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Chapter 11 managing weight and eating behaviors

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Chapter 11 managing weight and eating behaviors Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Maintaining a Healthy Weight Are you happy with the way you look, or do you wish some things were different?
  • 2. Maintaining a Healthy Weight For many people, body image is tied to perception of weight. Your own healthy weight probably won’t be the same as your best friend’s.
  • 3.
    • Associate the relationships between body composition, diet, and fitness
    • Describe the importance of maintaining a healthy weight to promote health and prevent disease
    • Demonstrate healthful ways to manage weight
    In this lesson, you will learn to: Lesson Objectives
  • 4. The Weight-Calorie Connection
    • Calories are units used to measure:
    • Energy in food.
    • Energy your body uses for life processes and physical
    • activities.
    • Maintaining a healthy weight is a matter of energy balance. The calories you consume must equal the calories your body burns.
    Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • 5. The Weight-Calorie Connection The specific number of calories in a food depends on: Calories: Their Source
    • Portion size.
    • The amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in the food.
    • How the food is prepared or cooked.
  • 6. The Weight-Calorie Connection The Energy Equation Tipping the balance of the energy equation will result in weight loss or gain. If you take in fewer calories than you burn, you lose weight. If you take in more calories than you burn, you gain weight.
  • 7. Determining Your Appropriate Weight Range
      • Gender
      • Age
      • Height
      • Body frame
      • Growth rate
      • Metabolic rate
      • Activity level
    Factors Influencing Your Appropriate Weight
  • 8. Determining Your Appropriate Weight Range One way to evaluate whether your weight is within a healthy range is to determine your body mass index (BMI). As you calculate your BMI, keep in mind that many different ratios of height to weight can be healthy. There is no single size, shape, or growth pattern that’s normal for everyone. Body Mass Index
  • 9. Body Composition
    • Body composition is the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue.
    • The terms overweight and obese are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same.
    • Both can endanger health, but in certain cases being overweight may not pose health risks.
    Body Weight versus Body Fat
  • 10. Weight-Related Health Risks BMI for adults serves as a general guide for evaluating some health risks. Adults with high BMIs are at increased risk of: High BMI: A Health Risk
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Cancer
    • High blood pressure
    • Osteoarthritis
  • 11. Weight-Related Health Risks Being overweight is a serious problem in the United States. Excess body fat: Overweight: A Health Risk
    • Strains the muscles and the skeletal system.
    • Forces the heart and lungs to work harder.
    • Increases the risk of high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol.
    • Increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, asthma, and some cancers.
  • 12. Weight-Related Health Risks
    • An underweight person:
    • Has little stored fat to provide the body with an energy reserve.
    • May not be consuming enough calories and nutrients for health and growth.
    Underweight: A Health Risk
  • 13. Healthful Ways to Manage Weight Weight Management Plan If you want to begin a formal weight management plan, these strategies can help:
    • Target your appropriate weight.
    • Set realistic goals.
    • Personalize your plan.
    • Put your goal and plan in writing.
    • Evaluate your progress.
  • 14. Healthful Ways to Manage Weight Healthy Weight-Loss Strategies Eat a variety of low-calorie, nutrient-dense foods . Eat 1,700 to 1,800 calories daily to meet your body’s energy needs. Include your favorite foods in moderation. Drink plenty of water.
  • 15. Healthful Ways to Manage Weight Healthy Weight-Gain Strategies Increase your calorie intake. Eat often and take second helpings. Eat nutritious snacks. Build muscle by resistance training.
  • 16. Healthful Ways to Manage Weight
    • Whether you want to lose, gain, or maintain weight, regular physical activity should be part of your plan.
      • Aerobic exercise burns calories and helps you lose fat.
      • Weight lifting or resistance training will increase muscle mass and produce a firm, lean body shape.
    Physical Activity and Weight Management
  • 17. Healthful Ways to Manage Weight
    • It helps relieve stress.
    • It increases self-esteem.
    • It promotes a normal appetite response.
    Benefits of Regular Physical Activity
  • 18. Q. ________ is a condition in which a person is heavier than the standard weight range for his or her height. 1.      Underweight 2.  Obesity 3.  Overweight 4.  BMI Choose the appropriate option. Quick Review
  • 19. Quick Review - Answer A. 3. Overweight Overweight is a condition in which a person is heavier than the standard weight range for his or her height. Click Next to attempt another question.
  • 20. Quick Review Q. Maintaining a healthy weight is a matter of energy balance: the calories you consume must equal the calories your body burns. Tipping the balance of the energy equation will result in weight loss or gain. True False Choose the appropriate option.
  • 21. Quick Review - Answer Click Next to attempt another question. A. True. Maintaining a healthy weight is a matter of energy balance: the calories you consume must equal the calories your body burns. Tipping the balance of the energy equation will result in weight loss or gain.
