Chapter 11: Congress A More Perfect Union 1/e
Congress• The Origins of Congress  – Finding a Balance of Power• Congressional Elections  – Incumbency  – Reapportionment ...
Congress• The Powers of Congress  – Enumerated Powers    •   Judicial    •   Economic    •   National Security    •   Regu...
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   4
Congress• The Functions of Congress  – Models of Representation    •   Trustee    •   Instructed Delegate    •   Pork Barr...
Congress• The Functions of Congress                               (continued)  – Policy Making: A Central Responsibility  ...
Congress• The House and the Senate Compared  – The House    • Larger    • Shorter election cycle    • Narrow constituency ...
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   8
Congress• The Legislative Process  – Introducing a Bill  – The Bill in Committee    •   Agency Review    •   Hearings    •...
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   10
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   11
Congress• Congressional Leadership  – Leadership in the House of Representatives  – Leadership in the Senate          ©201...
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   13
Congress• Decision-Making in Congress:  The Legislative Context  –   Political Parties and Partisanship in Decision Making...
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   15
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   16
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   17
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   18
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.   19
Chapter FourLawmaking
Exhibit 4-1Legislation
Exhibit 4-2Standing Policy Committees of theCalifornia Senate  Agriculture                       Health  Banking, Finance,...
Exhibit 4-2Standing Policy Committees of theCalifornia Assembly Aging and Long-Term Care         Jobs, Economic Developmen...
Exhibit 4-3An InterestGroup:TheCaliforniaCorrectionalPeaceOfficersAssociation
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY      TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS   SUBTO...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY        TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS     S...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY      TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS        ...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY      TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS        ...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY       TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS     SU...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY        TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS   SUB...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY        TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS      ...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY        TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS     S...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY         TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS    S...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY           TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS   ...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY         TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS   SU...
California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY      TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS    SUBT...
Exhibit 4-5An Iron Triangle of Interest Group Relationships
Exhibit 4-6A Partial Issue Network for SB 19 (2001), Escutia,School Nutrition
Exhibit 4-7Lawmakingby theInitiativePetition
Exhibit 4-9Rulemaking
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Chapter 11 & 4

