Obligation and prohibition

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Obligation and prohibition

  1. 1. OBLIGATION and PROHIBITION<br />
  2. 2. Weusemustwhen we think it is important to do an action or we give people orders, especially when you are in a position of authority.<br />“You must be home by ten.”<br /> “She must tidy her room before she <br /> goes out.”<br />MUST<br />
  3. 3. Mustis only used in the present. We use forms of have tofor all other tenses.<br /> “We’ve missed the bus, so we’ll have towalk<br />home.”<br />“We had to study Philosophy at school.”<br />
  4. 4. Weoften use must when the sense of obligation comes from the speaker.<br />“I mustgo to the doctor.” (I don’t feel well)<br />
  5. 5. Weoften have totalk about an action <br /> that is necessary because of rules or,<br />or because someone obliges us to do <br /> it.<br />“You have to drive on the left in the UK.”<br />HAVE TO<br />
  6. 6. “Do I have to buy a grammar book?<br />“At school my children have towear a uniform.”<br />“I have topay the rent every month.”<br /> “In Spain you have to go to school until you’re <br /> sixteen years old.”<br />HAVE TO<br />
  7. 7. We use mustn’tto say that something is against the rules, or against the law.<br /> “You mustn’tsmoke at school.”<br /> “I mustn’t be late for the meeting.”<br />“You mustn’tuse a computer on a plane.”<br />MUSTN’T<br />
  8. 8. We use don’t have to to say that people are not obliged to do something.<br /> “You don’t have to get up early at the <br /> weekend.”<br />  “We don’t have tohurry; we are early.”<br />“You don’t have toshout. I can hear you.”<br />DON’T HAVE TO<br />
  9. 9. * MUST and MUSTN’T are the same for all persons.<br /> * MUST is not often used in questions. <br />(HAVE TO) is more common.<br /> * Don’t contract HAVE or HAS.<br /> I have to go. NOT I’ve to go<br />

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