefact last 1994 they did. accessibility is optimal and also the occupational training can make unforgettable holidays. In fact the INSERSO use this centre in the Summer, when the "residents" take holidays in The organisational structure of the Instituto Nacional de another part.Servicios Sociales (INSERSO) was set forth in Royal Decree1433/1985. The institutes human resources in 1993 havebeen: 1,934 staff and 9,076 workers under labour contracts as The social protection system in Spain for thewell as 350 casual workers. The managerial structure is of a handicapped administrated by INSERSO includes variousfunctional nature, aimed at achieving the social integration of financial protection programmes which take the form orthe groups for which INSERSO is responsible as well as regular benefits. Retirement and disability pensions are paidensuring participation of the handicapped in managing the in fourteen regular payments, the total for 1993 being 441,420relevant services through the Boards for the handicapped. pesetas. The disability pension carries a supplement of 50% ofThat is the same structure as in The Netherlands: the annual amount when the beneficiary is affected by aGovernment and private and voluntary organizations. The chronic handicap of 75% or more and needs another person toprivate organization and normally also volunteer , which help with basic daily chores. In 1993, the amount has beenoperate on a non-profit making basis, are responsible for 220,710 pesetas broken down into fourteen regular payments.providing services. The first experience of holidays for disabled organized by Besides its Central Services and Provincial Directorates, INSERSO was in 1986 with the “Jornadas de convivencia paraINSERSO, works through an infrastructure of Care Centres minusvalidos fisicos”. Those programmes were arranged forfor the elderly and the handicapped. The basic centres for the periods of 15 days and were quite successfull. Thehandicapped . As of December 1993, INSERSO had 32 programmes consist of leisure activities in places of “touristic 36
  • 38. interest”. INSERSO continued with it fo the next two years.To understand the growing of this holidays programas one The first programme started in 1986.with 212 physicallycan consult this table: disabled. Since 1989 the INSERSO enlarged the target group with the inclusion of mentally disabled. The participation in YEAR PHYSICALLY DISABLED this second periods was a test with excellent results. 1992 was 1986 212 an important year in the programme. Until this year the INSERSO programmes were valid only in the Spanish 1987 400 territory where INSERSO has responsibilities (27 provinces). 1988 281 Disabled people from Euskadi or Catalunya for example (where the transference of the national health service PHYSICALLY MENTALLY TOTAL responsibilities to the Autonomical health service is total) YEAR were not able to participate in the programme. In 1993 the DISABLED DISABLED PARTICIPANTS programmes were on offer for all the Spanish territory. The 1989 414 2.150 2.564 participation in the last two years with the inclusion of a new 1990 569 2.500 3.069 group (mentally patientes) increase the target. 1991 309 3.228 3.537 1992 383 3.479 3.876 One can compare the increasing figures with the 360.000 elderly who participate in the holidays programmes of INSERSO. The Earderly holidays programme of the PHYSICALLY MENTAL MENTAL TOTAL INSERSO: "Programa de vacaciones para la Tercera Edad". YEAR DISABLED DISABLED PATIENTS PARTICIP. The peak in participation has not yet achieved but however 1993 329 6.306 ---- 6.635 the progress in the provisions is clear (Annual Report 1994. INSERSO’s holidays programme for disabled) 1994 656 6.371 54 7.081SOURCE: Annual Report 1994. INSERSO’s holidays The financial sources of the programmes came from theprogramme for disabled 0,5 if the NGP dedicated to Social Services. The amount for 37
  • 39. the disabled holidays programmes was 145.000 m Pts in 1994. physically disabled persons in Spain is COCEMFEThe budget for 1995 is increase to 155.000 m Pts. Holidays for (Confederación Coordinadora Estatal de Minusválidos físicosdisabled (BOE of 20th Mars 1995 (n.67; Point 4). de España). They began their holiday programmes during the low season of 1987 and during the high season of 1988. After this date they provided 9 annual holidays tours, each one for 45 persons. Holidays for disabled people is a new concept in Spain which is very successful. Normally the disabled people who thake these holidays whish to repeat them. At the present the demand excede the provision, as explain Jesús Tamayo, director of the holiday programme of the COCEMFE. We will analyse one of their packages as a case study:THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY Case Study: COCEMFEORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION (Confederación Coordinadora Estatal de Minusválidos físicos de España).OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLYDISABLED IN SPAIN. 