Prudent Energy                                                        Storage for a sustainable future                    ...
About Prudent EnergyCompany Overview• Provides proprietary VRB® Energy Storage Systems (VRB-ESS®) for grid and  renewable ...
Prudent VRB® Technology What is a Flow Battery?   Regenerative fuel cell or “Cell    Stack”   Independent electrolyte st...
Prudent VRB® Technology Flow Battery Cell Stack   Array or “stack” of individual    cells in series   Each cell consists...
Prudent VRB Technology Flow Battery Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages    No daily “off periods” - always on     Po...
The modular assembly of a MW scale VRB-ESS® in California                                 6
The modular assembly of a MW scale VRB-ESS® in California•   Peak Shaving•   Using bio gas from    onion plant•   Gills On...
MW scale VRB-ESS® in China - wind and PV smoothing   500kW 750kW pulse (10 minutes) / 1MWh   Results – one of other tech...
Microgrids – island and hybrid systems • 400kW x 500kWh diesel, PV   and micro-hydro, Hybrid in   Indonesia • Slovakia – s...
VRB® characteristics from field testing                   Response time ms             Short circuit test            1. Re...
Future enhancements to VRB® Technology•   Energy density of electrolyte being improved – reduces footprint and costs•   Fo...
Implications of community based generation in Distribution System• Power flows no longer in  one direction due to multiple...
Germany Current Situation  Reports on critical grid conditions [Reference: Paul-Fredrik Bach: Frequent wind  power curtail...
Comparisons of Wind and PV systems with energy storage for municipalowned microgrids                              Net Powe...
Firmness provided by storage in islanded micro grids                           Net Power with 5MW Wind and 4MW PV         ...
Peaking generation enhancing the value of OCGT using Energy Storage                                           Also reduces...
Energy trading using flow batteries in Germany                                            IRR over ten                    ...
Summary of Alternative Grid Energy Storage SolutionsElectrochemical energy storage is the most preferred practical solutio...
Summary and observations Energy Storage can be used to “FIRM” variable generation resources  both centrally and distribut...
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Prudent Energy at Intersolar2012

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Large scale Energy storage. Applications of the VRB-ESS® in providing electrical grid power solutions

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Prudent Energy at Intersolar2012

