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1 Forensic Science Powerpoint Chapter 01 Here We Stand, What A Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Forensic Science An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques Stuart H. James and Jon J. Nordby Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 2. Chapter 1
    • Here We Stand:
    • What a Forensic Scientist does.
    • Chapter Author: Jon J. Nordby
    • Presentation created by Greg Galardi, Peru, Nebraska
    • Edited by Stuart H. James, Fort Lauderdale, Florida and
    • Dan Mabel, Richmond, Virginia
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 3. Requirements of a Forensic Scientist
    • Ability to reason during times when human emotion may attempt to override rationality
    • Ability to be rational in applying tenets of forensic science to real life human situations
    • Ability to address life’s grimmest realities while maintaining human feelings
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 4. Forensic Scientists
    • May recover human remains
    • Identify human remains
    • Document the cause of human death
    • Assist in criminal investigations through scientific analysis of evidence
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. Forensic Scientists
    • Contribute scientific reliability in court, which may
      • Ensure the guilty receive punishment
      • Free innocent people
      • Provide a method to correlate a measurement of scientific reliability with a specific facet of forensic science
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 8. Law and Forensic Science
    • Forensic scientists are independent finders of fact
    • Most operate under police jurisdiction or administration
    • Have a duty to strike a balance between duties of job and results of tests
    • Must be committed to ethical behavior
    • Must be able to distinguish reliable from unreliable scientific practice
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 9. Law and Science
    • Forensic Scientists should
      • Use all relevant testing to discern truth
      • Define “scientific error” categorically, not personally
      • Be adaptable and advance the common good
      • Understand that courts often resolve applications of the legal issues surrounding forensic science
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 10. Lawyers and Forensic Scientists
    • Both lawyers and forensic scientists have legal and moral obligations
    • Both focus on determining the truth or circumstances surrounding a crime
    • Law is outcome based, while science is justification based
    • Evidence and it’s admissibility play a critical role in determining truth
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 11. Theoretical Natural Sciences and Practical Forensic Sciences
    • Forensic Scientists, unlike their counterparts, must become familiar with lawyers and the law
    • Forensic Scientists must combine scientific skills with a sworn duty to the public good
    • Forensic Science = Public Science
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 12. Natural vs. Forensic Science
    • Natural Sciences
      • Theoretical
      • Pure Knowledge
      • Orderly
      • Pristine
      • Controlled
      • General
      • Covering Laws
      • Predictions
      • Certain
    • Forensic Science
      • Practical
      • Applied to problems
      • Disorderly
      • Contaminated
      • Chaotic
      • Specific
      • Approximations
      • Conjectures
      • Uncertain
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 13. Theoretical Natural Sciences and Practical Forensic Sciences
    • Ceteris Paribus Laws
      • “ Other things being equal”
    • Scientists use the Scientific Method,
      • Provide identical method of inquiry
      • Focus on scientific reliability
      • Establish a series of steps of investigation
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 14. Reliable Method of Inquiry: The Common Ground of Theoretical and Forensic Science
    • Reliable methods possess characteristics of:
      • Integrity
      • Competence
      • Defensible Technique
      • Relevant Experience
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 15. Forensic Experts and their role
    • Scientists explain phenomena by starting with data surrounding an event or inquiry
    • Suggest explanatory connections to pursue and test
    • Distinguish data that are evidence from data that is coincidental
    • Share a fundamental approach in common with other scientists
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 16. Role of the Forensic Expert
    • Expert witnesses can only be declared by a judge
    • Forensic Scientists remain a scientist first and are an expert secondary to that role
    • Give expert opinions within area of expertise
    • Used when facts are unclear in a case or
    • When clarification of procedures is needed or
    • When a jury needs assistance in making an educated decision
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 17. Scientific Method
    • Features implementation of reliable methods
    • Distinguishes evidence from ambiguity
    • Allows ranking of alternative results by a principle basic to that science
    • Allows for certainty considerations based upon ranking of alternative results
    • Disallows hypotheses more extraordinary than facts themselves
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 18. Scientific Method
    • Pursues general impressions to the specific level of detail
    • Pursues testing by breaking hypotheses (alternative explanations) into their smallest logical components, one part at a time
    • Allows tests either to prove or to disprove alternative explanations (hypotheses)
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 19. Forensic Scientists
    • Reason from a given set of results (crime scene)
    • To probable explanation (link to perpetrator)
    • And explain these results to justify they are better than other alternative explanations
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  • 20. Forensic Scientists
    • Must attach some degree of certainty to their work
    • Should not omit larger issues which could lead to a false opinion
    • Leave out the precision of mathematics and probability theory
    • Must develop an intellect not too sure of what must remain uncertain, not too certain of what must remain sure.
    Chapter 1 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition