Alexander Schauss Acai the worlds richest antioxidant

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  • 1. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Protection from Oxidative Stress in vitro and in vivo in Humans by an Amazonian palm berry, Free copies of research papers: Go to: AIBMR.COM Go to: “News”. See report on açai research Under citations: PDF buttons Download, transfer to desktop Euterpe oleracea (“açai”) Alexander Schauss, PhD, FACN Author of: Senior Research Director, Natural and Medicinal Products Research, AIBMR Life Sciences Puyallup, Washington USA To obtain copy of book on acai research: www.biosocialpublications.com www.amazon.com Açai grows primarily in the flood plains of the Amazon River and its tributaries, covering an area of over 12 million acres. Up to 7,000 palms can grow per acre. In the Amazon flood plains acai palm trees form a canopy that protect plants from equatorial solar radiation from the sun. 1768: Açai Fruit Reported by Joseph Banks, botanist on Captain James Cook’s, The Endeavour. 1791: Acai Fruit documented by Portuguese explorers. 2,400 Palm Species in the World. Açai palm (Euterpe oleracea) one of 3 species of the Genus, Euterpe only found in the Amazon, especially in flood plains. 62
  • 2. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Açai fruit grows on palm trees inflorescence. Immature fruit on inflorescence. Inflorescence with mature açai fruit ready for harvest Açai palm can produce up to 1,000 kilos of acai fruit in a 7-10 year period. Fruit is 2.5 cm, ~87% is seed, 13% pulp & skin Açai palm inflorescence branches being removed 50 meters above ground to strip acai fruit into baskets. 63
  • 3. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD 64
  • 4. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Agricultural & Wood Products Exported out of Para State, 2006-2007 Source: EMBRAPA (Brazil Government Agricultural Research Corporation) To Study Açai, it’s Freeze-Dried Vacuum freeze-drying preserves the: Acai Fruit 75% Phytochemical content Enzymatic activity Nutritional value Bioactivity of the fresh fruit Antioxidant activity Taste Shelf life of years Saves Energy (don’t need to keep it frozen at -18o F) Palm Heart 2% Wood 9% Fishing & Hunting 3% Other 1% Agriculture 10% Agricultural & Wood Products Exported out of Para State, 2006-2007 Source: EMBRAPA (Brazil Government Agricultural Research Corporation) Top Antioxidant Fruits Agricultural & Wood Products Exported out of Para State, 2006-2007 Source: EMBRAPA (Brazil Government Agricultural Research Corporation) Top Antioxidant Fruits 180.0 Acai ORAC units per one gram of fresh product Acai Fruit 75% Blackcurrants ORAC units per one gram of fresh product 30.0 24.0 Blueberries 20.4 Blackberries Wood 9% 15.4 Strawberries Palm Heart 2% 12.2 Raspberries Fishing & Hunting 3% 9.5 Plums Other 1% 7.5 Oranges Agriculture 10% 75% 20.4 Blackberries 12.2 Raspberries Plums Wood 9% 9.5 Oranges Fishing & Hunting 3% 7.5 Grapes 7.4 Cherries 0.0 *Reference: Wu, X.; Beecher, G. R.; Holden, J. M.; Haytowitz, D. B.; Gebhardt, S. E.; Prior, R. L. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004, 52, 4026-4037. Palm Heart 2% 15.4 Strawberries 6.7 Cherries 24.0 Blueberries 7.4 Grapes 30.0 Blackcurrants Acai Fruit Other 1% 6.7 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Agriculture 10% 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 Freeze-Dried vs Spray Dried Açai Schauss A, Xianli W, Prior R et al: Antioxidant Capacity and Other Bioactivities of the Freeze-Dried Amazonian Palm Berry, Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Acai). J Agric Food Chem, 2006; 54(22): 8604–10 1,200 Total Antioxidant Capacity 1,000 acai 1,027 ORAC Value 94.56 92.6 73.39 62.39 62.2 800 Dehydrating Methods 600 400 53.48 49.25 200 42.75 38.99 0 Freeze Dried Acai 35.77 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 65 Spray Dried Acai
