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# 13f impulse momentum-wireless 3-3-09

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### 13f impulse momentum-wireless 3-3-09

1. 1. Impulse-Momentum TheoremIntroductionDuring a collision, the contact force between the objects participating in the collision is notconstant, but varies with time. Thus the accelerations experienced by the objects will alsobe functions of the time. Since the accelerations are not constant we will not be able to usethe kinematics equations of motion to analyze this situation. Instead, we will rely upon theconcept of impulse and its relationship to the change in momentum through the Impulse-Momentum Theorem. The purpose of this lab is to determine the validity of the Impulse-Momentum Theorem.EquipmentComputer with Logger Pro SW Glider Ringstands (2)Vernier Lab Pro Interface Wireless Force SensorAir Track & Air Supply Vernier PhotogateAir Track Accessory Kit (Bumpers) ScaleFigure 1. Overhead view of the glider as it is about to impact the bumper attached to theforce sensor.13f Impulse-Momentum-Wireless 3-3-09 -1- Revised 10-11-07
2. 2. TerminologyImpulse: (Area under the F-vs-t graph) J = F ∆tNet Impulse: (Area under the Fnet-vs-t graph) J net = Fnet ∆tMomentum: p = mvChange in Momentum: ∆p = mv − mv0TheoryThe easiest way to analyze this collision situation is to make a graph of the force versustime. The impulse of this force over a given time interval is the area under the curve overthe same time interval. The time interval will usually be the interval during which theforce acts. If the force were constant, then the graph of the force versus time would be ahorizontal line and the area under the curve would be the value of the constant forcemultiplied by the time interval. However, since the force varies with time, we need to usethe average force, over the time interval. The net impulse acting on an object is the vector sum of all of the impulses that acton the object, or alternatively it is the area under the curve of the graph of the net forceacting on the object versus time. The Impulse-Momentum Theorem states that the netimpulse acting on the object is also equal to the change in the momentum of the object. J net = Fnet ∆t = ∆p p = mv & ∆p = mv − mv0 In this lab we will produce a one-dimensional elastic collision between a glider,riding on an air track, and a stationary force sensor. The photogate timer will record theinitial and final velocities and the force sensor will record the force as a function of time.We will then use this data to determine the validity of the Impulse-Momentum Theorem.13f Impulse-Momentum-Wireless 3-3-09 -2- Revised 10-11-07