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1  Forensic Science Powerpoint Chapter 01 Here We Stand, What A
 

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    1  Forensic Science Powerpoint Chapter 01 Here We Stand, What A 1 Forensic Science Powerpoint Chapter 01 Here We Stand, What A Presentation Transcript

    • Forensic Science An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques Stuart H. James and Jon J. Nordby Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Chapter 1
      • Here We Stand:
      • What a Forensic Scientist does.
      • Chapter Author: Jon J. Nordby
      • Presentation created by Greg Galardi, Peru, Nebraska
      • Edited by Stuart H. James, Fort Lauderdale, Florida and
      • Dan Mabel, Richmond, Virginia
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Requirements of a Forensic Scientist
      • Ability to reason during times when human emotion may attempt to override rationality
      • Ability to be rational in applying tenets of forensic science to real life human situations
      • Ability to address life’s grimmest realities while maintaining human feelings
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Forensic Scientists
      • May recover human remains
      • Identify human remains
      • Document the cause of human death
      • Assist in criminal investigations through scientific analysis of evidence
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    •  
    •  
    • Forensic Scientists
      • Contribute scientific reliability in court, which may
        • Ensure the guilty receive punishment
        • Free innocent people
        • Provide a method to correlate a measurement of scientific reliability with a specific facet of forensic science
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Law and Forensic Science
      • Forensic scientists are independent finders of fact
      • Most operate under police jurisdiction or administration
      • Have a duty to strike a balance between duties of job and results of tests
      • Must be committed to ethical behavior
      • Must be able to distinguish reliable from unreliable scientific practice
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Law and Science
      • Forensic Scientists should
        • Use all relevant testing to discern truth
        • Define “scientific error” categorically, not personally
        • Be adaptable and advance the common good
        • Understand that courts often resolve applications of the legal issues surrounding forensic science
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Lawyers and Forensic Scientists
      • Both lawyers and forensic scientists have legal and moral obligations
      • Both focus on determining the truth or circumstances surrounding a crime
      • Law is outcome based, while science is justification based
      • Evidence and it’s admissibility play a critical role in determining truth
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Theoretical Natural Sciences and Practical Forensic Sciences
      • Forensic Scientists, unlike their counterparts, must become familiar with lawyers and the law
      • Forensic Scientists must combine scientific skills with a sworn duty to the public good
      • Forensic Science = Public Science
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Natural vs. Forensic Science
      • Natural Sciences
        • Theoretical
        • Pure Knowledge
        • Orderly
        • Pristine
        • Controlled
        • General
        • Covering Laws
        • Predictions
        • Certain
      • Forensic Science
        • Practical
        • Applied to problems
        • Disorderly
        • Contaminated
        • Chaotic
        • Specific
        • Approximations
        • Conjectures
        • Uncertain
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Theoretical Natural Sciences and Practical Forensic Sciences
      • Ceteris Paribus Laws
        • “ Other things being equal”
      • Scientists use the Scientific Method,
        • Provide identical method of inquiry
        • Focus on scientific reliability
        • Establish a series of steps of investigation
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Reliable Method of Inquiry: The Common Ground of Theoretical and Forensic Science
      • Reliable methods possess characteristics of:
        • Integrity
        • Competence
        • Defensible Technique
        • Relevant Experience
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Forensic Experts and their role
      • Scientists explain phenomena by starting with data surrounding an event or inquiry
      • Suggest explanatory connections to pursue and test
      • Distinguish data that are evidence from data that is coincidental
      • Share a fundamental approach in common with other scientists
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Role of the Forensic Expert
      • Expert witnesses can only be declared by a judge
      • Forensic Scientists remain a scientist first and are an expert secondary to that role
      • Give expert opinions within area of expertise
      • Used when facts are unclear in a case or
      • When clarification of procedures is needed or
      • When a jury needs assistance in making an educated decision
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Scientific Method
      • Features implementation of reliable methods
      • Distinguishes evidence from ambiguity
      • Allows ranking of alternative results by a principle basic to that science
      • Allows for certainty considerations based upon ranking of alternative results
      • Disallows hypotheses more extraordinary than facts themselves
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Scientific Method
      • Pursues general impressions to the specific level of detail
      • Pursues testing by breaking hypotheses (alternative explanations) into their smallest logical components, one part at a time
      • Allows tests either to prove or to disprove alternative explanations (hypotheses)
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Forensic Scientists
      • Reason from a given set of results (crime scene)
      • To probable explanation (link to perpetrator)
      • And explain these results to justify they are better than other alternative explanations
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
    • Forensic Scientists
      • Must attach some degree of certainty to their work
      • Should not omit larger issues which could lead to a false opinion
      • Leave out the precision of mathematics and probability theory
      • Must develop an intellect not too sure of what must remain uncertain, not too certain of what must remain sure.
      Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition