Chapter 2: The Constitution ofthe United States of America     A More Perfect Union 1/e
The Constitution• What Is a Constitution?  – Mission description  – Foundational structures  – Essential processes        ...
The Constitution• The Constitution of the United States  – Mission of the Constitution     •   By and for the people     •...
The Constitution• The Constitution of the United States                                   (continued)  – Key Foundational ...
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   5
The Constitution• The Constitution of the United States                                   (continued)  – Another Key Struc...
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   7
The Constitution• The Creation of the United States  – Colonization and Governance of America  – British Policy Incites a ...
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   9
The Constitution• The Creation of the United States                                       (continued)  – The State Constit...
The Constitution• Crafting the Constitution: Compromise,  Ratification, and Quick Amendment  – Conflict and Compromise ove...
The Constitution• Crafting the Constitution: Compromise,  Ratification, and Quick Amendment (continued)  – Conflict and Co...
The Constitution• The Constitution as a Living, Evolving  Document  – Formal Amendment of the Constitution  – Interpretati...
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   14
Chapter TwoThe Structure of Government © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Exhibit 2-1   California Governments                   State                                                      1       ...
Exhibit 2-2                                                  Federal and                                                  ...
Which level of government —     federal, state, or local —should have most responsibility for:    Improving public educati...
Exhibit 2-3                                                            California                                         ...
Exhibit 2-4   California Governors Since 1943     Arnold Schwarzenegger (R)                                               ...
Who’s Who?California’s Plural Executive       © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Exhibit 2-5       California’s Plural Executive                                                                           ...
Exhibit 2-5    California’s “Plural Executive”                                                                            ...
Exhibit 2-5   California’s “Plural Executive”                                                                           In...
Exhibit 2-5    California’s “Plural Executive”                                                                            ...
Assembly Senate                                                    Exhibit 2-9        Size       80 members               ...
Political Makeup of the California Legislature Assembly                                              Senate               ...
Political Makeup of California’sCongressional Delegation in the U.S. House of Representatives   34                        ...
California State Assembly 1   Patty Berg                  31    Juan Arambula                                    61   Nell...
California State Senate 1   Cox, Dave                                               21     Scott, Jack 2   Wiggins, Patric...
California Congressional Delegation                 U.S. House of Representatives 1   Thompson, Mike             21     Nu...
United States SenatorsRepresenting CaliforniaDianne Feinstein (D)                             Barbara Boxer (D)          ©...
California Judiciary  California Supreme Court    Chief Justice: $191,483     Six associate justices:                   $1...
Exhibit 2-11                                                    California’s                                              ...
Geographic Jurisdiction for theFederal Circuit Courts of Appeal (Additional federal courts: U.S. Court of Appeals for the ...
U.S. Federal District Courts in California                                                          Eastern District   Nor...
Mayors: California’s Largest Cities Los Angeles          Antonio VillaraigosaSan Francisco         Gavin Newsom   San Dieg...
