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Forensic Science An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques Stuart H. James and Jon J. Nordby Chapter 1 CR...
Chapter 1 <ul><li>Here We Stand:  </li></ul><ul><li>What a Forensic Scientist does. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter Author: Jon ...
Requirements of a Forensic Scientist <ul><li>Ability to reason during times when human emotion may attempt to override rat...
Forensic Scientists <ul><li>May recover human remains </li></ul><ul><li>Identify human remains </li></ul><ul><li>Document ...
 
 
Forensic Scientists <ul><li>Contribute scientific reliability in court, which may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure the guilty ...
Law and Forensic Science <ul><li>Forensic scientists are independent finders of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Most operate under ...
Law and Science <ul><li>Forensic Scientists should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use all relevant testing to discern truth </li></...
Lawyers and Forensic Scientists <ul><li>Both lawyers and forensic scientists have legal and moral obligations </li></ul><u...
Theoretical Natural Sciences and Practical Forensic Sciences <ul><li>Forensic Scientists, unlike their counterparts, must ...
Natural vs. Forensic Science <ul><li>Natural Sciences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure Kn...
Theoretical Natural Sciences and Practical Forensic Sciences <ul><li>Ceteris Paribus Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Other th...
Reliable Method of Inquiry: The Common Ground of Theoretical and Forensic Science <ul><li>Reliable methods possess charact...
Forensic Experts and their role <ul><li>Scientists explain phenomena by starting with data surrounding an event or inquiry...
Role of the Forensic Expert <ul><li>Expert witnesses can only be declared by a judge </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic Scientists...
Scientific Method <ul><li>Features implementation of reliable methods </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguishes evidence from ambigu...
Scientific Method <ul><li>Pursues general impressions to the specific level of detail </li></ul><ul><li>Pursues testing by...
Forensic Scientists <ul><li>Reason from a given set of results (crime scene) </li></ul><ul><li>To probable explanation (li...
Forensic Scientists <ul><li>Must attach some degree of certainty to their work </li></ul><ul><li>Should not omit larger is...
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  1. 1. Forensic Science An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques Stuart H. James and Jon J. Nordby Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 1 <ul><li>Here We Stand: </li></ul><ul><li>What a Forensic Scientist does. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter Author: Jon J. Nordby </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation created by Greg Galardi, Peru, Nebraska </li></ul><ul><li>Edited by Stuart H. James, Fort Lauderdale, Florida and </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Mabel, Richmond, Virginia </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  3. 3. Requirements of a Forensic Scientist <ul><li>Ability to reason during times when human emotion may attempt to override rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to be rational in applying tenets of forensic science to real life human situations </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to address life’s grimmest realities while maintaining human feelings </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  4. 4. Forensic Scientists <ul><li>May recover human remains </li></ul><ul><li>Identify human remains </li></ul><ul><li>Document the cause of human death </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in criminal investigations through scientific analysis of evidence </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  5. 7. Forensic Scientists <ul><li>Contribute scientific reliability in court, which may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure the guilty receive punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free innocent people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a method to correlate a measurement of scientific reliability with a specific facet of forensic science </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  6. 8. Law and Forensic Science <ul><li>Forensic scientists are independent finders of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Most operate under police jurisdiction or administration </li></ul><ul><li>Have a duty to strike a balance between duties of job and results of tests </li></ul><ul><li>Must be committed to ethical behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Must be able to distinguish reliable from unreliable scientific practice </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  7. 9. Law and Science <ul><li>Forensic Scientists should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use all relevant testing to discern truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define “scientific error” categorically, not personally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be adaptable and advance the common good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand that courts often resolve applications of the legal issues surrounding forensic science </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  8. 10. Lawyers and Forensic Scientists <ul><li>Both lawyers and forensic scientists have legal and moral obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Both focus on determining the truth or circumstances surrounding a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Law is outcome based, while science is justification based </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence and it’s admissibility play a critical role in determining truth </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  9. 11. Theoretical Natural Sciences and Practical Forensic Sciences <ul><li>Forensic Scientists, unlike their counterparts, must become familiar with lawyers and the law </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic Scientists must combine scientific skills with a sworn duty to the public good </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic Science = Public Science </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  10. 12. Natural vs. Forensic Science <ul><li>Natural Sciences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pristine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covering Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forensic Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied to problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contaminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertain </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  11. 13. Theoretical Natural Sciences and Practical Forensic Sciences <ul><li>Ceteris Paribus Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Other things being equal” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientists use the Scientific Method, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide identical method of inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on scientific reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a series of steps of investigation </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  12. 14. Reliable Method of Inquiry: The Common Ground of Theoretical and Forensic Science <ul><li>Reliable methods possess characteristics of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensible Technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant Experience </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  13. 15. Forensic Experts and their role <ul><li>Scientists explain phenomena by starting with data surrounding an event or inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest explanatory connections to pursue and test </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish data that are evidence from data that is coincidental </li></ul><ul><li>Share a fundamental approach in common with other scientists </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  14. 16. Role of the Forensic Expert <ul><li>Expert witnesses can only be declared by a judge </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic Scientists remain a scientist first and are an expert secondary to that role </li></ul><ul><li>Give expert opinions within area of expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Used when facts are unclear in a case or </li></ul><ul><li>When clarification of procedures is needed or </li></ul><ul><li>When a jury needs assistance in making an educated decision </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  15. 17. Scientific Method <ul><li>Features implementation of reliable methods </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguishes evidence from ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Allows ranking of alternative results by a principle basic to that science </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for certainty considerations based upon ranking of alternative results </li></ul><ul><li>Disallows hypotheses more extraordinary than facts themselves </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  16. 18. Scientific Method <ul><li>Pursues general impressions to the specific level of detail </li></ul><ul><li>Pursues testing by breaking hypotheses (alternative explanations) into their smallest logical components, one part at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Allows tests either to prove or to disprove alternative explanations (hypotheses) </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  17. 19. Forensic Scientists <ul><li>Reason from a given set of results (crime scene) </li></ul><ul><li>To probable explanation (link to perpetrator) </li></ul><ul><li>And explain these results to justify they are better than other alternative explanations </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  18. 20. Forensic Scientists <ul><li>Must attach some degree of certainty to their work </li></ul><ul><li>Should not omit larger issues which could lead to a false opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Leave out the precision of mathematics and probability theory </li></ul><ul><li>Must develop an intellect not too sure of what must remain uncertain, not too certain of what must remain sure. </li></ul>Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
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