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Chapter 11 & 4

  1. 1. Chapter 11: Congress A More Perfect Union 1/e
  2. 2. Congress• The Origins of Congress – Finding a Balance of Power• Congressional Elections – Incumbency – Reapportionment and Redistricting ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3. Congress• The Powers of Congress – Enumerated Powers • Judicial • Economic • National Security • Regulatory • Administrative – Necessary and Proper ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
  5. 5. Congress• The Functions of Congress – Models of Representation • Trustee • Instructed Delegate • Pork Barrel and Earmarks • Casework ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
  6. 6. Congress• The Functions of Congress (continued) – Policy Making: A Central Responsibility – Oversight: A Check on the Executive Branch – Agenda Setting – Managing Societal Conflict ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
  7. 7. Congress• The House and the Senate Compared – The House • Larger • Shorter election cycle • Narrow constituency – The Senate • Smaller • Broad constituency • More deliberative ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
  8. 8. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
  9. 9. Congress• The Legislative Process – Introducing a Bill – The Bill in Committee • Agency Review • Hearings • Markup • Report – Debate on the House and Senate Floor – Presidential Action ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. 10. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
  11. 11. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
  12. 12. Congress• Congressional Leadership – Leadership in the House of Representatives – Leadership in the Senate ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
  13. 13. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13
  14. 14. Congress• Decision-Making in Congress: The Legislative Context – Political Parties and Partisanship in Decision Making – Colleagues and Staff: Trading Votes and Information – Interest Groups: Influence Through Organization – The President’s Effect on Decision Making – Constituents: The Last Word• The People and Their Representatives ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
  15. 15. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
  16. 16. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
  17. 17. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
  18. 18. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
  19. 19. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19
  20. 20. Chapter FourLawmaking
  21. 21. Exhibit 4-1Legislation
  22. 22. Exhibit 4-2Standing Policy Committees of theCalifornia Senate Agriculture Health Banking, Finance, and Insurance Human Services Budget and Fiscal Review Judiciary Business, Professions, and Labor and Industrial Relations Economic Development Local Government Education Natural Resources and Water Elections, Reapportionment, and Public Employment and Constitutional Amendments Retirement Energy, Utilities and Public Safety Communications Revenue and Taxation Environmental Quality Transportation and Housing Governmental Organization Veterans Affairs Government Modernization, Efficiency, and Accountability
  23. 23. Exhibit 4-2Standing Policy Committees of theCalifornia Assembly Aging and Long-Term Care Jobs, Economic Development, Agriculture and the Economy Budget Judiciary Business and Professions Labor and Employment Education Local Government Elections and Redistricting Natural Resources Environmental Safety and Toxic Public Employees, Retirement, Materials and Social Security Governmental Organization Public Safety Health Revenue and Taxation Higher Education Transportation Housing and Community Utilities and Commerce Development Water, Parks, and Wildlife Human Services Insurance
  24. 24. Exhibit 4-3An InterestGroup:TheCaliforniaCorrectionalPeaceOfficersAssociation
  25. 25. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALAGRICULTURE $6,100,000 CALIFORNIA FARM BUREAU FEDERATION $1,320,000EDUCATION $28,200,000 CALIFORNIA TEACHERS ASSOCIATION $5,340,000 CALIFORNIA SCHOOL BOARDS ASSOCIATION $1,720,000 ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS $1,340,000 Total = $413,591,000
  26. 26. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALENTERTAINMENT/RECREATION $7,890,000 MOTION PICTURE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, INC. $544,000 WALT DISNEY COMPANY $522,000FINANCE/INSURANCE $34,700,000 BLUE CROSS OF CALIFORNIA $2,610,000 CALIFORNIA BANKERS ASSOCIATION $2,250,000 ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA INSURANCE COMPANIES $1,480,000 CALIFORNIA CREDIT UNION LEAGUE $1,050,000
  27. 27. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALGOVERNMENT $69,700,000 CALIFORNIA STATE ASSOCIATION OF COUNTIES $2,560,000 LOS ANGELES, COUNTY OF $2,190,000 LEAGUE OF CALIFORNIA CITIES $2,100,000 SAN BERNARDINO, COUNTY OF $1,710,000 ALAMEDA, COUNTY OF $1,680,000 ORANGE, COUNTY OF $1,680,000 SAN DIEGO, COUNTY OF $1,520,000 LOS ANGELES, CITY OF $1,400,000 METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA $1,300,000 REDDING, CITY OF $1,200,000 ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA WATER AGENCIES $1,150,000 STATE BAR OF CALIFORNIA $1,110,000 SAN DIEGO, CITY OF $1,100,000 REGIONAL COUNCIL OF RURAL COUNTIES AND ITS JOINT POWERS AUTHORITY (RCRC) $1,080,000
  28. 28. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALHEALTH $46,400,000 CALIFORNIA HEALTHCARE ASSOCIATION, ET AL $2,560,000 KAISER FOUNDATION HEALTH PLAN, INC. $1,550,000 JOHNSON & JOHNSON SERVICES, INC. $1,280,000 ALLIANCE OF CATHOLIC HEALTH CARE $1,230,000 CALIFORNIA DENTAL ASSOCIATION AND ITS WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIARIES $1,130,000 BLUE SHIELD OF CALIFORNIA $1,110,000 CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF HEALTH PLANS $1,110,000
  29. 29. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALLABOR UNIONS $17,600,000 CALIFORNIA STATE COUNCIL OF SERVICE EMPLOYEES $3,310,000 CALIFORNIA STATE COUNCIL OF LABORERS $2,220,000 CALIFORNIA LABOR FEDERATION, AFL-CIO $1,970,000 CALIFORNIA PROFESSIONAL FIREFIGHTERS $1,020,000 CALIFORNIA FEDERATION OF TEACHERS $1,010,000
  30. 30. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALLEGAL $7,110,000 CONSUMER ATTORNEYS OF CALIFORNIA $3,050,000 CALIFORNIA APPLICANTS ATTORNEYS ASSOCIATION $1,250,000LODGING/RESTAURANTS $2,120,000 CALIFORNIA RESTAURANT ASSOCIATION $1,220,000
  31. 31. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALMANUFACTURING/INDUSTRIAL $41,700,000 ALLIANCE OF AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS $3,040,000 CALIFORNIA MANUFACTURERS & TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION $2,260,000 CALPINE CORPORATION $1,490,000 CALIFORNIA FORESTRY ASSOCIATION $1,120,000 PHILIP MORRIS USA, INC., BY ITS SERVICE COMPANY, ALTRIA CORPORATE SERVICES, INC. $1,070,000
  32. 32. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALMERCHANDISE/RETAIL $7,430,000 CALIFORNIA RETAILERS ASSOCIATION $1,430,000MISCELLANEOUS $51,800,000 CALIFORNIA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE $5,280,000 CALIFORNIA SCHOOL EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATION $2,830,000 NATIONAL FEDERATION OF INDEPENDENT BUSINESS $1,310,000 CALIFORNIA COUNCIL FOR ENVIRONMENTAL & ECONOMIC BALANCE $1,060,000 CALIFORNIA TRANSIT ASSOCIATION $1,050,000
  33. 33. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALOIL AND GAS $14,500,000 WESTERN STATES PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION $5,400,000 CHEVRON-TEXACO CORPORATION $2,540,000 BP AMERICA $2,240,000 SHELL OIL PRODUCTS U.S. $1,290,000POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS $931,000 CALIFORNIA NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR WOMEN $307,000
  34. 34. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALPROFESSIONAL/TRADE $24,900,000 CALIFORNIA BUILDING INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION $2,440,000 CALIFORNIA MEDICAL ASSOCIATION $2,430,000 CALIFORNIA CABLE & TELECOMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION $1,050,000PUBLIC EMPLOYEES $5,660,000 CALIFORNIA STATE EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATION (CSEA) $1,280,000
  35. 35. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALREAL ESTATE $11,500,000 CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS $1,730,000TRANSPORTATION $8,250,000 LOS ANGELES COUNTY METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY $704,000 CALIFORNIA ELECTRIC TRANSPORTATION COALITION $567,000
  36. 36. California Lobbying Activity:Exhibit 4-424-month 2003-2004 Legislative SessionCATEGORY TOP LOBBYIST EMPLOYERS SUBTOTAL TOTALUTILITIES $27,100,000 PACIFIC TELESIS GROUP SBC $5,370,000 EDISON INTERNATIONAL $3,860,000 AT&T $1,580,000 VERIZON COMMUNICATIONS, INC. $1,560,000 LOS ANGELES WATER AND POWER DEPARTMENT, CITY OF $1,110,000 CALIFORNIA WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION $1,090,000 $413,591,000
  37. 37. Exhibit 4-5An Iron Triangle of Interest Group Relationships
  38. 38. Exhibit 4-6A Partial Issue Network for SB 19 (2001), Escutia,School Nutrition
  39. 39. Exhibit 4-7Lawmakingby theInitiativePetition
  40. 40. Exhibit 4-9Rulemaking

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