Management of outdoor location technologies


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This document tries to depicts some common aspects about the management of CGI, A-GPS and WiFi location technologies in outdoor environments. It includes the rol of Mobile Operators (LBS Infrastructure), Client components in the handset and Network Providers like Google or Navizon.

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Management of outdoor location technologies

  1. 1. ContentsMost Common Outdoor Location TechnologiesAccess through MNO’s LBS Infrastructure: General Schema LBS Architecture LBS Functions & ServicesAccess through mobile client components: General schema External Network Providers Global Network ServerComments & Conclusions
  2. 2. Most Common Outdoor Location TechnologiesTechnologies CellId A-GPS WiFiGeneral -From 2G to 3.5G networks - GPS, GLONASS, Galileo - Private/Public Wifi networks -4G (LTE): Currently adopted/ported by many MNOs . Location under testingBased on -Server Cell (CGIId) - CGI - Signal from, at least, 3 visible - MAC Adresss -TA (Timing Advanced) satellites - RxLevel - RxLev (Signal strenght) - Ephemerides /Navigation DB - Several networks E-CGI - Neighbors cells (NMR/BSIC) - ToA + Filters (triangulation) (triangulation/trilateration) - Other approaches: TOA, AOA, E-TDOA, E- OTDAccuracy -Depends on cell type (femtocells, -TTFF concept -Depends on signal power picocells, micro, macro) -Depends on number of visible -Typically from 50 m to 200 m -Depends on density of antennas satellites and device capabilities - Usual figures: (antenna and chipset installed) - From 60 m to 800 m in urban env. - Data provided from Assistance - From 1 km to 25 kms in rural env. server (SUPL Positioning Server) -Typically from 3 to 10 mIndoor notes - DAS Systems and Picocells could be - Next generation (GPS III) will be - Indoor WiFi requires other possible approaches more accurate covering urban mechanisms that are not canyons but it won’t cover included in this doc. indoor env. These location technologies can be accessed through Operator’s LBS infrastructure as well through client components installed in the mobile device
  3. 3. Access through MNO’s LBS infrastructure – General Schema Le Interface: Many Operators offer a public API for LBS ASPs/LBS providing CGI+TA technology (Control Plane Arch.). Some Operators provide also A-GPS LBS technology (SUPL Arch.) - i.e. OMA MLP Le interface SDP (Service Delivery Platform): Optional platform. Provides a public access point to MNO’s infrastructure systems/capacities Service Delivery Platform (SDP) establishing the appropriate call flow for Other MNO’s each incoming request - i.e Huawei SDP Location Enabling Server (LES) LES (Location Enabling Server): Most of big Operators have installed this middleware as the central piece of the Location System (LS) LBS infrastructure - i.e Genasys GMLC SLP Positioning PlatformSS7/MAP msgs ULP msgs LS (Location System): Mandatory piece. Provides the location engine to get the user’s position based on its MSISDN/IMSI. It uses SS7 signaling channels to access Network MNO’s network (HLR/VLR for CGI techno.). Under SUPL SET arch. this server is called SLP (SPC+SLC) and interacts directly with the handset (SET) through Lup interface - i.e Geolens from Commscope.
  4. 4. Access through MNO’s LBS infrastructure – LBS Architecture WEB Portal O&M Billing Systems (Pre/PostPaid) SSO Provisioning System SMS-C Customer Care MMS-C WAP GW Statistic & Datawarehouse IVR Presence Server Network Info DB Terminal Info DB GIS/GeoServer MNO’s LBS infrastructure can include a wide variety of systems and components. Each installation requires specific plug-ins with the existing external systems: O&M,Media GWs, Provisioning, Billing,.. and others LBS systems. These plug-ins must develop the interface (std or proprietary) as well the MNO’s requiredlogic . LES and LS systems must be prepared to allow all these adaptations as flexibly aspossible.
  5. 5. Access through MNO’s LBS infrastructure – LBS Functions/Services There are a set of specific functions that must be supported by the MNO’s LBS infrastructure: Location Enabling Server (LES) Location System (LS) • Full set of API services including: - Location: Immediate, Tracking, Geo-fencing, Around,… Public/Private API - Provisioning of users and groups - Messaging (SMS,MMS,USSD,…) Security/Access Ctrl Mgmt -Spatial (mapping, routing, direct/reverse User Subscription Mechanisms geocode, POI searching, …) Privacy Mgmt • Authentication & Authorization of requests • User’s subscription: Auto provisioning, Initiated Cache Mgmt by user or App, with/without user’s ack,… Single/Hybrid Location Engine • Privacy: Anonymous ID, MSISDN masking,, Admin./Config. Tools when, where and who can request the location. • Location Cache: Last known location per user and per loc. Technology, max loc. Age per app. • Intelligent switching between available loc. Most of these advanced features are usually technologies carried out by the LES middleware being • Admin. WEB Tools: Provisioning, Statistic andcompliant with the specific rules and policies of each MNO System Configuration tools.
  6. 6. Access through MNO’s LBS infrastructure – General Schema LBS • Through API functions & SDKs that every O.S LBS provides is the possibility to access the necessary LBS network parameters (MCC-MNC-LAC-CI, LBS SSID/MACAddress, RxLev, …) as well as the GPS data (Lat/Lon coordinates, speed and direction). Server SystemClient Component Location API • The client component can offer a public API for Security/Privacy Mgmt SMS /GPRS installed apps in the handset as well as external Cache/QoP Mgmt requests from the server side. This public API could provide: CGI WiFi -Immediate location function BTLE -Tracking under several modes (periodic A-GPS NFC time, when cell change event occurs, when some distance has been reached, …) -Geo fencing capabilities • This location component could have other This client component could be offered to additional capabilities for security and privacyMobile Operators in a cooperative way within purposes, policies to decide between available the LES/LS systems. technologies and intelligent self-learning.