1.- Type of product: Voluntary organisations form the base of the Social workwith the handicapped. It is not possible to sustain the 1.a.- Domestic holidays in Cubellas (Barcelona). The majorityprovision of holidays for handicapped without these types of of the holidays organaised by COCEMFE take place in Spain.benevolent organisations. This is the same situation in The However in the 1990 together with the INSERSO theyNetherlands and in Spain. The largest charity organization for 38
  • 40. organized a holiday in Portugal and in 1988 and 1999 also to 2.e.- Facilities: The COCEMFE has their own accustomisedItaly. bus with capacity for 50 persons and as well as a mini bus with capacity for 10 persons. The choice of hotels is made1.b.- Duration of the holidays:15 days, from 16 to 29 August according to the criteria of quality and cost. They generally1996 look for three starts hotels adapted without barriers and1.c.- Funding: Partial state funding. The COCEMFE recognize which offer serviced tailored to the group.that their programmes could be a little more expensive thanother partially state funded projects however they feel that thequality is better. 3.- Customers: the COCEMFE provided 9 annual holidays tours, each one for 45 persons, between 18 and 65 years old. They organized special separate programmes for children in2.- Organisation: Granada, Madrid and Segovia.2.a.- Real cost: Information not available.2.b.- Cost to users: The cost for the handicapped travellers ispartially subsidised by the state. If they wish travelaccompanied by a friend or able bodied helper this THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARYorganisation endevour to arrange a special price. The normal ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISIONprice of this holiday programme is 28.500 Pts OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY2.c.- Staff: 4 Full-time helpers per group and a driver. DISABLED IN EUSKADI.2.d.- Activities: Excursions are arranged. They use anaccustomised bus that makes possible to visit the surronding Before to study one voluntary organization inarea. The group also takes part in parties and other social Euskadi we should consider the special political structure ofevents. Spain and its division into Autonomies. This fact makes necessary to understand the policy on disabled in Euskadi 39
  • 41. independently of the general Spanish policy. In 1987 theBasque Health Service (Servicio de Salud Vasco) assumes de To get a wider perspective of the role played by theduties of INSERSO in Euskadi (BOE, 3-December-1987). The organizations just for the physically disabled in Euskadi onePolicy on the disabled people depende of the Basque Health can compare it with other organisations for disabled.Service and not of the National Health Service. But in fact it Considering the sensorial disabled, blind people have ONCEfollows the same guide lines of the National Level. 16,8% of (Spanish National Blind organisation). In Spain there arethe Euskadi population are disabled (53.765 people). The between 52.818 and 64.014 blind. Most of them are memberssupply for this group depend of: of the ONCE. This is a powerful organisation with a high• The central and local administration. autonomous income through a national gambling system. ONCE has a lot of benefits for his member with his own• Private and voluntary organizations. holidays programme. In fact ONCE has its own business enterprise, FUNDOSA S.A. that finance the only private enterprise of tourism for disabled in Madrid. In Euskadi we found a double administration: centralgovernment and the Euskadi autonomy. The general result isthe cooperation between the government, non-confessional The mentally disabled also has its own organisation inassociations and religious organisations (the Catholic Church Bilbao: GORABIDE. This is the ideal example of voluntaryin Euskadi) organisation with leisure and holiday provisions for the disabled. In Bizkaia there are 7.000 mentally disabled and 4.500 of them are member of GORABIDE. FIGURES IN EUSKADI sensorial disabled 6.955 PV 10549 physically disabled 16.999 PV 28186SOURCE: Encuesta sobre discapacitados,deficiencias y minusvalías. Instituto nacional deestadística, 1994. Case Study: FDFB 40
  • 42. (The Federation of physically disabled of Bikaia) Holidays are not considered by the FDFB as a main objective. However, they apply to the Basque Health Service (Servicio de Salud Vasco) holidays programmes, without any The Federación de disminuídos fisicos de Bizkaia (FDFB) success. The FDFB organised some day excursions that canis a member of the COCEMFE. This is the only organisation not be consider by definition “holidays”. The federation hasfor the Physically disabled in Bilbao. The Red Cross also has no connections with European disabled organisations andrepresentation in Bilbao but not consider the area of holidays does not apply to EU programmes as HELIOS, Youth, etc.for disabled. That is why we could not choose it as a logical One can understand that the FDFB is too small in size toreference organization. The FDFB was founded in 1978. The support its own holidays programmes but is in fact is the onlymain objective is the integration of the disabled in the society. association for the social group of physically disabled in theIntegration and accessibility are the key words. The federation area of Bilbao.has four paid workers, a lawyer and several co-workers(monitors). The centre is small and works as an occupationalcentre. The income to sustain it come from the Diputacion This organization does not have any holiday programme.Foral and some subsidies of the BBK (Bilbao Bizkaia Bank) to However they present to the Basque Health Service a projectan amount of 200.000 Pts p.a. The principal programmes of in 1994, that unfortunately was not accepted. We can use thisthis association are “training schemes”, using the centre as a data to validate this project and compare with othersday centre (the same concept as in The Netherlands). The programmes mentioned during this thesis. But we shouldfederation is structured in different committees: Leisure and keep in mind that it is just a project that never existed.Free time, Work, Accessibility and Health. 1.- Type of product: The committee of accessibility can obtain some subsidiesfor transport accessibility and they are working towardsreceiving greater grants. 1.a.- Domestic holidays. Place not determined 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 1 or 2 weeks depending of the funding. 41
  • 43. 1.c.- Funding: State funding (Basque Health Service) 100% THE HOLIDAYS MARKET FORstate funding DISABLED IN SPAIN.2.- Organisation: Case Study: ACCESSIBLE TRAVEL S.A. (Madrid)2.a.- Real cost: Data not available on this2.b.- Cost to users: The percentage paid by the client is based The Blind association ONCE through its business enterpriseson their earnings. FUNDOSA and the travel agency Viajes 200 started a Travel2.c.- Staff: One group coordinator and and un-dtermined Agency oriented to provide professional services to disabled innumber of volunteers. 1992. All the workers are also disabled. The director, Marcial Puebla, has a clear conception of the market. Disabled have a2.d.- Activities: Excursions and other recreational activities., lot of problems in travelling (lack of accessibility in transportparties and other social events. That is a key point for the and accommodation, low income, the non existence of asuccess of the holidays from a psychological point of view. professional supply, etc.). But on the other hand the have also a lot of free time and can use the increasing awareness of the2.e.- Facilities: transport, hotel, etc. should be Accessible for public sector trough subsidies to estimulate the tourism fordisabled. the handicapped. The first objective of Accessible Travel is to investigate hundred of hotels in Spain looking for the conditions of accessibility. The agency has also a list of3.- Customers: 180 the physically disabled, between 16 and enterprises that provide accessible road transport for the65 years old arranged in packages of 15 physically disabled. The work of Accessible Travel is quite important for the whole group of disabled people because they provided the first list of 42
  • 44. accessible accommodation in Spain. However the enterprisehas some problems in the daily work. The first is at home withthe neighbours who do not give the permission to build aramp where there are entrance stairs. The second is toconvince hotels managers about the importance ofaccessibility in their hotels. The third is the fact that theSpanish market is not mature enough for this kind ofenterprise accessible travel cannot exist without the monetaryhelp of ONCE. In fact in the last year Accessible Travel folded. 43
  • 45. C APÍTULO 5CONCLUSIONS &RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 46. S ECCIÓN 1 to travel spontaneously. The main reasons for people with disabilities being excluded from the tourism market are:CONCLUSIONS • Inaccessibility of the tourism product (or perceived inaccessibility) • Lack of appropriate and reliable information about the product • Lack of staff training in dealing with disabled clients.Holidays are part of living the fullest life possible for thosewho are disabled or have particular difficulties; they can find This research was oriented to analyse the provision ofthe strength to carry on, or the opportunity to meet new holidays for the physically disabled at the European Unionfriends (impossible when you are tied to the house all day, level and in two specific countries: Spain and Theevery day). Holidays can give the person with mobility Netherlands.problems, a welcome change from a perhaps restrictive orisolated routine. Planning for and enjoying even, a week’smodest holiday has a long term beneficial effects. Inability to The structure of the policy on disabled people in Theparticipate is an isolating factor and can also undermine Netherlands and Spain is quite similar Two parties involvedhealth. (Mary Baker, 1989). are: The Government and the Voluntary Organisations on a non-profit making basis. The government provides regulations, funds, plans, advice and co-ordination. The Travel and leisure play an increasingly important role in Voluntary Organisations provide the services, thethe life of the twentieth century. The opportunities for infrastructure and the daily help to handicapped people.disabled people to travel have improved enormously in thelast 10 years. It is still, unfortunately, difficult for many peoplewith special needs, particularly those with impaired mobility, 45
  • 47. The first conclusion is that the provision is better can expect in Spain a growth of this kind of enterprises in theorganised in The Netherlands. Holland is a smaller country, future, when the market will be mature for that. In fact athe distribution and the organisation of services are easier. travel agency (Viajes 2000) in Madrid has just taken over thisFurthermore the special political division of Spain in challenge. Unfortunately such a young product doesn’t haveAutonomies makes some times more complicated the use of any available data at present which could be evaluated.State subsidies. If we compare two cities for exempleTilburgin The Netherlands and Bilbao in Spain, one can discover thatthe offer is qualitatively better in Holland. In fact, there aren’tany provision in Bilbao for the physically disabled. TheFCDFB (Federación Coordinadora de Disminuídos Físicos deBizkaia) presented a project of holidays to the Basque HealthMinistry without any success. The objectives of the disabled’s policy in TheNetherlands, Spain and the European Union are the same:integration, participation and equal opportunities. Holiday isnot considered as a main objective, but in the last decadeexisting facilities have changed and a new type of services andprogrammes emerged as holiday provision. In both countriesthe ministry has a separate department in charge of the policyon disabled people. Several travel agencies offer holidays packages for thephysically disabled in The Netherlands, compared with justone in Spain: Accessible Travel SA, which close in 1995. Therole of the private organisation in the provision of holiday forthe disabled is a new trend in the « Social tourism » and one 46
  • 48. S ECCIÓN 2 a sign of quality in a service industry, and quality is good for business.RECOMMENDATIONS We recommend that all the new-build tourist accommodation be required to be accessible to people in wheelchairs. Although accessibility for disabled people to public buildings and transport is regulated at national level in almost every EU member State, in reality this legislation is not often enforced, and the majority of hotels, apartments, restaurants, bars, cultural and visitor attractions and means Given that at least 11% of the adult population in Europe or transport remain inaccessible. Neither are there stricthas a disability, it is estimated that the potential demand for criteria governing the use of the international accessibilitycommercial accommodation by people with disabilities is 158 symbol.million nights abroad and 193 million domestic nights. Atpresent the actual number of disabled travellers isconsiderably less than that, but if a conservative assumption We would like to recommend that if a little extrais made that each disabled traveller’s trip would attract 0,5 thought is given to catering for the needs of people withcompanions, and unserved potential of 35 million overnight reduced mobility then the tourism experience is made moretravellers and 630 million nights could be generated. (Touche pleasant and easier for everyone. In hotel design it couldRoss report, 1993). mean that there are fewer steps and wider doorways and bathrooms, that information is clearer, that staff are more geared up to listening to individual clients. We recommend We recommend that the tourist industry should take that accommodation providers should recognise the specialinto account the wider profile of potential consumers with needs of the physically disabled through adequatespecial needs and encourage the development of appropriate accessibility and promotional offers for disabled people.holiday provision. The ability to arrange holiday’sprogrammes and to cater for everyone whatever their need is 47
