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Chemical tests and Nucleic acids                              Jorge Melo
   Monosaccharides   Disaccharides   Polysaccharides
   What name is given to the carbohydrate in which n    is     6     5     3   State 2 different functions of the car...
   This is a hydrolysis reaction.
   List different types of biological tests   Describe the basic structure of DNA   List DNA properties   Distinguish ...
   Chemical tests   DNA History   DNA properties   RNA   DNA polymerase
   Test to detect    proteins   A positive test will    show a purple ring   Peptide bond
   Test for reducing sugars   A positive for reducing    sugars is a brick-red    precipitate   Reducing sugars  Non r...
   Test for starch   A positive test for    amylose (starch) is a    blue-black colour
   Test for    lipids   Cloudy    white    emulsion is    formed   Ethanol    (alcohol)
   What is DNA after all??   Is it so Important?   And RNA?
   Early scientists thought protein was the cell’s    hereditary material because it was more complex    than DNA   Prot...
   Fred Griffith worked with virulent S    and nonvirulent R strain    Pneumoccocus bacteria   He found that R strain co...
copyright cmassengale   22
Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA (1952)   She was able to deduce that    the phosphate groups of    DNA must be pos...
Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from  Franklin’s X-ray (1953)They built the first DNA model using Franklin’s...
   Stands for:   Deoxyribonucleic acid   Made up of subunits called nucleotides   Nucleotide:       1. phosphate grou...
Phosphate  Group  O              5O=P-O            CH2  O                          O                                      ...
   Two strands coiled    called a double helix   Sides made of a    pentose sugar    Deoxyribose bonded to    phosphate ...
•DNA had specific pairingbetween the nitrogen bases:    ADENINE – THYMINE    CYTOSINE - GUANINE•DNA was made of 2 longstan...
“Rungs of ladder”NitrogenousBase (A,T,G or C) “Legs of ladder” Phosphate & Sugar Backbone
   One strand of    DNA goes from 5’    to 3’ (sugars)   The other strand    is opposite in    direction going 3’    to ...
5       O                           3        3                               OP                                           ...
   PURINES    1. Adenine (A)    2. Guanine (G)                           A or G   PYRIMIDINES    3. Thymine (T)    4. Cy...
   Adenine must pair with Thymine   Guanine must pair with Cytosine   Their amounts in a given DNA molecule will    be ...
H-bondsG             CT             A
   What is meant by:   complementary rule   Antiparallel   Chargaffs rule   What is the sequence of:   AGTCCAATGCTAG...
   Different    arrangements of    NUCLEOTIDES in a    nucleic acid (DNA)    provides the key to    DIVERSITY among    li...
   Stands for:   Ribonucleic acid   Polynucleotide   Usually single    stranded
   Made up of    nucleotides    containing the    base pairs    A, U, C, G
   Idea presented by Watson & Crick   The two strands of the parental molecule    separate, and each acts as a template ...
   Helicase   DNA polymerase
   Name given to some stretches of DNA and    RNA that encode for a peptide           Stands for:           Ribonucleic a...
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}
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Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}

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Objectives:
List different types of biological tests
Describe the basic structure of DNA
List DNA properties
Distinguish between RNA and DNA
Explain why DNA is so important

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  • 25,000 to 35,000 genes, which carry information that go toward determining your traits
  • Transcript of "Biological molecules (chemical tests and nucleic acids) proteins and Lipids recap AS Biology [JM}"

    1. 1. Chemical tests and Nucleic acids Jorge Melo
    2. 2.  Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
    3. 3.  What name is given to the carbohydrate in which n is  6  5  3 State 2 different functions of the carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates are combined to form disaccharides, what else is produced?
    4. 4.  This is a hydrolysis reaction.
    5. 5.  List different types of biological tests Describe the basic structure of DNA List DNA properties Distinguish between RNA and DNA Explain why DNA is so important
    6. 6.  Chemical tests DNA History DNA properties RNA DNA polymerase
    7. 7.  Test to detect proteins A positive test will show a purple ring Peptide bond
    8. 8.  Test for reducing sugars A positive for reducing sugars is a brick-red precipitate Reducing sugars Non reducing sugars(sucrose)
    9. 9.  Test for starch A positive test for amylose (starch) is a blue-black colour
    10. 10.  Test for lipids Cloudy white emulsion is formed Ethanol (alcohol)
    11. 11.  What is DNA after all?? Is it so Important? And RNA?
    12. 12.  Early scientists thought protein was the cell’s hereditary material because it was more complex than DNA Proteins were composed of 20 different amino acids in long polypeptide chains
    13. 13.  Fred Griffith worked with virulent S and nonvirulent R strain Pneumoccocus bacteria He found that R strain could become virulent when it took in DNA from heat-killed S strain Study suggested that DNA was probably the genetic material
    14. 14. copyright cmassengale 22
    15. 15. Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA (1952) She was able to deduce that the phosphate groups of DNA must be positioned on the outside of the molecule This work was of vital importance to the later discovery of the double helix.
    16. 16. Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from Franklin’s X-ray (1953)They built the first DNA model using Franklin’s X-rays
    17. 17.  Stands for: Deoxyribonucleic acid Made up of subunits called nucleotides Nucleotide:  1. phosphate group  2. 5-carbon sugar  3. Nitrogenous base
    18. 18. Phosphate Group O 5O=P-O CH2 O O N Nitrogenous base C4 C1 (A, G, C, or T) Sugar (deoxyribose) C3 C2
    19. 19.  Two strands coiled called a double helix Sides made of a pentose sugar Deoxyribose bonded to phosphate (PO4) groups by phosphodiester bonds Center made of nitrogen bases bonded together by weak hydrogen bonds
    20. 20. •DNA had specific pairingbetween the nitrogen bases: ADENINE – THYMINE CYTOSINE - GUANINE•DNA was made of 2 longstands of nucleotides arrangedin a specific way called the“Complementary Rule”
    21. 21. “Rungs of ladder”NitrogenousBase (A,T,G or C) “Legs of ladder” Phosphate & Sugar Backbone
    22. 22.  One strand of DNA goes from 5’ to 3’ (sugars) The other strand is opposite in direction going 3’ to 5’ (sugars) copyright cmassengale 30
    23. 23. 5 O 3 3 OP 5 P 5 O 1 G C 3 2 4 4 2 1 3 5 OP P 5 T A 3 O O 5P 3 P
    24. 24.  PURINES 1. Adenine (A) 2. Guanine (G) A or G PYRIMIDINES 3. Thymine (T) 4. Cytosine (C) T or C
    25. 25.  Adenine must pair with Thymine Guanine must pair with Cytosine Their amounts in a given DNA molecule will be about the same. T A G C
    26. 26. H-bondsG CT A
    27. 27.  What is meant by: complementary rule Antiparallel Chargaffs rule What is the sequence of: AGTCCAATGCTAGGCTAA
    28. 28.  Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms.
    29. 29.  Stands for: Ribonucleic acid Polynucleotide Usually single stranded
    30. 30.  Made up of nucleotides containing the base pairs A, U, C, G
    31. 31.  Idea presented by Watson & Crick The two strands of the parental molecule separate, and each acts as a template for a new complementary strand New DNA consists of 1 PARENTAL (original) and 1 NEW strand of DNA DNA Template Parental DNA New DNA
    32. 32.  Helicase DNA polymerase
    33. 33.  Name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that encode for a peptide Stands for: Ribonucleic acid
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