  • 22. Quick Review
    • diet, cultural background, weight of parents.
    • 2. income, work ethic, activity level.
    • 3. sex, age, height.
    • 4. talents, future goals, grades.
    Q. Factors that are used to determine a person’s appropriate weight are ________.
  • 23. Quick Review - Answer Click Next to attempt another question. A. 3. sex, age, height. Factors that are used to determine a person’s appropriate weight include: sex, age, height.
  • 24. Quick Review Q. Which of the following statements about muscle strength is true?
    • Nutrient-dense foods are well balanced for healthy weight loss.
    • 2. Nutrient-dense foods enable the dieter to skip meals.
    • 3. Nutrient-dense foods taste better and are easy to prepare.
    • 4. Nutrient-dense foods leave room for lots of snacks.
  • 25. Click Next to attempt another question. Quick Review - Answer A. 1. Nutrient-dense foods are well balanced for healthy weight loss. It is important to eat a variety of low-calorie, nutrient-dense foods if you are trying to lose weight because: nutrient-dense foods are well balanced for healthy weight loss.
  • 26.
    • End of Lesson 1
    Click Home to view the Main menu.
  • 27. Fad Diets and Eating Disorders Do you… These weight-loss strategies are risky. Not only do they often fail to produce long-term results, but they can also cause serious health problems. Eat only a few types of food? Use diet pills? Follow a liquid diet?
  • 28.
    • Explain the risks of fad diets and other harmful weight-loss strategies
    • Describe the causes and symptoms of eating disorders
    • Develop decision-making skills to get help for someone you know who has an eating disorder
    In this lesson, you will learn to: Lesson Objectives
  • 29. Risky Weight-Loss Strategies Fad Diets
    • Fad diets are hard to stick with because they limit food variety.
    • Some are costly because they require dieters to buy certain products.
    • They fail to provide the body with the nutrients it needs for health and growth.
    • Any weight lost on fad diets is usually regained.
  • 30. Risky Weight-Loss Strategies
    • A person on a liquid diet replaces all of his or her food intake
    • with a special liquid formula. Some problems with liquid diets:
    • They do not meet the body’s energy needs, as they are very low-calorie diets.
    • They often leave the dieter feeling fatigued.
    • Many do not provide the body with fiber and needed nutrients.
    Liquid Diets
  • 31. Risky Weight-Loss Strategies Relying on high-protein, low-carbohydrate liquids as the only source of nutrients can cause serious health problems and even death. Dangers of Liquid Diets
    • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA):
    • Requires liquid diet products to carry warning labels.
    • Recommends that liquid diets be used only under close medical supervision.
  • 32. Risky Weight-Loss Strategies
    • To fast is to abstain from eating.
      • Fasting for more than short periods deprives your body of needed nutrients and energy.
      • If people who are fasting avoid liquids, they may become dehydrated.
      • Fasting may not be advisable for those with diabetes or other health conditions.
    Fasting
  • 33. Risky Weight-Loss Strategies Many diet pills work by suppressing appetite. A low-risk pill that meets claims of “burning,” “blocking,” or “flushing” fat from the body has not yet been developed. Diet Pills Drowsiness Racing Heart Addiction Dehydration Side Effects of Diet Pills
  • 34. Weight Cycling
    • Weight cycling is common in people who follow fad diets. Weight loss on these types of diets is usually from water, not body fat.
    • Water weight lost is quickly regained.
    • Slow and steady weight loss is the best strategy for long-lasting results.
    Weight Loss and Weight Gain
  • 35. The Risks of Eating Disorders An eating disorder may be brought on by mental or emotional factors such as: What Causes Eating Disorders?
    • Poor body image
    • Family pressures
    • Social pressures
    • Perfectionism
    • Genetics
  • 36. The Risks of Eating Disorders
    • Anorexia nervosa is a psychological disorder with emotional and physical consequences.
    • The disorder relates to an individual’s self-concept and coping abilities.
    • Outside pressures, high expectations, a need to be accepted, and a need to achieve are characteristics associated with the development of anorexia.
    Anorexia Nervosa
  • 37. The Risks of Eating Disorders Medical specialists have found genetics, hormones, and certain brain chemicals to trigger anorexia in some people. Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa
    • Symptoms:
    • Extremely low caloric intake
    • An obsession with exercising
    • Emotional problems
    • An unnatural interest in food
    • A distorted body image
    • Denial of an eating problem
  • 38. The Risks of Eating Disorders Physical consequences of anorexia are related to malnutrition and starvation. It may stop menstruation in women. Health Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa
    • Other consequences:
    • Loss of bone density
    • Low body temperature
    • Low blood pressure
    • Slowed metabolism
    • Reduction in organ size
    • Serious heart problems
  • 39. The Risks of Eating Disorders A person with bulimia nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Purges the food from the body Binges or quickly consumes large amounts of food Fasts or follows a strict diet
  • 40. The Risks of Eating Disorders
    • The exact cause of bulimia is unknown, but societal pressures,
    • self-esteem issues, and family problems may be factors.
