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IES Auringis. Jaén. José Cayetano Bautista Expósito 4º ESO. Physics and Chemistry. Unit 9 (I). <ul>Organic chemistry (OCHE...
double bond  (C=C) a bond composed of two pairs of  electrons.
triple bonds  (C ≡ C)  a bond composed of three pairs of  electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common organic compounds a...
IES Auringis. Jaén. José Cayetano Bautista Expósito 4º ESO. Physics and Chemistry. Unit 9 (I). <ul><li>Hydrocarbons  ( hid...
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Unit 9

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Transcript of "Unit 9"

  1. 1. IES Auringis. Jaén. José Cayetano Bautista Expósito 4º ESO. Physics and Chemistry. Unit 9 (I). <ul>Organic chemistry (OCHEM) is the part of chemistry that studies carbon-based compounds. These compounds may contain any number of other elements, specially hydrogen but also, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, silicon and sulfur. <li>The carbon-carbon bond: A carbon-carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. It can be : </li></ul><ul><li>single bond (C ― C) a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms of carbon.
  2. 2. double bond (C=C) a bond composed of two pairs of electrons.
  3. 3. triple bonds (C ≡ C) a bond composed of three pairs of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common organic compounds are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons, alcohols, carboxylic acids and polymers. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. IES Auringis. Jaén. José Cayetano Bautista Expósito 4º ESO. Physics and Chemistry. Unit 9 (I). <ul><li>Hydrocarbons ( hidr ocar buros ) are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Depending on the bonds we can find , among others, the following compounds:
  5. 5. single bond (C ― C) called alkanes or paraffins.
  6. 6. double bond (C=C) called alkenes .
  7. 7. triple bonds (C ≡ C) called alkynes . </li><ul><li>The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally are in crude oil. </li></ul><li>Alcohols ( Al co hol ) are organic compounds in which a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, connected to other carbon or hydrogen atoms. </li><ul><li>Some examples are ethanol, methanol, propanol, etc </li></ul><li>Carboxylic acids ( Acidos carbo xílicos ) are organic compounds in which at least one carboxyl group (-COOH) is bound to a carbon atom, connected to other carbon or hydrogen atoms. A carboxyl group has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written as -COOH or -CO2H. </li><ul><li>An example is the acetic acid which is present in most fruits and in vinegar. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. IES Auringis. Jaén. José Cayetano Bautista Expósito 4º ESO. Physics and Chemistry. Unit 9 (I). <ul><li>Polymers ( Polí me ros ) are large molecules (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units called monomers. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. The term polymer is sometimes taken to refer to plastics, but it actually applies to a large class of natural and synthetic materials.
  9. 9. Some examples of natural polymers are amber, natural rubber, cellulose, etc.
  10. 10. Examples of synthetic polymers are synthetic rubber, bakelite, neoprene, nylon, PVC, polystyrene, silicone, etc, etc </li></ul>
  11. 11. IES Auringis. Jaén. José Cayetano Bautista Expósito 4º ESO. Physics and Chemistry. Unit 9 (I). Crossword
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