  • 5. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Published Vitamin/Mineral Composition of Açai Minerals Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Glycine Alanine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper Iron Manganese Selenium Boron Chromium Molybdenum Iodine Published Phytochemical Composition of Açai Published Nutritional, Lipid, and Fiber Composition of Açai *Primary anthocyanins: Cyanidin-3-glucoside Flavanols (numerous) Cyanidin-3-rutoside Flavonoids (numerous) Cyanidin-3-diglycoside Flavonols (numerous) Cyanidin-3-glucoside-coumaraterutinoside Cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside Beta-sitosterol Campesterol Catechin Chrysoeriol Coumeric acid Deoxyhexose Epi-catechin Eriodictyol Eriodictyol-7-glucoside Eurpatorin Ferulic acid Gallic acid Homoorietin Isoquercitin Isovitexin Fatty acids: 82% monounsaturated and polyunsaturated (palmitic, oleic, linoleic acids) - higher than virgin olive oil or avocado oil Kaempferol Luteolin Luteolin-4-glucoside Methyl-derivative of homoorientin Myricetin Orientin Proanthocyanin Protocatchuric acid Protocatechic acid Pterostilbene Quercitin-3-arabinoside Resveratrol Sigmasterol Taxifolin Vanillic acid Phytosterol content 1.25% Very low in sodium (0.25%) Very low in glucose/dissacharides (0.1 gram/100 grams) Low in carbohydrates (1.3 gram/100 grams) High in soluble and water insoluble fibers. Nutrients Levels in Blueberries & Acai Pulp Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) Per Serving (Hydrophilic-ORAC + Lipophilic-ORAC) Fruits and Berries, Adjusted % Moisture Content Açai pulp Blueberry (Cult) Cranberry Blackberry Raspberry Strawberry Apples (Granny) Avocado (Hass) 60.0 85.0 87.1 86.9 85.8 91.1 85.7 72.0 umol TE/g 410.80 62.20 94.56 53.48 49.25 35.77 38.99 19.33 Serving Size (g) 145 145 95 145 123 166 138 173 Milligram per 100 grams TAC Calcium Comparison - mg/100 grams Magnesium Comparison - per 100 grams 300 TAC per Serving 200 250 200 150 100 50 0 59,566 9,019 8,983 7,701 6,058 5,938 5,381 3,344 180 160 140 120 100 Magnesium 80 60 40 20 0 Blueberry (3.6) Acai (260) Blueberry (6) Fruit Phosphorous Comparison - per 100 grams Potassium Comparison per 100 grams 1000 100 80 60 Phosphorous 40 20 0 900 800 700 600 500 Potassium 400 300 200 100 0 Blueberry (12) Acai (107) Fruit 66 Acai (174) Fruit 120 Milligrams per 100 grams Food % Moisture Content Tyrosine Phenylalanine Lysine Histidine Arginine Proline Hydroxyproline Cystine Tryptophan Milligrams per 100 grams Vitamin A (Beta-carotene) Vitamin C Vitamin E Vitamin D Vitamin B-1 Vitamin B-2 Vitamin B-3 Vitamin B-6 Vitamin B-12 Pantothenic acid Biotin Folic Acid Inositol Milligrams per 100 grams Vitamins Published Amino Acid Composition of Açai Blueberry (77) Acai (932) Fruit
  • 6. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Nutrients Levels in Blueberries & Açai Pulp Zinc Content per 100 grams 1) Total ORAC: 1,027 umole TE/gram. Lipophilic ORAC highest of any fruit. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity highest of any fruit or vegetable. A few spices are higher. 50 7 45 6 5 4 Series1 3 2 1 Milligrams per 100 grams 8 mg/100 grams Published Antioxidant Assays of FD Açai Vitamin E Comparison per 100 grams 0 40 35 30 25 Vitamin E 20 15 10 Acai Blueberry (0.5) Fruit Acai (45) Fruit 2) Superoxide ORAC (1,614 SOD units). Highest of any fruit or vegetable. Beta-sitosterol Vitamin A Comparison per 100 grams 50 1000 800 600 Vitamin A (I.U.) 400 200 0 Blueberry (32.2) Acai (1,002) Milligrams per 100 grams 1200 International Units per 100 grams TEAC and FRAP assay’s confirm ORAC assay (744.0 umole TE/gram; 249.0 umole TE/gram.) 5 0 Blueberry 45 3) High hydroxyl and peroxynitrite scavenging activity (HORAC & NORAC assay) 40 35 30 25 Beta-sitosterol 20 15 4) Both a slow and fast antioxidant. TAO assay. 10 5 0 Blueberry (0) Fruit Acai (44) Fruit Clarified (pulp removed) vs Unclarified Açai Juice Study in Healthy Adults Human Pharmacokinetic Study of Açai Juice with Pulp and without Pulp 8 Differences between açai with pulp or without the pulp? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A large portion of antioxidants are bound to the fiber in the pulp. Antioxidants in the fiber of the pulp are released in the gut and then absorbed. Juice with pulp had ~45% more antioxidants (total anthocyanins) than juice if the pulp was removed. Juice with pulp was significantly higher in plasma antioxidant levels. Antioxidant compounds were consistently higher for 4 hours. 7. 8. 67 Peak antioxidant levels in the blood dropped sooner if pulp is missing. The maximum concentration of antioxidants was 105% higher if the pulp was retained. Half-life of juice with pulp was 110% longer (6.6 hours) than without pulp (3 hours).
