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A framework for context-aware adaptation in public displays


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A framework for context-aware adaptation in public displays

A framework for context-aware adaptation in public displays

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  • Hi, my name is Jorge Cardoso, I’m from the University of Minho and my presentation is about public displays and how they adapt to their environment.
  • One of the problems with current public displays is how to make them present relevant and interesting content automatically. This is not easy to solve because it depends essentially on people’s preferences and that depends on where people are right now and it changes over time.
  • This means that displays need to somehow adapt to the activity of a place, but the question is how can they sense activity in order to adapt to it?
  • Our approach is to use the concept of footprints to try to collect traces of user activity, interests and preferences. Footprints are interesting because they are just a very simple trace of people’s activity but they can tell us something about people. You can tell if who made the footprint is a man or a women, if he were wearing shoes or not... And, if you’re Sherlock Holmes, you can tell if the butler did it...
  • Some footprints provide not only physical traces but also very good indications of preferences and tastes.
  • Of course, not all footprints are good. We can’t learn from every footprint.
  • So, is there anything that resembles footprints for digital displays?
  • To answer that question we looked for traces that result from usual interactions with public displays. We analysed several display applications that provide different interactive features and identified those that produced traces, from the display’s perspective, that could be relevant for the display to be able to adapt itself.
  • The footprints we identified can be seen as generators of the display’s context. They provide a way to think about how the display can adapt itself in different ways and what interactive features are necessary in order to achive that adaptation. I’ll just show how some of these footprints may or have been used to provide displays with adaptation capabilities.
  • The most basic footprint that the display can collect is presence. We divide presence in 3 levels: detection, characterisation and identification. Detection is the simplest one, it just means that the display is able to determine that someone is around (but not how many people or who). This is usually done with proximity sensors or with computer vision techniques.
  • This is an example of the use of distance sensors to detect presence. In this display – the Range Whiteboard – these sensors were used to determine that someone was near the board and so would probably like to interact with it. The display would then change from a screensaver mode to an interactive mode.
  • Another level of presence is presence characterisation which is a richer presence detection where some additional characteristics of the audience can be detected: For example, gender, age whether a person is looking at the display or not, etc
  • Trumedia has a software that estimates the number of viewers, their gender and age and allow targeted advertisements to be displayed.
  • Another example is the Community Portals at MIT. This display would show slashdot news and infer interest in a story by detecting if the user stared at the display for long enough. In this case, this was only used to display a kind of rating next to each story that was essentially the faces of people that found that story interesting.
  • The last level of presence is identification. This means that the presence of a person can be detected in different occasions and the system knows it’s the same person. There are many options to identify users: from RFID to magnetic cards that have to be swiped or even by requesting users to login in a given website. Identification allows the display to know who is around and adapt to that person’s preferences, to avoid repeating content, etc
  • One example of a public display that uses identification to maximise the exposure of different adverts is the BluScreen dysplay system. BluScreen uses Bluetooth device detection as a proxy for a user and tries to avoid presenting the same content to the same user.
  • Another example of a public display that identifies users is the CoCollage. In this case, user identification could be done by swiping a loyalty card through a magnetic card reader or by opening the display’s webpage using a personal computer and clicking the “I’m here” button. CoCollage identifies users so that it can select content taking into account several factors such as who is present at the moment, when the content was submitted, whether it was already shown recently and how many votes it has.
  • Self-exposure means that the user is willing to tell the display something about himself by providing profile information. This is most often used in conjunction with presence identification so that the display can automatically adapt itself to the user profile. Profiles can be filled-in using a web-site, custom mobile applications that connect directly to the display or even using special commands in the bluetooth name of a device.
  • One example of a display system that uses this self-exposure footprint is the Proactive Displays. This display system was developed to facilitate social interaction in conferences and it required users to fill in a web profile that was used afterwards during the conferece to, for example, show personal interests of people near the coffee tables in an attempt to provide conversational opportunities.
  • Instant places is another example that allows users to specify a profile, in this case by entering a Flickr id in their Bluetooth device name. The display uses this to show a picture near to each current user’s representation (users can also specify search tags).
  • Content suggestion is another trace of user activity that the display can use. This just means that the user wants to submitt some content to the display so it can be implemented in a number of different ways.
  • Plasma Poster is a semi-public display that lets users submit content through email or through a web interface and it also lets people read, browse, forward and leave comments on individual items on the display. This example is not the best example of the content suggestion footprint because there is no real adaption. The display just shows the content that it has received using a fairly simple scheduling algorithm. However it is not hard to imagine a display that learns from the content the users have submitted, for example, some of the content in Plasma Posters are web pages and news items. It would not be hard for the display to use that content base to search for more similar content and display it.
  • Actionables are another category of digital footprint that includes Downloading an item Controlling the display or scheduling of items Rating an item, and Voting on a poll
  • Community Wall is just na example of a display that uses user ratings in their content scheduling algorithm. In this case, ratings are anonymous, so they are not used to estimate individual preferences but aggregate preferences.
  • To conclude, digital footprints can be regarded as a way to sense the context of a public display.
  • They serve as a framework to design displays that can sense people’s preferences by providing a mapping between interactive features and relevant information that the display can use to adapt itself to his social environment.
  • Thank you!
  • Transcript

