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In route with the pharaohs of the bible
 

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    In route with the pharaohs of the bible In route with the pharaohs of the bible Document Transcript

    • In route with the Pharaohs in the Bible by: José Alonso Hernández Year: 2013 Year 3050 before Christ, according to some historians the great Egyptian empire begins until approximately the year 30 before Christ with the end of the Ptolemaic era. All this is broadly documented so much by historians and old writings, including the Judeo-Christian Sacred Writing: "The Bible". Inside this we find early references until the well-known time as of the patriarches, being the first visitor Abram, then Joseph the son of Judá, later Moses the great Hebrew liberator. Besides these biblical characters also Oseas, Salomon and others had contact with the Egyptians, but the difference is, in the first three the names of the Pharaoh is not mentioned, for that reason is important to investigate who could be these kings in our Route with the Pharaohs in the Bible. Abram. The first biblical character to arrived at the Ancient Egypt was Abram, who lived around the year 2500 before Christ, in the city of Ur of the Chaldaic, nowadays Iraq. The patriarch's existence has always been questioned by the sceptic, but in the year 1975 were the Tablets of Ebla, in which characters and biblical cities are mentioned as: Sodoma, Gomorra and of course Abraham, but, returning with the narration, Abram goes out with his wife Sara to Egypt, there according to the story of the genesis he makes an disgusting act for the modern mind, give his wife in hands of the Pharaoh. “Now there was a famine in the land, and Abram went down to Egypt to live there for a while because the famine was severe. As he was about to enter Egypt, he said to his wife Sarai, “I know what a beautiful woman you are. José Alonso 2013 II
    • When the Egyptians see you, they will say, ‘This is his wife.’ Then they will kill me but will let you live. Say you are my sister, so that I will be treated well for your sake and my life will be spared because of you.” When Abram came to Egypt, the Egyptians saw that Sarai was a very beautiful woman. And when Pharaoh’s officials saw her, they praised her to Pharaoh, and she was taken into his palace. 16 He treated Abram well for her sake, and Abram acquired sheep and cattle, male and female donkeys, male and female servants, and camels”. (Genesis, 12:10-16) After this annoying moral episode, that we want to know is, What Pharaoh have Sara in his harem? To determine the correct Pharaoh is not an easy task due to the chronologies so much biblical as Egyptian. Of the Egyptian side we have what we know as the real Lists, in which appear the names of the Pharaohs that reigned Egypt, however each list it puts and it removes sovereigns; as well as complete dynasties depending on the author, for example we have the Real List of Karnak that omits the Dynasty XIII, XIV, XV and XVI, in contrast with the Real Canon of Turín that adds Pharaohs, inclusive before the King Menes, considered as the first Pharaoh. Real List of Turín Canon of Karnak In the same way it happens with the biblical chronology, for example, we have the recount based on the translation of the Bible of the 70, better knowing as the Septuagint, which locates the arrival from Abram to Egypt among the years 2380 and 2280 before Christ. The chronology of Sweeney places Abraham in the first José Alonso 2013 III
    • dynasty together with Menes first Pharaoh of Egypt, the chronology Ashton and Down place it around the year 2080 before Christ, that of Ussher & Lighfoot around the year 1929 - 1895 before Christ during the reign of Amenemhat II of the dynasty XII and so forth. However since the point of view of the Jewish historian, Titus Flavius Josephus, we have the following: "Abram taught (to the Egyptians) the arithmetic, and he gave them the science of the astronomy; since before the arrival of Abram to Egypt these areas were ignored for them, because this knowledge was taken by the Chaldaic to the Egyptians." Based on Josephus declaration, the visit of Abram to Egypt Pyramid of Guiza could have happened during the fourth dynasty that begins in the year 2630 with the reign of Sneferu and finishes in the 2500 before Christ with Shepseskaf, during this period we have the Pharaoh Khufu (well-known as Keops in Greek) who it governed 23 years and Shepseskaf - Keops according to Heródoto he is attributed the construction of the Great Pyramid of Guiza. Joseph. Joseph, son of Jacob, his birth it is believed it happened B.C. in the year 1840 and his death in the 1740 B.C. but, but even like with the first case, everything will depend on the author, however, at the moment we have two possible Pharaonic candidates: Sesostris I and Thutmose I. José Alonso 2013 IV
