Ch15 lecture

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Ch15 lecture

  1. 1. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Michael Hall Chapter 15 Cardiovascular Disease: Reducing Your Risk
  2. 2. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Objectives  Discuss the incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of cardiovascular disease.  Describe the anatomy and physiology of the heart and circulatory system and the importance of healthy heart function.  Review major types of heart disease, factors that contribute to their development, diagnostic and treatment options and the importance of fundamental lifestyle modifications aimed at prevention.  Discuss controllable and uncontrollable risk factors for cardiovascular disease; your own risk profile, and determine the risk factors you can and cannot control.  Discuss methods of diagnosing and treating cardiovascular disease.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 2001 Total Cardiovascular Disease Rates by State and Gender, Age Adjusted Figure 15.1a
  4. 4. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 2001 Total Cardiovascular Disease Rates by State and Gender, Age Adjusted (continued) Figure 15.1b
  5. 5. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings An Epidemiological Overview  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the U.S.  In 2005 CVD accounted for approximately 38 percent of all deaths  CVD has been the number one killer in the U.S. since 1900 except for 1918 (influenza)  More that 2,500 Americans die from CVD each day  Among women, 1 in 2.6 deaths from CVD
  6. 6. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases in American Men and Women, Ages 20 and Older Figure 15.2
  7. 7. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Death Rates for Cardiovascular Disease, Including CHD and Stroke for Selected Countries Figure 15.3
  8. 8. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings ABC News: Cardiovascular Disease Play Video Play Video | Cardiovascular Disease
  9. 9. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings ABC News: Cardiovascular Disease Discussion Questions:  How does inflammation account for nearly 85% of all heart attacks?  What test measures inflammation and how expensive is it?  Why have physicians been hesitate to order tests to measure inflammation?  What dietary changes are recommended to lower inflammation?
  10. 10. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Understanding The Cardiovascular System  Cardiovascular system includes: the heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins  The heart • Muscular, four chambered pump • Contracts 100,000 times per day • Two upper chambers: atria • Two lower chambers: ventricles • Tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves
  11. 11. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Heart Function  Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium  From the right atrium blood moves to the right ventricle, pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs  Oxygen blood enters the left atrium  Blood from the left atrium is forced into the left ventricle  The left ventricle pumps blood through the aorta to various parts of the body
  12. 12. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Anatomy of the Heart Figure 15.4
  13. 13. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Types Of Cardiovascular Disease  Atherosclerosis  Coronary heart disease (CHD)  Chest pain (angina pectoris)  Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)  Congestive heart failure (CHF)  Congenital and rheumatic heart disease  Stroke
  14. 14. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Percentage Breakdown of Deaths from Cardiovascular Disease in the United States, 2001 Figure 15.5
  15. 15. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Artherosclerosis  Characterized by deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin in the inner lining of the artery  Hyperlipidemia – abnormally high blood lipid level  Plaque – the buildup of deposits in the arteries
  16. 16. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Coronary Heart Disease  Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack – blood supplying the heart is disrupted  Coronary thrombosis – blood clot in the artery  Embolus – when the blood clot is dislodged and moves through the circulatory system  Collateral circulation - if blockage to the heart is minor, an alternative blood flow is selected
  17. 17. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Angina Pectoris  Ischemia – reduction of the heart’s blood and oxygen supply  The more serious the oxygen deprivation the more severe the pain  Nitroglycerin – drug used to relax (dilate) the veins  Beta blockers control potential overactivity of the heart muscle
  18. 18. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Arrythmias  An irregularity in heart rhythm  Tachycardia – racing heart in the absence of exercise or anxiety  Bradycardia – abnormally slow heartbeat  Fibrillation – heart beat is sporadic, quivering pattern
  19. 19. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)  Damaged or overworked heart muscle is unable to keep blood circulating normally  Affects over 5 million Americans  Damage to heart muscle may result from: rheumatic fever, pneumonia, heart attack, or other cardiovascular problem  Lack of proper circulation may allow blood to accumulate in the vessels of the legs, ankles, or lungs  Diuretics relieve fluid accumulation
  20. 20. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Congenital And Rheumatic Heart Disease  Congenital heart disease affects 1 out of 125 children born  May be due to hereditary factors, maternal diseases, or chemical intake (alcohol) during fetal development  Rheumatic heart disease results from rheumatic fever which affects connective tissue
  21. 21. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Stroke  Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted  Thrombus – blood clot  Embolus – free flowing clot  Aneurysm – bulging or burst blood vessel  Transient ischemic attack (TIA) – brief interruptions that cause temporary impairment
  22. 22. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Common Blood Vessel Disorders Figure 15.6
  23. 23. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Reducing Your Risk For Cardiovascular Diseases  Risks you can control • Avoid tobacco • Cut back on saturated fat and cholesterol • Maintain a healthy weight • Modify dietary habits • Exercise regularly • Control diabetes • Control blood pressure • Systolic – upper number • Diastolic – lower number • Manage stress
  24. 24. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Reducing Your Risk For Cardiovascular Diseases  Risks you cannot control • Heredity • Age • Gender • Race
  25. 25. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Classification of LDL, Total, and HDL Cholesterol (mg/dl) and Recommended Levels for Adults Table 15.1
  26. 26. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Women And Cardiovascular Disease  2003, CVD deaths • 426,800 men • 483,800 women  Estrogen • Once estrogen production stops, risk for CVD death increases  Diagnostic and therapeutic differences • Delay in diagnosing possible heart attack • Complexity in interpreting chest pain in women • Less aggressive treatment of female heart attack victims • Smaller coronary arteries in women  Gender bias in CVD research – typically CVD research has been conducted on male subjects
  27. 27. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings New Weapons Against Heart Disease  Techniques for diagnosing heart disease • Electrocardiogram (ECG) • Angiography • Positron emission tomography (PET) • Single positron emission color tomography (SPECT) • Radionuclide imaging • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) • Ultrafast CT • Digital cardiac angiography (DSA)
  28. 28. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Angioplasty Versus Bypass Surgery  Angioplasty – a thin catheter is threaded through the blocked arteries. The catheter has a balloon on the tip which is inflated to flatten the fatty deposits against the wall of the artery  Coronary bypass surgery – a blood vessel is taken from another site and implanted to bypass blocked arteries and transport blood
  29. 29. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Aspirin For Heart Disease?  Research shows that 80 milligrams of aspirin every other day is beneficial to heart patients due to its blood thinning properties  Some side effects of aspirin: gastrointestinal intolerance and a tendency for difficulty with blood clotting  Should only be taken under the advice of your physician
  30. 30. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Thrombolysis  If victim reaches an emergency room and is diagnosed quickly, thrombolysis can be performed  Thrombolysis involves injecting an agent such as tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) to dissolve the clot and restore some blood flow
  31. 31. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Cardiac Rehabilitation  Every year, 1 million people survive heart attacks  Cardiac rehabilitation exercise training increases stamina and strength, and promotes recovery
  32. 32. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Personal Advocacy And Heart-Smart Behaviors  Know your rights as a patient  Find out about informed consent procedures, living wills, durable power of attorney, organ donation, and other legal issues BEFORE you become sick  Ask about alternative procedures  Remain with your loved one as a personal advocate  Monitor the actions of health care providers  Be considerate of your care provider  Be patient with the patient

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