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worldcom,enron.fraud,bankruptcy,sarbanes oxley act,gaap,crooket accountning,illegal activity, advance business consulting, http://mba4help.com, SEC, GAAP, Miami, Jose Cintron

worldcom,enron.fraud,bankruptcy,sarbanes oxley act,gaap,crooket accountning,illegal activity, advance business consulting, http://mba4help.com, SEC, GAAP, Miami, Jose Cintron



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    Worldcom,Enron.Fraud,Bankruptcy,SOA,GAAP,SEC Worldcom,Enron.Fraud,Bankruptcy,SOA,GAAP,SEC Presentation Transcript

    • FINA 503
      DATE: 02/18/10
    • Enron & WorldCom will change the world
      In 1998, the telecommunications industry began to slow down and WorldCom's stock was declining. CEO came under increasing pressure from banks to cover margin calls on his WorldCom. Beginning in 1999 and continuing through May 2002, WorldCom used shady accounting methods to mask its declining financial condition by falsely professing financial growth and profitability to increase the price of WorldCom's stock.
      The fraud was accomplished in two main ways. First, WorldCom's accounting department underreported 'line costs' (expenses with other telecommunication companies) by capitalizing these costs on the balance sheet rather than properly expensing them. Second, the company inflated revenues with bogus accounting entries from corporate unallocated revenue accounts.
    • NET INCOME xxx (Huge Increase)
      COGS xxx
      (no change)
      Revenues xxx (no change)
      Computer expenses: xxx
      (Huge Decrease)
      Fees companies phone networks: xxx
      (Huge Decrease)
      HowtheFraudtook place
      CFO’s directions affected the income statement:
    • Overstating Asset Frauds (WorldCom)
      Overstatement of current assets(marketable securities)
      Overstating pension assets
      Capitalizing as assets amounts that should be expensed
      Failing to record depreciation/amortization expense
      Overstating assets through mergers and acquisitions
      Overstating inventory and receivables
      The first discovery of illegal activity was by WorldCom's own internal audit department who uncovered $3.8 b. of the fraud in June 2002. The company's audit committee and board of directors were notified of the fraud.
      The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) launched an investigation. By the end of 2003, it was estimated that the company's total assets had been inflated by around $11 billion.
    • Largest Bankruptcy Filings
    • Z-score Analysis for WorldCom
      The Z-score formula for predicting bankruptcy.
      Ratio Definition 1999 2000 2001
      X1 Working capital/total assets (0.08) (0.08) (0.00)
      X2 Retained earnings/total assets (0.01) 0.03 0.04
      X3 Earnings before interest and taxes/total assets 0.08 0.08 0.02
      X4 Market value of equity/book value of total liabilities 3.58 1.13 0.54
      X5 Sales/total assets 0.39 0.40 0.34
      Z Z-score 2.6971.274 0.798
      Z > 2.99 -“Safe” 1.8 < Z < 2.99 -“Grey” Z < 1.80 -“Distress”
      Z-scores for WorldCom based on its annual 10-K reports .We found that the company indeed experienced a rapid deterioration in its
      Current assets...................................... $ 9,068 $ 2,312 $(1,625) $ 9,755
      Property and equipment, net......................... 35,177 2,246 -- 37,423
      Goodwill and other intangibles...................... 36,685 9,909 -- 46,594
      Other assets........................................ 4,963 168 -- 5,131
      Total assets...................................... $85,893$14,635$(1,625) $98,903
      Current liabilities................................. $14,213 $ 5,085 $(1,625) $17,673
      Long-term debt...................................... 11,696 6,000 -- 17,696 Noncurrent liabilities.............................. 3,648 1,087 -- 4,735 Minority interests.................................. 2,592 -- -- 2,592 Company redeemable preferred securities...... 798 -- -- 798
      Shareholders' investment............................ 52,9462,463 -- 55,409
      Total liabilities and shareholders' investment.... $85,893 $14,635 $(1,625) $98,903
      ======= ======= ======= =======
      $ 9,755 / 17,673=(7,918) WORKING CAPITAL OR .55 CURRENT RATIO
    • WorldCom Statement of Cash flow
      Cash flows from operating activities: 20002001
      Net income Operating Activities $4,153 $1,501
      OriginallyReportedRevised as of April 15, 2004
      2000 20012002NNet loss $ -48,909 -15,597 -9,173
    • I don’t belief this happen to me .
      On July 21, 2002, WorldCom filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, the largest such filing in United States history. The company emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2004 becoming MCI. On March 15, 2005 Bernard Ebbers (CEO) was found guilty of all charges and convicted on fraud, conspiracy and filing false documents with regulators. He was sentenced to 25 years in prison.
    • What do these dates have in common?
      December 2, 2001
      July 19, 2002
      August 31, 2002
      Enron declares
      MCI WorldCom declares
      Arthur Anderson agrees to
      stop auditing public
    • How did this happen?
      Corporate Issues Audit Firm Issues
      Earnings pressure
      Lack of mandated disclosure of company reporting model
      Minimal oversight into corporate business practices
      No documented or enforced internal controls
      Dependency on consulting fees
      Assumed good intent of their client
      Inability to continuously monitor a company’s internal controls
      Unable to identify violations of internal controls
    • How Did
      Congress Respond?
      Sarbanes – Oxley Act
    • Sarbanes – Oxley Act
      Section 103:Your auditor (and therefore, you should) maintain all audit related records, including electronic ones, for seven years.
      Section 201:Firms that audit your company’s books can no longer provide you with IT related services.
      Section 301:You must provide systems or procedures that allow employees to communicate effectively with the audit committee.
