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The Human Brain

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This word document describes, explains and talks about every part of the brain, strange cases of "super memory" or surviving to horrible "brain accidents". …

This word document describes, explains and talks about every part of the brain, strange cases of "super memory" or surviving to horrible "brain accidents".
By Jorge Tabarés García

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

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  • 1. THE HUMAN BRAIN The human brain. The human brain is one of the most wonderful things in the entire world. In fact, I think the human brain IS the most wonderful thing in the entire universe. It’s perfect or nearly perfect. But the brain is not like the appendix, which you can live without it, or an arm, that you can live without it too. NO, the brain is your most fundamental organism in your body, Well I now that you can live without the heart, or the lungs, or any important organism more. BUT the brain controls your movements, your feelings, your thoughts, and a 90% more that scientists don’t know. Well this is only the begging, because you, YES YOU, you don’t know anything about your brain! And the brain is a part of you, and you should know your self better than anyone else, But don’t worry , because it’s not only you who doesn’t know anything about them selves, you, me, your parents or even your neighbours, every body in this planet!!! But now, let me explain you things that you don’t know about human brains: WHAT IS YOUR BRAIN AND HOW DOES IT WORK Your brain is like the control centre of your body. It has a lot of functions, with a lot of different works. But the fundamental one is: The Nervous System. The nervous system is made up of 100 billion nerve cells, That is about the number of trees in the Amazon rainforest. And each cell is connected to about 10,000 others. So the total number of connections is about 1,000 trillion. Amazing huh? Well if that is amazing to you, then you will die of the surprise when you read these: The number of thoughts you can have is greater to the number of atoms in the universe!!! And do you know why is these? Because if one nerve cell has 10,000 connections, that means that a thought has ten thousand paths to use in one nerve cell. So it’s like a combination game. For example: If you have four shapes and you want to make all of the possible combinations you will have to choose one and do as if you were a thought in a brain. Just choose a path were you will like to go and then come back to the one you were before and choose another path until the number of combinations is finished. For example: • m  i • m  • m  • m  • ... If the series continues, it will end up with 24 able combinations. So because there are so able combinations, the number of thoughts you can have is more than the number of atoms in the universe. Amazing huh? Well if this is amazing for you, just prepare to read this next section.
  • 2. PARTS OF THE BRAIN Your brain, as I said before, is the control centre of the body. He is always working. For example, while you are reading these, your brain is working. Everything you do, no mater if it’s jump, think, or anything else, Your brain takes part on it. But maybe, you have think what makes us so different to the animals. Well it’s easy, us, humans have the ability to think by our selves. To take our own decisions and plan or think before doing. But how can we plan, or how can move or read? Are there different parts in the brain with different jobs to do each one? Yes, and if you want to know them all, read them in the next section: • The Frontal Lobe: The frontal lobe lies under the forehead. It’s connected to the Brain Stem. The frontal lobe controls planning, reasoning, movements, and maybe, some parts of our speech. But the brain is separated in two parts: The left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. So that means that every part(except for the Brain Stem, the Cerebellum and the Corpus Callosum)is separated in two equal half’s. • The Parietal Lobe: The Partial Lobe is at the top of the head, and this part is the one that receives the information from the skin. That means that we don’t feel pain, cold, etc in our skin, we feel it in this part of the brain. So here, heat, cold, pressure, pain and the positions you make in life, are felled and controlled here. • The Temporal Lobe: The Temporal Lobes are at the sides of the brain, just above the ears. Here “speech perception”, hearing, and some kinds of memory are functioned. Here is the auditory centre, that is about the size of a poker chip. And the 90 percent of the right-handed people, with a 70 percent of the left-handed people, have language speaking centre at the left part of the Temporal Lobe. • The Occipital Lobe: The Occipital Lobe is at the back of the head, just above the Cerebellum. It controls and process information from the eyes. That means that if you got hit back here with something really hard, you could loose your eye vision and you could become blind. That’s why there are people that have the Occipital lobe damage and now they can’t see anything. • The Cerebellum: The Cerebellum lies between the Brain Stem and the Occipital lobe. This area controls posture, balance and co- ordination. While you do or learn a posture, the cerebellum is all time working. With out it you may could not walk or run. • The Brain Stem: The Brain Stem is the oldest and is too the most basic brain part. It is in the middle of all the lobes and above him