  • 7. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Oxidative Stress a Risk Factor Against Brain Health Brain Health and Oxidative Stress The brain only weighs 2% of the body’s weight, but it uses ~20% of the oxygen we breath. It is susceptible to oxidative stress. Does not possess the same antioxidant defenses used by the rest of the body. Is rich in fatty acids subject to oxidation. Is high in iron which can act as a catalyst, increases risk of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is associated with progressive damage to brain cells. To protect against oxidative damage, the brain releases two enzymes. Catalase converts hydrogen peroxide to harmless water and molecular oxygen. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) converts superoxide to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which catalase turns H2O2 into H2O and oxygen. Açai Pulp Protects Against Oxidative Stress in the Brain Evaluating Antioxidant Activity of Açai in Human Cells A Brazilian study found evidence that the pulp in açai might protect the brain from free radical damage. The study pre-treated brain tissues of rats with açai. They exposed the tissues to hydrogen peroxide. The antioxidant polyphenols in acai significantly reduced the levels of lipid and protein damage caused by H2O2. Authors concluded that “açai could prevent the development of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.” Clearly, more research is needed. 1) 2) Antioxidant Protection of Human Erythrocytes Using the CAP-e Assay Does açai support healthy immune function? Studied reactive oxygen species formation using polymorphonuclear cells (ROS PMN) assay Does açai provoke cellular signaling between cells? Used cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocyte (CAP-e) assay. Study of a complex Açai/fruit juice drink Questions: 1) Are the antioxidants in the juice absorbed after consumption? 2) Does it enter into circulation? 3) Does it enter into cells? 4) Does it protect human cells during oxidative stress? 1) Açai was able to significantly protect human cells from oxidative damage. 2) Reduce production of free radicals. 3) Reduce proinflammatory Will 4 ounces a day of the juice enter human cells and protect adults from oxidative stress within 4 hours? activity: a) fmlp (p<0.001) b) Leukotriene B4 (p<0.05) Will adults have less lipid peroxidation in their serum within 4 hours during a state of oxidative stress? c) Interlukin-8 (p<0.03) 68
  • 8. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Composition of Açai Fruit/Berry Juice Cell-based Antioxidant Protection in Erythrocytes (CAP-e) Assay Unclarified, unfiltered, juice with water added only as needed to reconstitute powders, that contained no added extracts to superficially raise ORAC value, only whole fruit/berries including pulp concentrates. Primary ingredient: Açai (Euterpe oleracea) White grape (Vitis L.) Nashi pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Acerola (Malpihia glabra) Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Purple grape (Vitis L.) Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) Prune (Prunus L.) Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) Blueberry (Vaccinium L.) Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Lychee (Litchi chinensis) Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) Pear (Pyrus L.) Banana (Musa acuminata) Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) A novel assay for evaluation of whether antioxidants in foods are capable of penetrating and protecting cells from oxidative damage. Assay is qualitative in principle and does allow for semi-quantitative comparisons to standards such as gallic acid, Trolox, and ascorbic acid. Ideally suited for food and natural products research. (Does not use quercitin as standard.) In the CAP-e assay, the cells are exposed to test products in physiological saline. The cells are allowed time to absorb compounds from the test product. Any compounds not absorbed by the cells are then removed from the assay by centrifugation and washing. The cells are exposed to a precursor dye that becomes fluorescent if exposed to oxidative damage. Subsequently, an oxidative challenge (for example H2O2) is introduced. The fluorescence intensity equals the amount of oxidative damage. Positive control wells are exposed to oxidative damage without antioxidant