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Conjunctions
 

Conjunctions

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    Conjunctions Conjunctions Presentation Transcript

    • CONJUNCTIONS therefore And not only although yet But accordingly for or neither thus
    • CONJUNCTION • Coordinating conjunctions • Correlative conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions • Conjunctions that introduce noun clause: that and if/ whether • Prepositions and subordinating conjunction that have the same meaning
    • COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Coordinating conjunctions: are used to join together two or more items which are equally important, e.g. two or more words, phrases, clauses, etc. and to join two items that are related in some way but to add something different or surprising or To indicate choices for To give reasons so To show results yet To introduce something surprising
    • COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Practice The new building is very modern and innovative. We worked extended hours, but we couldn’t complete the task. She wanted red or pink wallpaper. The room was hot, for the air conditioner was not working. All the employees are in the auditorium, so the offices are empty. The meeting started thirty minutes ago, yet some of the seats are still vacant.
    • CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS Correlative conjunctions: are pairs of conjunctions that work together to coordinate two balanced words, phrases, clauses. both A and B not A but B either A or B neither A or B not only A but also B A as well as B → Plural verbs → Verbs agree with B → Verbs agree with A
    • CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS Practice Both the color and the style matches (→match) our product’s concept. Not the computers but the Internet connection were (→was) malfunctioning. Either her colleagues or she are (→is) going to attend the seminar. Neither the employees or (→nor) the instructor were (→was) in the lecture hall Not only the files but also the disc were (→was) misplaced. The Hoover Dam is not only an interesting tourist spot but also an essential source of power for certain areas of the country.
    • SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS A. Conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of time As Before after as long as until when as soon as while The session will begin as soon as everyone is seated. Mr. Martino will take charge of this project while the manager is away.
    • SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS B. Conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of reason As because now that since Items 1 through 10 can’t be ordered because the products are out of stock. Mr. Martino will take charge of this project while the manager is away.
    • SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS C. Conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of condition if unless providing/ Provided that so long as in case If you want to take the chance to win a free MP3, just register online. We will move on to the next stage unless anyone has an objection to the decision.
    • SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS D. Conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of purpose So (that) / in order that Leave your number so (that) Ms. Shin can give you a call after the meeting. The travel agent changed my reservation in order that I could take a later flight.
    • SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS E. Conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of result So + adjective/ adverb + that = such + noun + that The package was so heavy that the deliveryman couldn’t pick it up = The package was such a heavy one that the deliveryman couldn’t pick it up.
    • SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS F. Conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of concession although / even though / though while Although some applications were submitted late, we decided to accept them all. Even though interest rates are low, people are refusing to borrow money from banks. While we understand you are in a hurry, you need to wait for your turn.
    • CONJUNCTIONS THAT INTRODUCE NOUN CLAUSE : THAT AND IF / WHETHER A. That + subject + verb - that clause as subjects That the earth is round is an established fact. subject - that clause as objects I believe that you study hard. object - that clause as complement One of the characteristics of leather is that it has a fibrous structure. complement
    • CONJUNCTIONS THAT INTRODUCE NOUN CLAUSE : THAT AND IF / WHETHER B. If/ whether + subject + verb If/ whether begins a noun clause in a sentence. If (→ whether) you have won the prize or not will be announced on our announced on our website by next Monday.
    • PREPOSITIONS AND SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS THAT HAVE THE SAME MEANINGS Subordinating conjunction + subjective verb Preposition + noun / noun phrase / pronoun Preposition + noun/ noun phrase / pronoun Subordinating conjunction + subject + verb because of = ought to because despite / in spite of although / even though during while except except that without unless in case of IF
    • PREPOSITIONS AND SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS THAT HAVE THE SAME MEANINGS Subordinating conjunction + subjective verb Preposition + noun / noun phrase / pronoun ►Despite the traffic, I arrived on time. = Although the traffic is bad, I arrived on time. ►The opening of the new factory outlet will be postponed because of construction delays. = The opening of the new factory outlet will be postponed because there are construction delays.
    • PREPOSITIONS AND SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS THAT HAVE THE SAME MEANINGS Subordinating conjunction + subjective verb Preposition + noun / noun phrase / pronoun ►we went to a lot of places during our vacation. = we went to a lot of places while we were on vacation. ►Guests of employees are not permitted to enter the offices without a security escort. = Guests of employees are not permitted to enter the offices unless they are escorted by a security guard.
    • CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS - Conjunctive adverbs are adverbs that join two clauses. - In this manner, they are like conjunctions. - When using a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses, you need a semicolon (;), not a comma (,)
    • CONJUNCTIONS ADVERBS A. Conjunctive adverb that show result Accordingly Therefore consequently thus hence The tickets were sold out; therefore, we had to watch the next show.
    • CONJUNCTIONS ADVERBS B. Conjunctive adverb that show addition Besides In addition furthermore moreover The party was over when I got there; besides, I didn’t even want to go.
    • CONJUNCTIONS ADVERBS C. Conjunctive adverb that show concession However nevertheless nonetheless The play was over when I got to the theater; however, I had the chance to meet the performers in person.