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guia para la remineralizacion de aguas desaladas.PDF
 

guia para la remineralizacion de aguas desaladas.PDF

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    guia para la remineralizacion de aguas desaladas.PDF guia para la remineralizacion de aguas desaladas.PDF Document Transcript

    • GUÍA PARA LA REMINERALIZACIÓN DE LAS AGUAS DESALADASGUIDELINE FOR THE REMINERALISATION OF DESALINATED WATERS !"#$%&(%)#*#+%,-.$*)%,
    •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ota aclaratoria a la 2ª edición: Explanatory note to the 2nd edition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`#!.&/&2"#.(#),#5*6,#V*(#3(#$*1)&/,#,L7%,#/7%%&+(#(34,# L"*2&U.;&:;*3*6.&6<&3":&>8*;:&.6C&+8=,*2":;&)611:)3&3"*2&*.R&$%(/&3&2"#8#,$)6,#4,1&C"#)73#/%&4(%&73#$,%,#()#/H)/*)7# 4))814)?&4.;&=164;:.2&3":&)1*3:1*4&<61&*.;*1:)3&)4,)8,43*6.&&".&%(/47#.()#GOJ#,#$,%4&%#.()#&"/%(("47#.(#),#:!=# 6<&3":&I(-&<169&3":&*.)1:42:&6<&3":&_@#!)#,*47%# L":&483"610:E0?!P 9*".,/&2"#:("4%7#:,",%&7#.()#0+*,:[#0)1,3,";-#QQ :[#O,"#9%,"/&3/7#X-#K),"4,#QT-#Y!#/=#Q S`#!.&/&2"c#0+7347#STQTSRTZa#?,.%&. ZRTTS#O,"4,#:%*;#.(#B("(%&W(=bbb=,/*,(.=(3 bbb=W//,=(3 JOdDc#UaRIR_IQ_IZXSXIR
    • PREFACIO PREFACELA REMINERALIZACIÓN, GARANTÍA DE Remineralisation, quality assurance forCALIDAD DEL AGUA DESALADA desalinated water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