  7. 7. Access through MNO’s LBS infrastructure – External Network Providers • If this component is outside of the MNO’s environment, a system is required that converts Server SystemClient Component the network information into geographic Location API coordinates. Security/Privacy Mgmt SMS /GPRS Cache/QoP Mgmt • This kind of system/DB is provided currently by several vendors like the following : o Google o Navizon o RxNetworks o Combain (location-api) Network Provider o Broadcom • These network providers offer a simple API to convert network data - GSM/UMTS, WiFi networks and/or IP location - into Lat/lon/radius• The request to this conversion service values.can be done both from the client • The prices of this connection depends on thecomponent or the server side. number of hits per month, the type of technology required and/or the desired geographical area.
  8. 8. Access through MNO’s LBS infrastructure – Global Network Server • The schema shows a global server system that Client Components maintains the connection with multiple network Server providers (NP) such as: Systems • Improve the success resolution rate of the conversion process worldwide and for all Global Network Data Server Mobile Operators. Advanced API • Provide all the benefits and capabilities of Cache Mgmt each external provider under a single, Decission Policies homogeneous and advanced interface. • Maintain all data (solved and errors) in an internal cache avoiding unnecessary requests. • Establish periodic tests over each externalNetwork Network provider giving a level of quality, reliability andProvider Provider accuracy. These values will determine policy Network decisions based on, for instance: Provider • The type of network technology (WiFi, 2G, 3G, ....) • The geographical area (country, city ...) • The associated Operator
  9. 9. Comments & Conclusions (I)1) About CGI• The LS (MNO’s system) uses the private BTS DB of the Operator in order to evaluate the final user’s position.• In this DB, each CGIId register contains their X/Y coordinates , a coverage area and additional radio electric parameters (antenna height/down tilt,power, horizontal beam opening,…).• The antenna coverage area has been calculated through empiric algorithms (UIT Rec) within a data model of terrain (MDT) and taking into account the interferences between sites.• This BTS DB is maintained by the MNO’s Network team being usually highly dynamic.• The daily changes that the MNO does over their network does not usually reflect coherently over its BTS DB so it loses quality and reliability in their LBS services (directly or indirectly supported).• On the other hand, the BTS DB that has been collected by the external network providers (NP) has reached a high quality as they now have a lot more devices (cars/handsets) and have improved their hybrid algorithms (GPS+WiFi+CGI measurements ) establishing a more realistic coverage area from each antenna.• However, the NP has no immediate knowledge in its DB of all the MNO’s network changes (new antennas, updates in existing ones,…).
  10. 10. Comments & Conclusions (II)1) About CGI (cont)• As the Network Provider does, the operator could facilitate the same network conversion service using their own BTS DB.• The operator could take advantage of the work done by these Network Providers through a full scan of each CGIId against the external conversion service.• Using their private data (site coordinates, power, azimuth radiation, beam opening, etc) along with circular coverage returned by the Network Provider , it is possible to determine a more exact coverage area of each cell.• Moreover the operator keeps records of all user events through billing information (CDRs) or network events (attach, detach, On / Off, ...).• Keeping all this mass of information of movements about all MNO’s subscribers could be complicated from the point of view of the Network Provider so the Operator can have the ability to lead solutions such as: • Emergency (112/911) • Public warning systems (alert the population located in an emergency area) • Traffic Incident Management
  11. 11. Comments & Conclusions (III)2) About WiFi• Many operators have a Hotspot BD with exact information about public and private access points.• These DB could be much more accurate than those established by the Network Providers through their mapping processes. The Operator can get the exact address where each customer has installed their routers (including which floor).• However there are few operators offering this technology under public access.3) About GPS/A-GPS• Due to many tests and certifications of each mobile terminal, the Operator has had a long delay in including this technology under their LBS infrastructure.• Based on that, the public use of this technology is further consolidated through individual client applications (maps viewers, navigation, POI searching and augmented reality, etc).
  12. 12. Comments & Conclusions (IV)• Under the outdoor scenario, it seems that the established order and priorities by the existing components is to first try to get the CGI techno., then WiFi and finally access the GPS as the most precise technology.• The CGI technology, by itself, is still a valid technology for many applications and services.• The access to the CGI parameters does not consume any significant resources or battery in the mobile device (being an alternative technology) when access to GPS / WiFi is not needed.• For example, under geo fencing logic, you can keep a continuous track under CGI technology while the user is far from the alarm area switching to a more precise technology when he/she is closest.• Maybe, the most suitable way for a Mobile Operator (or for a handset manufacturer) is the formalization of a generic component that could be preinstalled on their terminals.• This client component would enable the use of all available location technologies for any LBS application (both local and external to the device) and should be prepared to support indoor positioning technologies (Indoor WiFi, BTLE,…) in the near future.• Finally, in the indoor world, the Operator may be an additional player through DAS solutions, IP location and femto cells.
  13. 13. Any questions? I’m happy to help you!