  1. 1. Prudent Energy Storage for a sustainable future The Global Leader in Advanced Energy StorageLarge scale Energy storage – applications of the VRB-ESS® in providing electrical grid power solutions Intersolar 2012 Timothy Hennessy June 11 2012
  2. 2. About Prudent EnergyCompany Overview• Provides proprietary VRB® Energy Storage Systems (VRB-ESS®) for grid and renewable energy storage applications between 200kW to 10MW 100MWh• 10 years operation with the VRB® technology: 200 employees• Over 20MWh commercial sales and installations in last year across 11 countries• VRB® and storage application Patents: control all substantial patents including 51 issued patents and 48 pending patent applications in 34 countries• Major Investors: MITSUI Corporation, GS Caltex, State Power Group, DFJ and DT Capital, CEL, Northern Light 2
  3. 3. Prudent VRB® Technology What is a Flow Battery?  Regenerative fuel cell or “Cell Stack”  Independent electrolyte storage tanks  Pumps to circulate electrolyte  Control system to manage electrolyte circulation  Flow battery technologies are distinguished by electrolyte composition 3
  4. 4. Prudent VRB® Technology Flow Battery Cell Stack  Array or “stack” of individual cells in series  Each cell consists of  bipolar plate  2 electrodes  Membrane separator • Colors of Vanadium at different ionic states • Non Toxic • Readily available from waste streams such as flyash V+5 -> V+2 4
  5. 5. Prudent VRB Technology Flow Battery Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages  No daily “off periods” - always on  Power and energy capacity can be sized independently of one another  Operates at any SOC without life impact  Any Depth of Discharge (DOD)  Lowest LCOE (unlimited cycles of electrolyte)  Large surge capability possible  Efficient over 100% DOD range  < 1 cycle responses  Low pressure and low temperature=safe Disadvantages  Low energy storage density = big footprint  Not mobile 5
  6. 6. The modular assembly of a MW scale VRB-ESS® in California 6
  7. 7. The modular assembly of a MW scale VRB-ESS® in California• Peak Shaving• Using bio gas from onion plant• Gills Onion’s California 7
  8. 8. MW scale VRB-ESS® in China - wind and PV smoothing  500kW 750kW pulse (10 minutes) / 1MWh  Results – one of other technologies has had performance issues within a year  Our performance has been solid  Ambient temperatures down to -30C  Provides continuous reactive energy (MVAR)  2MW * 8MWH system being commissioned in September 2012 – wind PV - grid connected 8
  9. 9. Microgrids – island and hybrid systems • 400kW x 500kWh diesel, PV and micro-hydro, Hybrid in Indonesia • Slovakia – smart grid 600kWh • Hawaii – islanded PV • China – smart grid wind and PV • Korea Smart grid Jeju island 9
  10. 10. VRB® characteristics from field testing Response time ms Short circuit test 1. Response time full charge to discharge < 50ms 2. Stack Coulombic efficiency 3. Short circuit test – stack shorted max 2000 Amps. Discharged over 140 seconds. System recovered after short removed 4. Longest field operation 6 years un-manned 10
  11. 11. Future enhancements to VRB® Technology• Energy density of electrolyte being improved – reduces footprint and costs• Footprint reduction of plant – higher efficiency of cell stacks• Market driven cost reductions depends on application e.g. renewable power smoothing, peak shaving etc. • Modular 250kW • 40% footprint reduction 2011 to 2013 11
  12. 12. Implications of community based generation in Distribution System• Power flows no longer in one direction due to multiple sources• Complex protection coordination due to multiple generation sources storage• Microgrid or community grids contains both generation and load• Managed independently of main distribution system and can operate even if main transmission source is cut Courtesy Brad Williams Oracle 12
  13. 13. Germany Current Situation Reports on critical grid conditions [Reference: Paul-Fredrik Bach: Frequent wind power curtailments 14 April 2012] Recently “Welt Online” reported on “alarm level yellow” for German power grids on 28 and 29 March 20121.. During first quarter EON Netz has issued 257 interventions.. Thus there have been interventions active for 23.1% of the hours in first quarter. Part of the solution is storage backed microgrids owned by communities 13
  14. 14. Comparisons of Wind and PV systems with energy storage for municipalowned microgrids Net Power with 9MW PV and No Wind Net Power with 9MW Wind and No PV 10 12 4 Hours Storage Duration 4 Hours Storage Duration 6 Hours Storage Duration 10 6 Hours Storage Duration 8 8 6 6 Power, MWPower, MW 4 4 2 2 0 0 -2 -2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Time, Days Time, Days 4 cases: Objective to minimize grid demand and reduce volatility of power sold to grid. • PCC= 9MW: Below zero in graphs indicates grid purchases i.e. NON FIRM renewable resource • Smoothing effects and ramp rate (stability) management provided by energy storage • Cases examine mixes of PV and wind generation along with 2.5MW of storage with durations of 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours all at 2.5MW FIRM PPA with utility • Finding is that between 4 to 6 hours of storage yields lowest volatility and minimum grid purchases. 14
  15. 15. Firmness provided by storage in islanded micro grids Net Power with 5MW Wind and 4MW PV Net Power with 5MW Wind and 4MW PV 12 12 1 Hour Storage Duration 4 Hours Storage Duration 6 Hours Storage Duration 6 Hours Storage Duration 10 10 8 8 6 6Power, MW Power, MW 4 4 2 2 0 0 -2 -2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Time, Days Time, Days Grid purchases when Wind (MW) 5 storage sized at 1hour 4 PV (MW) 1 hour storage duration Grid purchase (times/year) 230 Energy purchases (MWh) 604.7 4 hours storage duration Grid purchase (times/year) 152 Energy purchases (MWh) 35.8 6 hours storage duration Grid purchase (times/year) 8 Energy purchases (MWh) 2.7 15
  16. 16. Peaking generation enhancing the value of OCGT using Energy Storage Also reduces CO2 emissions Ref: PJM USA markets 16
  17. 17. Energy trading using flow batteries in Germany IRR over ten years > 15% 17
  18. 18. Summary of Alternative Grid Energy Storage SolutionsElectrochemical energy storage is the most preferred practical solution for distributedgrid energy storage applications but one size does NOT fit all Compressed Air Open Cycle Gas Energy Storage Electrochemical Pumped Storage Hydrogen Turbines, Diesels or Energy Storage (CAES) Coal Fire Station Solutions • Mature • Limited by • Long duration • Medium CAPEX • Fast delivery • Long lead time geology • Expensive with • High impact on • Low operating • Geographical • Central type low efficiency environment cost limitation plant • Risky • Low average • EnvironmentallyComments • Large scale • Long lead time • Highest energy efficiency friendly • Lowest cost • Large scale density • Risky gas • Higher initial • Central type supply CAPEX plant Fit forCommercial DistributedGrid Storage essential part ofApplications Exists – part of Possible part of Possible part Yes part of mix mix not distributed mix solution solution 18
  19. 19. Summary and observations Energy Storage can be used to “FIRM” variable generation resources both centrally and distributed Electrochemical Storage prices are coming down GAS fired generation combined with storage for fast acting reserve is more economic than standalone gas fired generation alone. Distributed Storage must form part of any SMART GRID in order to manage power flows An approach to microgrids allowing communities to island their resources will occur and regulations applying to these should be developed Long term storage is essential for stability and energy management in distributed generation grids Government and regulatory bodies must lead the way in setting appropriate policy and tariffs such as locational marginal pricing to direct storage investments 19

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