protection, and serve as a measure of optimal oxidative damage. Any reduction of oxidative damage to the cells exposed to the test product is a measure of antioxidant protection. The CAP-e constitutes a cellbased model for antioxidant testing that neither has the complexity of the PMN/monocytes assay, nor the risk of misinterpretation of a tumor cellbased assay. Açai/fruit Juice Complx Inhibits Oxidation in Assays Using Fresh Human Cells Anti-Oxidant Effect in Fresh Human Cells Comparison of acai/fruit juice complex to the antioxidant, gallic acid Gallic Acid Anti-Oxidant Effect of Acai/fruit juice complex in a Cell-Based System 16 80 60 40 Amount of Oxidation Percent Inhibition 100 20 0 50 mg/L 100 mg/L 200 mg/L 400 mg/L 800 mg/L Percent Inhibition Acai/fresh juice complex 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.16 mL/L 0.8 mL/L 4 mL/L 20 mL/L UT 100 mL/L 69 Peroxide GA 0.8 mg/mL GA 0.4 mg/mL GA 0.2 mg/mL GA 0.1 GA 0.05 MV 10 mg/mL mg/mL mL/L MV 20 mL/L MV 4 mL/L MV 0.8 MV 0.16 mL/L mL/L
  • 9. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Human Serum Anti-Oxidant Levels in Pilot Study Increased Percent Increase in Serum AntiOxidants Activation of Natural Killer Cells Demonstrated in Fresh Human Cells 30 25 Consumption of Acai-rich fruit/berry mix juice: Data from Pilot Study - Cell Based Assay 8 7 6 Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer 4 3 1 2 3 4 6 Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer Volunteer 5 1 2 3 4 6 2 1 0 Start 20 1 Hour Consumption of Acai-rich fruit/berry mix juice: 15 Percent Increase in Serum Anti-Oxidants Amount of Activation Acai/fruit Juice Complex Activates Natural Killer Cells 9 10 5 0 UT MV 10 mL/L IL-2 10IU 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Start 2 Hours Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Study Human Open Label Pilot Study (M & F; n=12; 19 to 52 years of age) Both Human Studies Published Results Drinking 4 ounces of an açai/fruit juice complex resulted in: 1) Increased antioxidant activity; These results suggest that açai/fruit juice may have a beneficial antioxidant effect on lipids circulating in blood, warranting further research. However, one should not extrapolate these results to say this would be true for all individuals until larger clinical trials are carried out. 2) Increased levels of antioxidant compounds entering cells to protect them from oxidative stress (p<0.03 1st hour; p<0.015 at 2nd hour) 3) 91% of healthy participants had less lipid peroxidation in serum within just 2 hours of consumption compared to placebo (p=0.01). Jensen GS, Wu X, Patterson KM, et al. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Agricultural Food Chemistry, 2008, 56(18): 8326-8333. 70
  • 10. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Range of Motion (ROM): Lumbar Motion (Lower Back) Range of Motion Study A 3-month study of MonaVie in 14 adult males/ females 44 to 84 yrs Changes in Lumbar ROM & Pain (Volunteer 02) Range of Motion: Knees 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 Lumbar ROM Pain 0 Baseline 2 weeks 4 weeks 8 weeks Time to Significant Improvement in Range of Motion Drinking 2 ozs Açai/Fruit Juice Twice Daily Changes in Lumbar ROM & Pain (Volunteer 07) 2.2 2 2 weeks 4 weeks 8 weeks 1.8 1.6 Lower Back 1.4 1.2 0.4 12 weeks p<0.05 (Lumbar) 1 0.8 0.6 12 weeks Left knee Lumbar ROM Pain 0.2 Right knee 0 Baseline 2 weeks 4 weeks 8 weeks 12 weeks 71 p<0.0001 p<0.0001
  • 11. Acai: The World’s Richest Antioxidant Source Alexander Schauss, PhD Acknowledgments: THANK YOU USDA - Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Research Center and Agricultural Research Services, Little Rock, AR University of Arkansas, School of Medicine, Little Rock, AR NIS Labs, Klamath Falls, OR University of California - School of Medicine, Irvine, CA National University of Singapore Holger NIS Labs, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Flora Research Labs, Grants Pass, OR Brunswick Laboratories, Norton, MA AIBMR Life Sciences, Natural and Medicinal Products Research, Puyallup, WA ----------------------------------------------------------Alexander Schauss, Gitte Jensen, Steve Carter, John Endres & AIBMR team Kelly Patterson, Janelle Barnes Xianli Wu Dejuan Huang Robert Beaman Amit Agarwal James Kababick Edward Shanbrom Boxin Ou John Owens Ronald Prior Kimberlee Redman Charlene Mogul Dana Honzel 72