  • 49. We recommend that voluntary organizations atnational and local level establish links with internationalorganizations, suppliying them with information and newprojects. We recommend that all Tourist Information Centresshould have a guide on travel and accessible accommodationfor disabled people. In the case of Spain and Euskadi werecommend that a holiday’s guide for disabled like the Blauwegids in The Netherlands should be created. We would like to propose that rather than beingmarginalised into a small subsidiary action, that the needs ofdisabled people are integrated into the entire thinking about aEuropean Union tourism policy in the next few years. Wewould suggest that in a follow-up Community Actionprogramme in the field of Tourism, a specific action be fundedto consider the United Nations Standards Rules ofEqualisation of Opportunities for Disabled People and howthey may be more specifically applied in the tourism context. 48
  • 50. C APÍTULO 6BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 51. S ECCIÓN 1 UNITED NATIONS. Tourism and International Travels. Roma, 1993.BIBLIOGRAPHY COUNCIL OF EUROPE. Resolution 3447(XXX). Brussels, 1975. HUGO VAN DER POEL. Leisure policy in European States (Chapter 12). Not published yet. 1991EDICIONES EL SOL. Guía de los Españoles en Europa,Bruselas, 1998 HELIOS TEAM OF EXPERT. Helios II, Community action programme to assist disabled people 1993-1996. Ed. Commission of the European Communities. Brussels, 1994.MARY BAKER Tourism for All. The English Tourist board.London, 1989. WORLD TOURISM ORGANISATION. Accessible tourism for handicapped people in the 90’s (Para un turismo accesible aUNITED NATIONS. Resolucion 48/96. Normas Uniformes los Minusválidos en los 90). Buenos Aires, Argentina, 30 desobre la Igualdad de Oportunidades para las personas con september - 4 october 1991)Discapacidad. 1993. INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SERVICIOS SOCIALES:STATATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN Prestaciones y servicios para personas con minusvalía en losCOMMUNITIES. €tat. Luxembourg, 1995 paises de la CE. Coleccion Rehabilitacion, n. 33. Ed Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales. Madrid, 1989. 50
  • 52. STICHTING MOBILITY INTERNATIONAL NEDERLANDS. Blauwe gids 1994 voor mensen met een handicap. Groesbeek,COMISION DE LAS COMUNIDADES EUROPEAS. Informe 1994.de la Comision al Consejo, al Parlamento y al ComiteEconomico y Social sobre las Acciones Comunitarias queafectan al Turismo. (Decision del Consejo 92/421/CEE) Instituto IDES/INSERSO . Las Personas con Minusvalía enBrussels 6/4/1994. España. Necesidades y demandas. Ed INSERSO. Madrid, 1988.MINISTRY OF WELFARE, HEALTH AND CULTURALAFFAIRS (THE NETHERLANDS). Policy on Disabled people INSERSO/ Universidad de Salamanca. Actitudes hacia& Accessibility for the physically disabled. Published by the personas con minusvalías. Ed INSERSO. Salamanca, 1994.Disabled Persons Policy Department. Utrecht, 1992. INSERSO. Programa de vacaciones del INSERSO paraTHE NETHERLANDS RED CROSS Aid in focus. Den Haag, personas con minusvalía. Memoria 1994. Madrid, 1995.1993. INSERSO. Programa de vacaciones del INSERSO paraHET NEDERLANDSE RODE KRUIS. Vakanties 1994, personas con minusvalía. Memoria 1997. Madrid, 1998Vrijwilligers. Ed. Red Cross. Den Haag, 1994. SIIS. Deficiencias y minusvalías en la Comunidad AutónomaHET NEDERLANDSE RODE KRUIS. Het Rode Kruis in Vasca. Ed. Gobierno Vasco & SIIS, Vitoria 1988.vogelvlucht. Ed. Red Cross. Den Haag, 1993. 51
  • 53. INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA. Encuesta sobre Decreto Foral 19/1994, de 1 de Marzo; concesión dediscapacidades, deficiencias y minusvalías. Ed. Instituto subvenciones en favor de las Escuelas Oficiales de FormaciónNacional de Estadística. Madrid, 1987. de Educadores de Tiempo Libre (BOB 22/3/94).CONCHA BARON & RAFAEL RUIZ. Viajes paraMinusválidos. Ed. El País/ INSERSO. Madrid, 1992.ALFONSO SAN JUAN & IBAÑEZ LOPEZ: Las minusvalías.Ed UNED. Madrid, 1990.LEGISLACIÓN ESPAÑOLA:Real Decreto 1476/1987, de 2 de Octubre, sobre el traspaso ala C.A.P.V. de las funciones y servicios del INSERSO (BOE3/12/1987)Real Decreto 257/1986, de 18 de Noviembre, sobre ServiciosSociales para minusválidos. 52

×