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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2: The Constitution ofthe United States of America A More Perfect Union 1/e
  2. 2. The Constitution• What Is a Constitution? – Mission description – Foundational structures – Essential processes ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3. The Constitution• The Constitution of the United States – Mission of the Constitution • By and for the people • Democratic • Protection of liberties, property, citizen participation • Establish the rule of law ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4. The Constitution• The Constitution of the United States (continued) – Key Foundational Structures: Separation of Powers with Integrated Checks and Balances • Article I: The Legislative Branch • Article II: The Executive Branch • Article III: The Judicial Branch ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
  5. 5. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
  6. 6. The Constitution• The Constitution of the United States (continued) – Another Key Structure: The Federal System – Essential Processes of the National Government • Selection of National Government Officials • Article V: The Amendment Process • Article VII: The Constitutional Ratification Process ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
  7. 7. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
  8. 8. The Constitution• The Creation of the United States – Colonization and Governance of America – British Policy Incites a Rebellion • A “Massacre” and a Tea Party • The Continental Congress and Colonial Demands – The Common Sense of Declaring Independence ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
  9. 9. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. 10. The Constitution• The Creation of the United States (continued) – The State Constitutions – The Articles of Confederation (1781-1789) • Structure and Authority of the Confederation • Weaknesses of the Confederation ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
  11. 11. The Constitution• Crafting the Constitution: Compromise, Ratification, and Quick Amendment – Conflict and Compromise over Representative Democracy • The Virginia and New Jersey Plans and the Connecticut Compromise • The Constitution’s checks on representative democracy ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
  12. 12. The Constitution• Crafting the Constitution: Compromise, Ratification, and Quick Amendment (continued) – Conflict and Compromise over Slavery – The Federalist and Anti-Federalist Debate – The Federalist Papers: In Support of a Strong National Government – The Anti-Federalist Response: In Opposition to a Strong Central Government ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
  13. 13. The Constitution• The Constitution as a Living, Evolving Document – Formal Amendment of the Constitution – Interpretation by the U.S. Supreme Court ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13
  14. 14. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
  15. 15. Chapter TwoThe Structure of Government © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Exhibit 2-1 California Governments State 1 Counties 58 Cities 478Redevelopment agencies 408 Special districts 4,763 K-12 school districts 998 Community college 72 districts Total 6,778 American Indian tribes 95 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Exhibit 2-2 Federal and Unitary Governmental Relationships Sources: Uncle Sam © Swim Ink 2, LLC/Corbis. California Flag © Spencer Grant/PhotoEdit.© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Which level of government — federal, state, or local —should have most responsibility for: Improving public education? Reducing crime? Providing job training? Assisting the poor? Improving the health care system? Protecting the environment? Strengthening the economy? Protecting civil rights? © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Exhibit 2-3 California State Government Bureaucracy© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Exhibit 2-4 California Governors Since 1943 Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) 2003- Gray Davis (D) 1999-2003 Pete Wilson (R) 1991-1999 George Deukemejian (R) 1983-1991 Edmund G. “Jerry” Brown (D) 1975-1983 Ronald Reagan (R) 1967-1975 Edmund G. “Pat” Brown (D) 