    • Sarbanes – Oxley Act
      Highlights (continued)
      Section 302:Your CEO and CFO must sign statements verifying the completeness and accuracy of financial reports.
      Sections 404CEO’s, CFO’s and outside auditors must attest to the effectiveness and accuracy of financial reports.
      Section 409:Companies must report material changes in their financial conditions “on a rapid and current basis.” The act calls it “real-time” disclosure but is unclear on what it means.
    • Sarbanes–Oxley Act
      Sarbanes–Oxley Law
    • Sarbanes - Oxley Impact on Information Systems
    • The 3 Cs of Sarbanes-Oxley
      CEO’s, CFO’s and CIO’s
      The jobs of the CEO, CFO & CIO got tougher on July 30, 2002 -- the day the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was signed. The legislation requires significant changes to financial practices and corporate governance, and touches all corporate areas -- including technology. For the first time ever, the CFO and CEO can look a CIO in the eye and say, 'Guess what, you're on the hook with us.'
    • System Control Examples
      Financial Statement Generation
      Report parameter changes are documented
      Data that generates financial statements is accurate
      Inventory Item Creation
      Costing is accurately assigned
      Approved suppliers are used
      Approval limits cannot be easily manipulated
      Customer Creation
      Duplicate customers
      Credit limits
    • Oversight of Financial Data Examples
      Standard Data Entry is Enforced
      Accurate reporting
      Segregation of Duties
      Separation of functions to minimize risk of fraud
      Audit changes to sensitive data
      Approval processes for creation of financial data
      Oversight into Financial Processes
      Ensure all month/year end activities are completed
    • Benefits of the New Oxley Act
      1. Increased confidence of CEO/CFO in meeting requirements
      2. Improved coordination of Company Management Team
      3. Improved and clarified Corporate Governance process
      4. Systematized process for early identification of business risks/ whistle blowing issues/incident management
      5. Systematized approach to dealing with change (i.e., transactions, personnel, accounting principles, internal controls and operating procedures)
      6. Increased operational effectiveness
    • The Enron Scandal
      The Enron scandal was a corporate scandal involving the American energy Enron Corporation, the world's leading energy company and the accounting, auditing, and consultancy firm Arthur Andersen.
      On October 16, 2001, in the first major
      public sign of trouble, Enron announces a huge third-quarter loss of $618 million.
    • The Enron Scandal
      On October 22, 2001, the Securities and
      Exchange Commission (SEC) begins an
      inquiry into Enron’s accounting practices.
      On December 2, 2001, Enron files for bankruptcy, the largest bankruptcy in US history up to that time
    • Consequences
      Thousands of employees lost their jobs and even their life savings in 401(k) plans tied to the energy company's stock.
      Disastrous falling down on the whole stock market during the following months, especially in the financial service industry.
      Arthur Andersen, which at the time was one of the five largest accounting firms in the world, was dissolved.
    • How this happen
      The company used shortcomings of Rule-Based US GAAP , special purpose entities, and poor financial reporting to hide billions in debt from failed deals and projects.
      Enron's audit committee failed to follow up on high-risk accounting issues
      Andersen was pressured by the company to ignore accounting practices.
    • How this happen….Continued
      1993-2001: Enron senior management used.
      Complex and foggy accounting schemes
      to reduce Enron’s tax payments;
      to inflate Enron’s income and profits;
      to inflate Enron’s stock price and credit rating;
      to hide losses in off-balance-sheet subsidiaries;
      to engineer off-balance-sheet schemes to direct
      money to themselves, friends, and family;
      to fraudulently misrepresent Enron’s financial
      condition in public reports.
    • Example of one scheme
      Enron’s creation of over 3000 (!) partnerships started about 1993 when it teamed with Calpers (Calif. Public Retirement System) to create JEDI (Joint Energy Development Investments) fund.
      Why partnerships? According to GAAP , as long as Enron could find another partner to take at least a 3% stake, Enron was not required to report the partnerships financial condition in its own financial statements.
    • Example of one scheme…… Continued
      Enron used partnerships to hide bad bets it made on speculative assets by selling these assets to the partnerships in return for IOUs backed by Enron stock as collateral! (over $1 billion by 2002)
      In November 1997, Calpers wanted to cash out of JEDI.
      To keep JEDI afloat, Enron needed a new 3%
      It created another partnership Chewco to buy
      out Calpers’ stake in JEDI.
    • Profit to Enron from all this?
      $10 million in guarantee fee + fee based on loan balance to JEDI. A total of $25.7 million revenues from this source.
      Increase in price of Enron stock held by
      JEDI. Enron recognized $126 million in
      the first quarter of 2000 from this.
      But everything began to fall apart
      when Enron’s share price started to
      drop in Fall 2000.
    • Generally Accepted Accounting Principles prior to 2002.
      Auditing companies often consult for the
      companies they audit (conflict of interest).
      Audit company partners often later accept
      jobs from their client companies.
      Companies often retain the same auditing
      company for long periods of time.
      Auditing companies have been allowed to police themselves.
      Appointment of auditor company is in theory by shareholders but in practice by senior management