    • In the case of Sesostris I, second Pharaoh of the XII dynasty of the Middle Empire, governed from 1956 to 1911 A.D. is thought that it was one of the most powerful and efficient Reyes in this dynasty, considering as a possible sovereign that rise to the category from Visir to Joseph, because during his reign a similar event was given to that narrated in the Bible about the seven years of abundance and the seven years of drought, affirming that one of his governors, Mentuhotep, was wise with the Pharaoh Sesostris I previously gathered grain and kept in forecast of a hunger that had to come. “Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are one and the same. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do. The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads of grain are seven years; it is one and the same dream. The seven lean, ugly cows that came up afterward are seven years, and so are the seven worthless heads of grain scorched by the east wind: They are seven years of famine”. Genesis 41: 25-27 “You shall be in charge of my palace, and all my people are to submit to your orders. Only with respect to the throne will I be greater than you.” So Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I hereby put you in charge of the whole land of Egypt.” Genesis 41:40-41. Also during this period another governor called, Ameni, had the following thing inscribed in his tomb: "Nobody was unhappy for my days, not even in the years of hunger, because I had cultivated all the fields of the Nome of Mah, to their frontiers of the south and northern. I prolonged this way the life of their inhabitants and in preserve the food that took place! ". José Alonso 2013 V
    • Our second candidate, for the Pharaoh that cohabited with Joseph, we have Thutmose I, according to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in his work, Against to Apión, speaks about the hicsos, that means: Foreign Rulers, he relates them as ancestors of Hebrews that arrive in Egypt and they get the domain on their inhabitants in the reign of a certain Tutimeos, similar to Tutmosis: "The king Salitis fortified the city of Avaris and other kings shepherds were Pharaoh Tutmosis I happened that they dominated Egypt during 511 years, until the kings of Tebas defeated them and they take refuge in Avaris. Tutmosis the King's son Misgframutosis tried to surrender the city but it was him impossible. It allowed to the shepherds and their families to abandon the city. Some 240.000 people left toward an earth that now it is Judea and they founded the city of Jerusalem, defending of the Assyrian that were the owners from Asia." At the present time, in the city of Avaris has been found a pyramidal tomb not for a Pharaoh, but yes for an important ruler, the interesting thing about this sarcophagus, without name, are the similarities with Joseph: the color of the red hair, yellow complexion, as the skin of the Semite and the most interesting thing a fair multicolored tunic as which Jacob gives to his son; lastly the body inside the coffin it has disappeared, for that reason the experts of biblical and old history as David Roll thinks that this character is Joseph, because the same as in the story of the Exodus they were taken the body. Moses. As for our third character, Moses, according to the Bible was son of Amram and his wife Jocabed, it is believed that he was born in the year 1392 b.C. his name means "born of the waters" in ancient Egyptian, but according to Flavius Josephus José Alonso 2013 VI
    • in his book, Jewish Antiques, he says that Moses is divided in the following way: "mo = water" and "ses = saved of", this coincides with the sense of the name explained by the Exodus. “When the child grew older, she took him to Pharaoh’s daughter and he became her son. She named him Moses, saying, “I drew him out of the water.” Exodus 2:10 Also his name probably contains a suppression of the particle of a "god" a common practice in Egypt, for example: "Ra-msés", meant "engendered by Ra." But returning to the topic, to know which Pharaoh was contemporary with Moses is to consider the following thing; experts believe that at the end of the XII dynasty reveals evidence for the Israeli slavery. Sesostris III, send to build some cities in the delta of the Nile Bubastis, Qantir, and Ramses, using bricks made of mud and straw like the Bible affirm. “They made their lives bitter with harsh labor in brick and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their harsh labor the Egyptians worked them ruthlessly”. Exodus 1:14 The traditional chronology has tried to insert Moses in the XVIII or XIX dynasty where there is not any evidence of Semitic slavery, but Moses' strange adoption fits at the end of the XII dynasty. Amenemhet IV, the sixth king of the dynasty, had two daughters but any son. Flavius Josephus describes to a daughter without children of the Pharaoh, probably Sobekneferu, finding a boy in the river and telling to Pharaoh Amenemhet IV his father: "As well as I have received it [Moses] I thought that it was appropriate to adopt it as my son and heir." José Alonso 2013 VII