1959-1967 Goodwin Knight (R) 1953-1959 Earl Warren (R) 1943-1953 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Who’s Who?California’s Plural Executive © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Exhibit 2-5 California’s Plural Executive Incumbent (Party) Office Duties & salary (elected 2006) Chief executive officer Arnold Governor of the state. $206,500 Schwarzenegger (R) 2,3 Minor duties. Becomes Lieutenant chief executive if the John Garamendi (D) 1 Governor governor’s office is vacated. $154,875 Chief law enforcement Attorney General officer of the state. Jerry Brown (D) 1 $175,525 Salary as of 20071 First term 2 Second term3 Gov. Schwarzenegger has waived receipt of his salary. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Exhibit 2-5 California’s “Plural Executive” Incumbent (Party)Office Duties & salary (elected 2006)Secretary of Supervises state Debra Bowen (D) 1State elections. $154,875 Supervises receipts andController disbursements of public John Chiang (D) 1 funds. $165,200 State’s lead assetTreasurer manager, banker and Bill Lockyer (D) 1 financier. $165,200Salary as of 2007 1 First term 2 Second term © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Exhibit 2-5 California’s “Plural Executive” Incumbent (Party)Office Duties & salary (elected 2006) Supervises theInsurance regulation of the Steve Poizner (R) 1Commissioner insurance industry. $165,200 General oversight of K-12 schools, teacherSuperintendent of certification, & Jack T. O’Connell † 2Public Instruction student testing. $175,525 Salary as of 2007 1 First term 2 Second term † This is a nonpartisan office. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Exhibit 2-5 California’s “Plural Executive” Incumbent (Party)Office Duties & salary (elected 2006) Assures that county property tax Betty T. Yee, 1st (D) 1 2 assessment practices Bill Leonard, 2nd (R) 2 are equal and uniform Michelle Steel, 3rd (R) 1 1 throughout the state. Judy May Chu, 4th (D) 1 3 Also responsible for 4 collecting sales, The State Controller isState Board of cigarette, gasoline, the ex officio fifthEqualization alcohol beverage, and member of the Board other taxes. $154,875 Salary as of 20071 First term 2 Second term © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Assembly Senate Exhibit 2-9 Size 80 members 40 members California Term of office 2 years 4 years Legislature Term 3 terms 2 terms (maximum 6 (maximum 8 limit years) years) SpeakerPresiding Lieutenant officer of the Governor Assembly Salary $113,098 $113,098 In practice, the president pro tempore is the leader and most powerful member of the senate. Elected by all thesenators at the beginning of each two-year session, the president pro tem chairs the senate Rules Committee and two-presides over the senate in the absence of the lieutenant governor. governor. Salary as of 2007 (set by the California Citizens Compensation Commission). The speaker of the assembly,senate president pro tempore, and the minority floor leaders of each house each receive $130,062 per year. Themajority floor leaders of each house and the second-ranking minority leaders each receive $121,580. Each second-legislator also receives a daily allowance of $162 while the legislature is in session. legislature © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Political Makeup of the California Legislature Assembly Senate 25 15 Democrats Republicans48 32 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Political Makeup of California’sCongressional Delegation in the U.S. House of Representatives 34 19 Democrats Republicans © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. California State Assembly 1 Patty Berg 31 Juan Arambula 61 Nell Soto 2 Doug La Malfa 32 Jean Fuller 62 Wilma D. Carter 3 Rick Keene 33 Sam Blakeslee 63 Bill Emmerson 4 Ted Gaines 34 Bill Maze 64 John J. Benoit 5 Roger Niello 35 Pedro Nava 65 Paul J. Cook 6 Jared W. Huffman 36 Sharon Runner 66 Kevin D. Jeffries 7 Noreen Evans 37 Audra Strickland 67 Jim Silva 8 Lois Wolk 38 Cameron Smyth 68 Van Tran 9 Dave Jones 39 Richard Alarcon 69 Jose Solorio10 Alan Nakanishi 40 Lloyd E. Levine 70 Charles S. DeVore11 Mark J. DeSaulnier 41 Julia Brownley 71 Todd Spitzer12 Fiona Ma 42 Mike Feuer 72 Mike Duvall13 Mark Leno 43 Paul Krekorian 73 Mimi Walters14 Loni Hancock 44 Anthony Portantino 74 Martin Garrick15 Guy S. Houston 45 Kevin De