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air pollution
 

air pollution

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    air pollution air pollution Presentation Transcript

    • PROJECT
    • GROUP - 1 PRESENTS
    • . AKASH RAJ .AMAL RAJ.K .DON JOSEPH .JOSE CLEMENT .RENJITH M.C .SABIN MON FRANCIS AIR POLLUTION SUBMITTED BY
    • POLLUTION
      • Pollution is an undesirable change in physical,chemical or biological characterstics of air,land or water that harmfully affected the life or create potential health hazard of living organism.
      • Any substance causes pollution is called pollutant.
    • DIFFERENT TYPES OF POLLUTION
      • Air pollution
      • Water pollution
      • Soil pollution
      • Noise pollution
      • Radioactive pollution
    • AIR POLLUTION
    • Air pollution is the degradation of air quality and natural atmospheric conditions .
    • RESULTS OF AIR POLLUTION
      • Air pollutants cause injury to all living organisms.
      • They reduce growth and yield of crops.
      • It cause premature death of plants
      • Affects respiratory system of human and of animals.
    • PRIMARY AIR POLLUTANTS
      • Particulate matter
      • Carbon monoxide (CO)
      • Carbondioxide(CO2)
      • Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) or Hydrocarbon (HC)
      • Sulphur dioxide(SO2)
      • Nitrogen oxide (NO2)
      • Fluorides
    • 1.Particulate matter It comprises of solid particles or liquid droplets small enough to remain suspended in air. Eg : smokes,dust,pesticides,pollen, fungal spores ,fibres,some metal like copper, iron etc. EFFECTS -Injurious to health -asthma,tuberculosis,bronchitis etc .
    • 2.Carbon monoxide (CO)
      • This poisonous gas is formed from partial combustion of fuels, steel industry, oil refiners,cigarettesmoke etc.
      • CO is very harmful to living organism especially to animals.
      • It inhibits cellular respiration in plants.
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    • 3.Carbondixide (CO2)
      • Due to the combustion of fuels, respiration process of plants and animals etc.
      • The main reason for increasing global warming is due to the present of high amount of CO2.
    • 4. Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) or Hydrocarbon (HC)
      • These are compounds of hydrogen and carbon.
      • Hydrocarbons are formed naturally during decomposition of organic matter and certain types of trees such as pine trees.
      • The chief source are the motor vehicle,burning of fuels,decay of garbage etc.
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    • 5. Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
      • SO2 is released from the combustion of sulphur containing coal, petroleum refining, automobiles, ore smelters etc.
      • High amount of sulphur dioxide destroys the vegetation.
      • It disappearance of chlorophyll and break down of cells.
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    • 6.Nitrogen oxide (NO2)
      • It form during combustion of fossil fuels as high temperatures in automobile engines.
      • It also released from power plants.
      • It may cause heart or lung problems and may be carcinogenic.
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    • 7. Fluorides
      • Hydrogen fluoride gas is an extremely phytotoxic gas released by the heating of fluoride rocks, soils etc.
    • 8. Lead
      • Lead is emitted by automobile exhaust and it causes long-term environmental pollution.
      • Continuous inhaling of air borne lead pollution caused lead poisoning.
      • It reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of haemoglobin in the blood.
    • SECONDARY POLLUTANTS
      • Photochemical smog
      • Acid rain
    • 1.Photochemical smog
      • It is formed in traffic congested metropolitan cities where warm conditions and intense solar radiations are present.
      • It caused by combination of smoke and fog.
      • It cause series of health hazards.
      • Damage plant as well as animal life .
    • 2.Acid rain
      • As a result of burning of fossil fuels, and petroleum, large quantities of sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxides reach the atmosphere
      • These gases oxidise into sulphuric acid and nitric acid.
      • It deposits on the surface of earth either through rain.
      • It changes the pH of the soil
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    • Don’t kill me
    • CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION
    • 1.Control of particulate matters
      • Scrubbers or arresters can be used to remove particulate matters from contaminated air.
      • Cyclonic separator ,which consists of a special chamber where a gas stream containing particulate matter is circulated through spiral.
      • Particles are centrifuged outward and collected.
      • Scrubbers are used to clear air for both dusts and gases by passing it through a dry or wet packing material.
    • 2.Control of gaseous pollutants
      • Gaseous pollutants can be controlled by combustion ,absorption and adsorption techniques.
      • In combustion process, oxidisable gaseous pollutants are completely burnt at high temperature.
      • In absorption technique, gaseous pollutants are absorbed in suitable absorbent materials.
      • In adsorption technique, toxic air pollutants are adsorbed on large solid surfaces.
    • 3.Control of automobile exhaust
      • Reduce the amount of uncombusted carbon and vehicles should be fitted with exhaust emission control.
    • Electrostatic precipitator
      • It is most widely accepted method to remove 99% particulate matter present in the exhaust from a thermal power plant.
    • Working of electrostatic precipitator
      • It has electrode wires posses several 1000 volt
      • They produce a corona that releases electrons
      • Electrons then attach to dust particles giving a’-’ ve charge
      • Collecting plate attach the charged particles.
      • Velocity of air between plates are low fallen the dust
      • A scrubber remove SO2
      • Air is passed through scrubber with water or lime.
    • Central pollution control board (CPCB)
      • Particulate of size 2.5 micrometres or less in diameter are responsible for causing great harm to human health. They inhale deep into lungs and cause breathing &respiratory symptoms, irritation , inflammation and damage to lands.
      • 1981: air (prevention &control of pollution) ace.
      • 1987:It amend noise as a pollutant.
      • 1986:Environment protection act.
    • Dear friends, The Earth in your hands. Please save her from pollutions.
    • THANK YOU