    • Another interesting period, it could be during the reign of Neferhotep I, 1740 b. C. here one of the aspects is given that is mentioned in the book of the Exodus, the slaughter of infants, which can have evidence to favor in the called tombs Ed-Daba and Kahun, areas with many populations of slaves Semítas that reveal that the dead's 65% was infants. Also, the mummy of Neferhotep is the only one that Pharaoh Neferhotep I has not been found and her son Wahneferhotep never reigned this make a reference to the narration of the tenth plague correspondent to the death of the first-borns. The following candidate is the favorite and more famous thanks to Hollywood, Ramses, but evidence sample the opposite, first it is necessary to know the date in a retrospective biblical 1 Kings 6:1 affirms that Salomón began to build the Temple during the fourth year of his reign, 480 years after the Exodus. Most of the erudites of the Bible agree in that the fourth year of Salomón's reign went the year 967 b.C. so you can calculate that the date of Exodus was: 967 + 480 = 1447 b.C. We also have Thutmose III, The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus wrote the following: "It happened that the Pharaoh, of which Moses had escaped, died and a new ruler occupied the power". after the death of Thutmose II, his son, not the one that had with Hatshepsut, became the Pharaoh. Thutmose III reigned jointly with the Pharaoh Tutmosis III Queen Hatshepsut until the death of her in the year 1482 b.C. After that he governed alone until approximately the 1450 b.C. If Moses escaped from Thutmose III, the Pharaoh of Exodus would have been his son Amenhotep II, surprisingly his successor was not his first-born neither his heir. José Alonso 2013 VIII
    • And our last candidate, based on the investigation of the journalist Simcha Jacobovici, who sustains that the Exodus happened around the year 1500 b.C. for it the same as Flavius Josephus identifies the hicso with the Jews. Tacitly he indicates that the Pharaoh of the Exodus was Ahmose I, the founder of the new Empire. It is contributed in favor of this hypothesis the fact that his first-born died young. Pharaoh Ahmose I Another evidence that contributes it's the inscription of the Stele of Ahmose I in which a strange storm is mentioned sent by a foreign god, which bore some similar plagues to those of the Bible including a great darkness. We arrive this way at the end of the journey in Route with the Pharaohs in the Bible, even when it cannot present a specify Pharaoh for each biblical character, this thanks to the chronologies, therefore, just the time and the archaeological excavations will affirm a sovereign or they will Stele of Amosis I José Alonso 2013 underrate it. IX
    • References:  Calendario de Ussher-Lightfoot (wikipedia)  Canon Real de Turín (Wikipedia)  Lista real de Karnak (Wikipedia)  Cronología Bíblica del Antiguo Testamento (Biblia de Estudio NVI. p.1497)  El origen de los hebreos (Egiptomania) Juan de la Torre SuárezMiércoles, 12 de Marzo del 2003Sábado, 10 de Agosto del 2013  Un recién revisado cronología de la Biblia por W. Glenn Moore Jubileo Ministerios de cuenta regresiva, PO Box 2015, Burleson, Texas 76097  Consideraciones y referencias historicas a los Hicsos, Moisés y el Exodo por José María Saldaña de la Calle  Servicio Evangélico de Documentación e Información. FARAÓN. © SEDIN 2003  Cronología de la escritura de la Biblia. Historia de la Biblia  The Pyramids of Ancient Egypt. by David Down on September 1, 2004. Answe in Genesis.  Tyson's Gospel of Truth. Pharaohs of Egypt & Hebrew Patriarchs Chart (1991BC-945BC, Abraham-Solomon) January 6, 2013 · by Tyson · in Ancient Egypt, Genealogy of Adam, Judaism/Christianity/Islam. ·  Moises (Wikipedia)  Doesn’t Egyptian Chronology Prove That the Bible Is Unreliable? by Dr. Elizabeth Mitchell on July 22, 2010. Answer in Genesis.  Answers Research Journal 5 (2012): 141-150. by Matt McClellan  October 3, 2012. Abraham and the Chronology of Ancient Mesopotamia Answers in Genesis  The Exodus and the Red Sea Crossing //Just another truthinlove.com weblog. Neferhotep I was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Posted on February 26, 2013 by gospelclips  El Éxodo descodificado (2006) documental dirigido por Simcha Jacobovici y producido y narrado parcialmente por James Cameron.  Cronología bíblica desde Adán hasta Jesús. José Alonso 2013 X
    •  CRONOLOGÍA BÍBLICA-BIBLICAL CHRONOLOGYLa cronología bíblica más larga. Luis Díez Encinas. Apartado de correos 61 Código postal 28910 Leganés Madrid España  Abraham aparece mencionado en las Tablas de Ebla, fechadas 2.500 años antes de Jesucristo. P. Arieu Theologies Web  Documental José el Rey de los sueños. BBC y Discovery Channel 2003. José Alonso 2013 XI