Leon 75 George A. Plescia16 Sandre Swanson 46 Fabian Nuñez (Speaker) 76 Lori Saldaña17 Cathleen Galgiani 47 Karen Bass 77 Joel Anderson18 May Hayashi 48 Mike Davis 78 Shirley Horton19 Gene Mullin 49 Mike Eng 79 Mary Salas20 Alberto Torrico 50 Hector De La Torre 80 Bonnie Garcia21 Ira Ruskin 51 Curren D. Price22 Sally J. Lieber 52 Mervyn M. Dymally23 Joe Coto 53 Ted Lieu24 Jim Beall 54 Betty Karnette25 Tom Berryhill 55 Laura Richardson26 Greg Aghazarian 56 Tony Mendoza 48 Democrats27 John Laird 57 Ed Hernandez28 Anna Marie Caballero 58 Charles M. Calderon 32 Republicans29 Michael N. Villines 59 Anthony Adams30 Nicole Parra 60 Bob Huff © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. California State Senate 1 Cox, Dave 21 Scott, Jack 2 Wiggins, Patricia "Pat" 22 Cedillo, Gilbert 3 Migden, Carole 23 Kuehl, Sheila 4 Aanestad, Samuel 24 Romero, Gloria (Majority Leader) 5 Machado, Michael 25 Vincent, Edward 6 Steinberg, Darrell S. 26 Ridley-Thomas, Mark 7 Torlakson, Tom 27 Lowenthal, Alan S. 8 Yee, Leland 28 Oropeza, Jenny 9 Perata, Don (President Pro Tempore) 29 Margett, Bob10 Corbett, Ellen 30 Calderon, Ron11 Simitian, S. Joseph 31 Dutton, Robert12 Denham, Jeff 32 McLeod, Gloria Negrete13 Alquist, Elaine 33 Ackerman, Dick (Minority Leader)14 Cogdill, Dave 34 Daucher, Lynn15 Maldonado, Abel 35 Tom Harman16 Florez, Dean 36 Hollingsworth, Dennis17 Runner, George C. 37 Battin, James18 Ashburn, Roy 38 Wyland, Mark 25 Democrats19 McClintock, Tom 39 Kehoe, Christine 15 Republicans20 Padilla, Alex 40 Ducheny, Denise Moreno © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. California Congressional Delegation U.S. House of Representatives 1 Thompson, Mike 21 Nunes, Devin 41 Lewis, Jerry 2 Herger, Wally 22 McCarthy, Kevin 42 Miller, Gary G. 3 Lungren, Daniel E. 23 Capps, Lois 43 Baca, Joe 4 Doolittle, John T. 24 Gallegly, Elton 44 Calvert, Ken 5 Matsui, Doris 25 McKeon, Howard P. "Buck" 45 Bono, Mary 6 Woolsey, Lynn C. 26 Dreier, David 46 Rohrabacher, Dana 7 Miller, George 27 Sherman, Brad 47 Sanchez, Loretta 8 Pelosi, Nancy 28 Berman, Howard L. 48 Campbell, John 9 Lee, Barbara 29 Schiff, Adam B. 49 Issa, Darrell E.10 Tauscher, Ellen O. 30 Waxman, Henry A. 50 Brian Bilbray11 McNerney, Jerry 31 Becerra, Xavier 51 Filner, Bob12 Lantos, Tom 32 Solis, Hilda L. 52 Hunter, Duncan13 Stark, Fortney Pete 33 Watson, Diane E. 53 Davis, Susan A.14 Eshoo, Anna G. 34 Roybal-Allard, Lucille15 Honda, Michael M. 35 Waters, Maxine16 Lofgren, Zoe 36 Harman, Jane17 Farr, Sam 37 Millender-McDonald, Juanita18 Cardoza, Dennis A. 38 Napolitano, Grace F. 33 Democrats19 Radanovich, George 39 Sanchez, Linda T. 20 Republicans20 Costa, Jim 40 Royce, Edward R. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. United States SenatorsRepresenting CaliforniaDianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. California Judiciary California Supreme Court Chief Justice: $191,483 Six associate justices: $182,071 Six Appellate Court California State Districts 105 judges: $170,694 Courts of Appeal 58 Superior Courts (one in each county) Superior Courts 1,499 judges: $149,160From left Justice Carlos R. Moreno, Justice Kathryn M. Werdegar, Justice Joyce L. Kennard, Chief Justice Ronald M. George, Justice Marvin R. JusticeBaxter, Justice Ming W. Chin and Justice Carol A. Corrigan © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Exhibit 2-11 California’s Court System Source: Photo copyright © Rafael Maldonado, Pool/AP Images.© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Geographic Jurisdiction for theFederal Circuit Courts of Appeal (Additional federal courts: U.S. Court of Appeals for the ArmedForces, U.S. Court of Federal Claims, Federal Circuit, D.C. Circuit) 1 8 2 9 3 7 6 10 4 11 5 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. U.S. Federal District Courts in California Eastern District Northern (Redding, Sacramento, District Fresno) (Oakland, San Francisco, San Jose) Central District (Riverside, Los Angeles, Santa Ana) Southern District (San Diego) © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Mayors: California’s Largest Cities Los Angeles Antonio VillaraigosaSan Francisco Gavin Newsom San Diego Jerry Sanders Sacramento Heather Fargo San Jose Ron Gonzales Oakland Ron Dellums Fresno Alan Autry © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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