    • Symptoms:
    • Distorted body image
    • Unnatural interest in food
    Causes and Symptoms of Bulimia
  • 41. The Risks of Eating Disorders Health Consequences of Bulimia Nervosa
    • Vomiting destroys tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. It also damages the tissues of the stomach, esophagus, and mouth.
    • Frequent vomiting and diarrhea can lead to dehydration, kidney damage, and irregular heartbeat.
    • Frequent use of laxatives can disrupt digestion and absorption and can cause nutrient deficiencies. It can also change the composition of the blood.
  • 42. The Risks of Eating Disorders People with binge eating disorder consume huge amounts of food at one time but do not try to purge. This disorder may signal the use of food as a coping mechanism for strong emotions or depression. Binge Eating Disorder
  • 43. The Risks of Eating Disorders Binge eating disorder often results in unhealthful weight gain, which contributes to health problems such as: Health Consequences of Binge Eating Disorder
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Heart disease and stroke
    • Gallbladder problems
    • High blood pressure
    • High cholesterol
    • Increased risk of certain types of cancer
  • 44. The Risks of Eating Disorders People with eating disorders need professional medical and psychological help. They may also benefit from support groups and clinics. Help for Eating Disorders
  • 45. The Risks of Eating Disorders How You Can Help People with Eating Disorders
    • If you believe a friend might be developing an eating disorder,
    • you can:
    • Discuss the problem with a trusted adult.
    • Encourage your friend to seek professional help, and be supportive.
  • 46. 1.    Liquid diets 2.  Fasts 3.  Diet pills 4.  Fad diets Q. _____ are weight-loss plans that are popular for only a short time. Choose the appropriate option. Quick Review
  • 47. Quick Review - Answer A. 4. Fad diets Fad diets are weight-loss plans that are popular for only a short time. Click Next to attempt another question.
  • 48. Quick Review 1. obsessive-compulsive behavior. 2. rashes, acne, and other skin problems. 3. extremely low calorie intake and an obsession with exercise. 4. cravings for fatty foods.   Q. Symptoms of anorexia nervosa include _____ .
  • 49. Quick Review - Answer Click Next to attempt another question. A. 3. extremely low calorie intake and an obsession with exercise. Symptoms of anorexia nervosa are: extremely low calorie intake and an obsession with exercise.
  • 50. Quick Review Q. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder in which some form of purging or clearing of the digestive tract follows cycles of overeating. True False Choose the appropriate option.
  • 51. Quick Review - Answer Click Next to attempt another question. A. True. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder in which some form of purging or clearing of the digestive tract follows cycles of overeating.
  • 52. Q. Why do people with eating disorders require assistance from professional health services?
    • It is the easiest way to solve the problem.
    • 2. Eating disorders could lead to serious illness or death.
    • 3. Eating disorders only affect young girls, and they need professional health services more than others as they are underrepresented in the field of medicine.
    • 4. Eating disorders, if left untreated, could be passed on to the sufferer’s children.
    Quick Review
  • 53. Click Next to attempt another question. Quick Review - Answer A. 2. Eating disorders could lead to serious illness or death. People with eating disorders require assistance from professional health services because: eating disorders are extremely harmful behaviors that could lead to serious illness or death.
  • 54.
    • End of Lesson 2
    Click Home to view the Main menu.
  • 55. Nutrition for Individual Needs Does it seem to you that everyone has a different idea about proper nutrition? In truth, proper nutrition depends on the individual. Eating meat is unhealthy. Eating too many carbohydrates is bad for you.
  • 56.
    • Assess the specific nutritional needs of different groups
    • Describe the proper nutrition for pregnant women, mothers, babies, and young children
    • Demonstrate health-promoting behavior that will enhance and maintain wellness
    In this lesson, you will learn to: Lesson Objectives
  • 57. Performance Nutrition
    • The best eating plan for athletes is one that is balanced, moderate, and varied.
    • Active individuals need to eat more calories from nutrient-dense foods to maintain their weight and energy levels when training.
    The Training Diet
  • 58. Performance Nutrition
    • Your body naturally loses fluids through:
    • Perspiration
    • Breathing
    • Waste elimination
    • These fluids must be replaced to
    • avoid dehydration and heatstroke.
    • Becoming dehydrated can lead to an imbalance of electrolytes .
    Hydration Electrolytes Sodium Potassium Chloride
  • 59. Performance Nutrition Rehydration
    • Rehydration is important after physical activity and competition.
    • You must take in as much water and electrolytes as you lose.
    • Drink 16 ounces of fluid for every pound of body weight lost through sweat.
