Grigsby slides 3

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Grigsby slides 3

  1. 1. Grigsby 3Key Concepts in Political Science
  2. 2. Power• Distinguishing feature of political science• Ability of one person to get another to do something
  3. 3. Types of Power • Force • Persuasion • Manipulation • Exchange
  4. 4. Force• The exercise of power by physical means • Restraining • Assaulting • Assassinating • Impeding access • Other
  5. 5. Persuasion• Nonphysical power in which the person using power makes its use of power clear and known to the person over whom power is exercised.
  6. 6. Manipulation• Nonphysical power in which the person using power conceals the use of power.
  7. 7. Exchange• The use of power through incentives.
  8. 8. Robert Dahl’s“Influence Terms”• Rational persuasion • Tell the truth and explain why something should be done. • Doctor tells you to quit smoking.• Manipulative persuasion • Lying to get someone to do something • Politicians during elections• Inducement • Rewards/Punishments to get someone to do something. • Bribery
  9. 9. Robert Dahl’s“Influence Terms”• Power • Threaten severe punishment. • Jail or loss of job• Coercion • Power with no way out. • You have to do it.• Physical Force • Backing up coercion with use or threat of bodily harm. Best governments influence on the higher end of scale.
  10. 10. Key Power Concepts• Legitimacy• Sovereignty• Authority
  11. 11. Legitimacy• The legal right to govern• The psychological right to govern • An attitude in people’s mind • The government’s rule is rightful• Legitimacy established by • Time • Governing well • The structure of government • National symbols
  12. 12. Sovereignty• To rule over• The power to provide security and rules• Closely linked with legitimacy
  13. 13. Authority• The psychological ability of leaders to get others to obey them.Max Weber’s three types of authority: • Traditional Authority • Charismatic Authority • Legal-Rational Authority
  14. 14. Political PoliticiansScientists• Skeptical of power • Love power• Seek accuracy • Seek popularity• Abstract thinking • Practical thinking• Reach tentative • Hold firm views conclusions• Offer many causes • Offer single causes• See long-term • See short-term payoff consequences• Plan for next publication • Plan for next election• Seek good of whole • Respond to groups• Seek professional • Seek name recognition prestige
  15. 15. Centralization ofPolitical Power
  16. 16. ConfederalSystem• Highly decentralized• League of mutual support or common action
  17. 17. Rivals to State Power• Multinational Corporations (MNCs) • Have transactions in different states • Wal-Mart, Sears• Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) • Nonstate, voluntary groups that pursue political objectives • Red Cross, Doctors without Borders• Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) • Membership exclusively by states • United Nations, NATO
  18. 18. Nation or State?• A nation is a population with a certain sense of itself, a cohesiveness, a commonality of attitudes and ideals, and often a common language.• A state is a government structure, usually sovereign and powerful enough to enforce its writ.
  19. 19. Who is a Nation?• Gay nationalism• African-American nationalism• The Southern Nation• Should nation be applied only to groups identifying with or striving for the creation of their own state?• Multinational states
  20. 20. Territory is but the body of a nation. The people who inhabit its hills and valleys are its soul, its spirit, its life. -- James A. Garfield
  21. 21. One Nation, UnderprivilegedRank 3: Poverty as a Structural Failing
  22. 22. “The trouble with the profit system has always been that it was highly unprofitable to most people.” ~ E. B. White Author of “Charlotte’s Web” and “Stuart Little”
  23. 23. U.S. ViewPoverty a consequence of individual failings and deficiencies.
  24. 24. Underlying Dynamic• U.S. poverty is largely a result of structural failings at the economic, political, and social levels
  25. 25. Structural Vulnerability• Lack of adequately paying jobs• Ineffectiveness of the social safety net in preventing poverty • U.S. allocates smaller proportion of GDP to social welfare programs than any other industrialized country except Japan• Risk of impoverishment experienced by a majority of Americans
  26. 26. Impact of Social Class• While some social mobility occurs, social class tends to reproduce itself• Impacts children’s ability to acquire valuable skills and education • Differences in human capital
  27. 27. Poverty Correlated With:• Lower levels of education• Lack of marketable skills• Physical disability
  28. 28. American Economy• Larger numbers of • Low-paying jobs • Jobs that are part- time • Jobs that lack benefits
  29. 29. MusicalChairs• There will never be enough quality “living- wage” jobs for all• There will always be losers in the “game”
  30. 30. “It is a tragic mix-up when the United Statesspends $500,000 for every enemy soldier killed, and only $53 annually on the victims of poverty.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr.

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