  • 3. lies the Corpus Callosum. The Brain Stem is the most important region of all the brain. It controls the survival functions, like breathing and your heart beat. It controls the sleeping, walking, digestion, the body temperature and body wastes. • The Corpus Callosum: The Corpus Callosum is a tiny little area in the brain just above the Brain Stem and between the two hemispheres. It’s a very important area because while the hemispheres are doing independently their own work, the Corpus Callosum sends messages from one to another so like that, the two hemispheres are co-ordinate between each other. As you can see, all of the parts of the brain are useful, and without one of them we couldn’t live. And if we did, we wouldn’t live as normal as we are now. But now lets talk about those things that sometimes are good, but sometimes are really bad... EMOTIONS Humans have emotions that are produced in the Brain Stem. But emotions can be good or bad, or really bad. The six basic emotions are: happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust and anger at some times. This six emotions and a lot more, are the “good” ones. But they can turn into extreme emotions if we don’t control them. As everyone knows, there can be people with an extreme knowledge. But there are two kinds of knowledge. The emotional one, and the intelligent one. If people are borne with a very high emotional knowledge, they can control better their emotions. But if people are borne with very little emotional knowledge, it will be difficult to control their emotions. They may loose their patient at lot of times, and instead of keeping their emotions to them selves and act wisely, they may loose control of them when ever their emotions start to be more intense. But emotions are not the same thing as feelings, no. A feeling is the reaction to when you touch something, and the emotions are what happen inside of you. For example: If you fall from a chair, the first thing you feel is your but hitting the floor, and that will be a feeling. But you have fall so quickly that you have scared from it, so before you start crying because of the pain(feeling) the scariness has blocked your mind for 1 or 2 seconds. This is why emotions can sometimes be dangerous. And in case of extreme scariness, this emotion can lead to the death of some people. But there are lot more dangerous emotions. For example, sadness can become depression, anger can become aggression and pleasure can lead to addiction. And as I said before, scariness can cause panic attacks. But don’t worry because in our lives these things don’t happen normally, but if I was you, I will prefer to control my own emotions. Emotions are not always bad, they let us react to situations. For example, anger will set your heart racing, and feeling happy will make you smile. But lets shut-up and please read this next and the most important section of all because
  • 4. it reveals you the secret of live, or at least how to live a lot more longer than other people. THE SECRET OF LIVE Many people know that if you don’t smoke you will live longer. Or a healthy diet can improve your health, but the main secret of live is to be revelled. There are theories that demonstrate that music is a very good source of live. Why? Well because the music acts on a part of your brain and relax it, and the more relax you are, the longer you will live. Experiments done demonstrate that if you hear at least 1 hour of music every day of your live, you will end up living more than 10 years longer. For example there was a man called Sinichi Suthuky who invented a method very different from the traditional one, that lets children from two or three years old, play whatever instrument. This man started learning the violin at the age of 18 or 20. And he lived until he was 99. But this guy (although he played the violin 4 hours a day) smoked more than a cigarette machine. So this demonstrates that music is an authentic source of live. But music is not the only way to live longer. Because if you are always happy, as if you were hearing music, you are more relaxed. And why do you live longer if you are always happy and in a good mood? Because if you are mad the neurons get altered and you start loosing them. A chemical that alters you and the way your brain is working is Dopamine. Dopamine is a chemical that affects your emotions by altering them. And each time you get really excited, the Dopamine starts to alter your emotions. But if you really want to memorize the secret of live, you better wake up that lazy memory. What? You steel don’t know what is memory, well you better read this next part because memory is one of the most important things in your brain! MEMORY As I have said before, memory is one of the most important things in your brain. Why? Well because without memory you couldn’t even recognize your mother! Your memory is your brain’s “store room”. It contains everything you have learnt. You can store an amazing amount of information. For example, when you were a child, you learnt around ten new words a day, and now you know 100,000 or more. Types Of Memory: • Short-Term Memory: The Short-Term memory stores every kind of information. Every thing that occurs, every second, every minute is stored in the Short-Term memory. The problem is that this memory only stores his information for 30 or 40 seconds. By
  • 5. that time, any information that you have memorize is eliminated or passed to a new type of memory: •Long-Term Memory: In the Long-Term memory things can be stored for longer time. But when you memorize something, it doesn’t go directly to this kind of memory. Because this memory stores the most important information. But the information can be stored here in two ways. One, the information stays but you loose more of it when years pass. Or two, the information is stored for ever. But this kind of information that is stored forever, is usually what you have learned time ago like riding a bike, read... Deja-vu: Deja-vu is a French word that stands for “already seen”. It’s the feeling that something has already happened when it has happened for the first time. Scientists do still not explain why this strange feeling occurs, but there exist several theories about this feeling. But Deja-vu is most common to occur in younger people when you are usually tired or stressed. But the real reason of what produces Deja.vu, is that the Corpus Callosum passes information to the other hemisphere twice. The first time directly, and the second time ten or fifteen seconds later. So you would sense that something had already happened. STRANGE CASES OF STRANGE PEOPLE This section of strange cases is a really good one because if you continue reading, you will notice that everything is possible. Why am I telling you this? Well continue reading and you will know. PHINEAS GAGE: In 1848, Phineas Gage of Vermont, USA, was at his work transporting dynamite to a train. Unfortunately, the dynamite blew up and an iron bar cross the whole Phineas Gage head. His friend rapidly take him to the hospital, at the hospital, the doctor said that he was still alive, but in a few hours he will die. They waited and waited and Phineas didn’t die. And Suddenly, a miracle. Although Phineas had a hole in his head that crossed it from top to bottom, he would live. But why didn’t Phineas died? Well because the iron bar destroyed a part of the brain that hadn’t have to do much with vital systems. The iron bar crossed the front part of the brain. The Frontal Lobe. But don’t think that nothing else happened to Phineas. He was all the time in a bad mood, and he had loosed nearly all of his emotions.
  • 6. And after this story about a man that survived to a dinamite explosion but instead he loose all of his emotions, we now pass to a different one, that is about memory. SOLOMON VENIAMINOFF Solomon Veniaminoff was a normal guy, like you and me, but he had one little detail that made him different from anyone else: He had the greatest memory in the whole world. Moscow, May 1928. Solomon Veniaminoff, was a normal man, but he coldn’t forget anything that had happened 50 years ago. Because of the problem. Solomon went to see one of the best psychologist: Alexander Luria. When he arrived to his office, Solomon told him his problem, and Alexander wrote in a piece of paper 60 numbers. All different. Solomon only read them once, and then he said them all of them out loud. He didn’t made any mistake in the numbers or the order that Alexander wrote. Alexander was amazed, he had never had a patient like that, He was so amazed that he studied Solomon’s brain and the possible things that happened to him. He told other neurologists and psychologists, and at the end, they came with an answer. Solomon’s “superpower” was considered a disease that was called synaesthesia. Alexander Luria was the one that discovered his decease. But if you want to have a better memory, Wilder Penfield of Canada in the 1990s found a painful way to improve your memory, that is by sticking electrodes into your brain. This gives you flashbacks from the past as if they were happening now. But if you want to see how much power the brain has, you better read this next part. THE PHENOMENAL POWER OF THE HUMAN BRAIN If you are still in dude about the power of the human brain just read out loud this text below: I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid! Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer inwaht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? Yaeh, and I awlyas thought slpeling was ipmorantt. Amazing huh? This is because as says in the text, the brain just not reads every single letter, he reads a word as a whole. But this is not as easy as it sounds, because the brain, when he reads a word, he first has to search for it in
  • 7. his memory and then understand it. And all this he does it in 0.5 seconds or less if you have more practice. And unfortunately this is all my friends. I hope you have liked all of this information and I hope all of this will help you any day of your live. BYE!