  • 60. Performance Nutrition Making Weight When competing in specific weight classes in sports such as boxing or wrestling, always compete at a weight that’s right for you. Athletes should follow a sensible plan and try to lose only one-half pound to one pound each week. Gaining Weight A slow, steady weight gain of no more than one to two pounds per week is recommended. Losing Weight
  • 61. Performance Nutrition Eating Before Competition Eat three to four hours before competition. Choose a meal that’s high in carbohydrates and low in fat and protein. Drink plenty of water before, during, and after competing.
  • 62. Vegetarianism
    • People become vegetarians for health reasons, religious or
    • cultural reasons, and environmental reasons.
    • Vegetarians reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease and
    • some cancers by:
    • Cutting out the saturated fats and cholesterol found in many animal products.
    • Consuming more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
    Benefits of Vegetarianism
  • 63. Vegetarianism Vegetarians need to eat: Meeting Nutrient Needs
    • A variety of incomplete proteins.
    • Adequate amounts of iron, zinc, and B vitamins.
    • Adequate amounts of various nutrient-dense foods.
    Because vegans consume no meat or dairy products, they must obtain vitamin D, vitamin B12, and calcium from other sources.
  • 64. Dietary Supplements Why Do People Take Supplements?
    • Eating healthful meals and snacks based on the Food Guide Pyramid can provide you with all the nutrients your body needs.
    • A health care provider may recommend a dietary supplement to people with certain lifestyles or medical conditions.
    • Dietary supplements may contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein, or herbs.
    • Supplements can be in pill, capsule, powder, or liquid form.
  • 65. Dietary Supplements Risks of Dietary Supplements
    • Taking a megadose can be dangerous.
    • Claims of herbal supplements , often sold as “natural” nutrition aids, are not based on conclusive scientific evidence.
    • The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) of the U.S. FDA alerts consumers to potentially dangerous dietary supplements.
    • Some herbal supplements known to have dangerous side effects include ephedra, lobelia, yohimbe, and chaparral.
  • 66. Nutrition Throughout the Life Span People have different nutritional needs at different stages of life. Most people can get all the calories and nutrients they need each day by following the recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid. Nutritional Needs at Different Stages of Life
  • 67. Nutrition Throughout the Life Span Pregnant females need to eat healthfully and avoid harmful substances such as tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. They are encouraged to increase their intake of foods rich in folate, iron, and calcium. Nutrition During Pregnancy
    • Folate can prevent spinal defects in the developing fetus.
    • Sources: Fruits, dark green leafy vegetables, and fortified grain products
    Folate Iron Calcium
  • 68. Nutrition Throughout the Life Span Between a child’s 2 nd and 5 th birthday Nutrition for Infants and Young Children After a child’s 1 st birthday Breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants. Alternatively, fortified formulas provide the nutrients that infants need. Within a child’s 1 st year
  • 69. Nutrition Throughout the Life Span Nutrition and Older Adults
    • Most older adults can get all the calories and nutrients they need by following the recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid.
    • In certain cases, health care providers might recommend a dietary supplement to help meet older adults’ nutrient needs.
  • 70.
    • high- carbohydrate
    • 2. nutrient-poor
    • high-protein
    • 4. high- fat
    Choose the appropriate option. Quick Review Q. An athlete should eat a ______ meal before competing.
  • 71. Quick Review - Answer A. 1. high-carbohydrate An athlete should eat a high-carbohydrate meal before competing. Click Next to attempt another question .
  • 72. Quick Review Q. A vegetarian is a person who only eats poultry and fish occasionally. True False Choose the appropriate option.
  • 73. A. False. A vegetarian is a person whose diet is mostly or completely plant-based. Click Next to attempt another question . Quick Review - Answer
  • 74. Quick Review Q. What are megadoses and why might they be dangerous?
    • Megadoses are very large amounts of dietary supplements and may be dangerous because they can cause toxicity in the body.
    • 2. Megadoses are combinations of amino acids and vitamins and can be dangerous when eaten with red meat.
    • 3. Megadoses are natural vitamins and may be dangerous when combined with synthetic vitamins.
    • 4. Megadoses are large amounts distilled antioxidants, and may be dangerous when combined with vitamins C and E.
  • 75. Quick Review - Answer Click Next to attempt another question. A. 1. Megadoses are very large amounts of dietary supplements and may be dangerous because they can cause toxicity in the body. Megadoses are very large amounts of dietary supplements, and may be dangerous because they can cause toxicity in the body.
  • 76. Quick Review Q. Good nutrition enhances and maintains personal health throughout life. True False Choose the appropriate option.
  • 77. Quick Review - Answer Click Next to attempt another question. A. True. Good nutrition enhances and maintains personal health throughout life.
  • 78.
    • End of Lesson 3
    Click Home to view the Main menu.