air pollution


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air pollution

  1. 1. PROJECT
  2. 2. GROUP - 1 PRESENTS
  4. 4. POLLUTION <ul><li>Pollution is an undesirable change in physical,chemical or biological characterstics of air,land or water that harmfully affected the life or create potential health hazard of living organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Any substance causes pollution is called pollutant. </li></ul>
  5. 5. DIFFERENT TYPES OF POLLUTION <ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Soil pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Noise pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive pollution </li></ul>
  7. 7. Air pollution is the degradation of air quality and natural atmospheric conditions .
  8. 8. RESULTS OF AIR POLLUTION <ul><li>Air pollutants cause injury to all living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>They reduce growth and yield of crops. </li></ul><ul><li>It cause premature death of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Affects respiratory system of human and of animals. </li></ul>
  9. 9. PRIMARY AIR POLLUTANTS <ul><li>Particulate matter </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide (CO) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbondioxide(CO2) </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) or Hydrocarbon (HC) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphur dioxide(SO2) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxide (NO2) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorides </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1.Particulate matter It comprises of solid particles or liquid droplets small enough to remain suspended in air. Eg : smokes,dust,pesticides,pollen, fungal spores ,fibres,some metal like copper, iron etc. EFFECTS -Injurious to health -asthma,tuberculosis,bronchitis etc .
  11. 11. 2.Carbon monoxide (CO) <ul><li>This poisonous gas is formed from partial combustion of fuels, steel industry, oil refiners,cigarettesmoke etc. </li></ul><ul><li>CO is very harmful to living organism especially to animals. </li></ul><ul><li>It inhibits cellular respiration in plants. </li></ul>
  12. 16. 3.Carbondixide (CO2) <ul><li>Due to the combustion of fuels, respiration process of plants and animals etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The main reason for increasing global warming is due to the present of high amount of CO2. </li></ul>
  13. 17. 4. Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) or Hydrocarbon (HC) <ul><li>These are compounds of hydrogen and carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons are formed naturally during decomposition of organic matter and certain types of trees such as pine trees. </li></ul><ul><li>The chief source are the motor vehicle,burning of fuels,decay of garbage etc. </li></ul>
  14. 23. 5. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) <ul><li>SO2 is released from the combustion of sulphur containing coal, petroleum refining, automobiles, ore smelters etc. </li></ul><ul><li>High amount of sulphur dioxide destroys the vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>It disappearance of chlorophyll and break down of cells. </li></ul>
  15. 25. 6.Nitrogen oxide (NO2) <ul><li>It form during combustion of fossil fuels as high temperatures in automobile engines. </li></ul><ul><li>It also released from power plants. </li></ul><ul><li>It may cause heart or lung problems and may be carcinogenic. </li></ul>
  16. 28. 7. Fluorides <ul><li>Hydrogen fluoride gas is an extremely phytotoxic gas released by the heating of fluoride rocks, soils etc. </li></ul>
  17. 29. 8. Lead <ul><li>Lead is emitted by automobile exhaust and it causes long-term environmental pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous inhaling of air borne lead pollution caused lead poisoning. </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of haemoglobin in the blood. </li></ul>
  18. 30. SECONDARY POLLUTANTS <ul><li>Photochemical smog </li></ul><ul><li>Acid rain </li></ul>
  19. 31. 1.Photochemical smog <ul><li>It is formed in traffic congested metropolitan cities where warm conditions and intense solar radiations are present. </li></ul><ul><li>It caused by combination of smoke and fog. </li></ul><ul><li>It cause series of health hazards. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage plant as well as animal life . </li></ul>
  20. 32. 2.Acid rain <ul><li>As a result of burning of fossil fuels, and petroleum, large quantities of sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxides reach the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>These gases oxidise into sulphuric acid and nitric acid. </li></ul><ul><li>It deposits on the surface of earth either through rain. </li></ul><ul><li>It changes the pH of the soil </li></ul>
  21. 40. Don’t kill me
  23. 42. 1.Control of particulate matters <ul><li>Scrubbers or arresters can be used to remove particulate matters from contaminated air. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclonic separator ,which consists of a special chamber where a gas stream containing particulate matter is circulated through spiral. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are centrifuged outward and collected. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubbers are used to clear air for both dusts and gases by passing it through a dry or wet packing material. </li></ul>
  24. 43. 2.Control of gaseous pollutants <ul><li>Gaseous pollutants can be controlled by combustion ,absorption and adsorption techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>In combustion process, oxidisable gaseous pollutants are completely burnt at high temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>In absorption technique, gaseous pollutants are absorbed in suitable absorbent materials. </li></ul><ul><li>In adsorption technique, toxic air pollutants are adsorbed on large solid surfaces. </li></ul>
  25. 44. 3.Control of automobile exhaust <ul><li>Reduce the amount of uncombusted carbon and vehicles should be fitted with exhaust emission control. </li></ul>
  26. 45. Electrostatic precipitator <ul><li>It is most widely accepted method to remove 99% particulate matter present in the exhaust from a thermal power plant. </li></ul>
  27. 46. Working of electrostatic precipitator <ul><li>It has electrode wires posses several 1000 volt </li></ul><ul><li>They produce a corona that releases electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons then attach to dust particles giving a’-’ ve charge </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting plate attach the charged particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Velocity of air between plates are low fallen the dust </li></ul><ul><li>A scrubber remove SO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Air is passed through scrubber with water or lime. </li></ul>
  28. 47. Central pollution control board (CPCB) <ul><li>Particulate of size 2.5 micrometres or less in diameter are responsible for causing great harm to human health. They inhale deep into lungs and cause breathing &respiratory symptoms, irritation , inflammation and damage to lands. </li></ul>
  29. 48. <ul><li>1981: air (prevention &control of pollution) ace. </li></ul><ul><li>1987:It amend noise as a pollutant. </li></ul><ul><li>1986:Environment protection act. </li></ul>
  30. 49. Dear friends, The Earth in your hands. Please save her from pollutions.
  31. 50. THANK YOU