    • 1. A Framework for Context-Aware Adaptation in Public Displays Jorge C. S. Cardoso [email_address] Rui José [email_address] DSI, Universidade do Minho, Guimarães
    • 2. Public displays
      • For public displays “the right information at the right time”, depends on place, i.e.,
      • people + location + time
    • 3. Public displays
      • ...displays need to be able to adapt to the (short and long term) activity of people nearby
      • how can displays sense this activity?
    • 4. Footprints
      • We can tell something about the person by looking at a footprint, e.g.,
      Barefeet / Shoes on Man / Woman
    • 5. Not all footprints are the same...
      • ...some, may give us interesting hints:
        • Modern, urban, fashion
        • Sports
    • 6. Not all footprints are the same...
      • ...other, don’t tell us much, or are misleading...
    • 7. Digital footprints for public displays
      • So, what footprints are there for public digital displays?
    • 8. Identifying digital footprints
      • Identified footprints that result from interacting with a public digital display.
      • Analysed display applications and types of interactive features supported
      • A footprint must contribute something to the display’s knowledge about it’s social environment
    • 9. Digital footprints
      • Footprints create the display’s (mostly social) context.
    • 10. Presence detection
      • Presence detection – The display detects the presence of nearby people but is only able to determine that someone is around
          • Can be achieved with
          • proximity sensors
          • basic computer vision techniques
          • Can be used by the display to
          • trigger eye-catching content
          • switch between ambient and interactive modes
    • 11. Presence detection - example Ju, W.; Lee, B. A. & Klemmer, S. R. Range: exploring implicit interaction through electronic whiteboard design CSCW '08: Proceedings of the ACM 2008 conference on Computer supported cooperative work, ACM, 2008 , 17-26 Range Whiteboard
    • 12. Presence characterisation
      • Presence characterisation – The display detects the presence of nearby people and is able to determine how many, estimate their gender and age what they are look at, etc
          • Can be achieved with
          • computer vision techniques
          • people counter sensors
          • Can be used by the display to
          • adjust content to audience type (male/female)
          • determine interest
    • 13. Presence characterisation - example TruMedia Technologies:
      • Trumedia Proactive Advertising
      • Estimates
      • Viewers
      • Gender
      • Age
      • Selects ads based on rules
    • 14. Presence characterisation - example Sawhney, N.; Wheeler, S. & Schmandt, C. Aware Community Portals: Shared Information Appliances for Transitional Spaces Personal Ubiquitous Computing, Springer-Verlag, 2001 , 5 , 66-70 Aware Community Portals Infers interest based on time looking at display Creates an implicit rating for Slashdot articles
    • 15. Presence identification
      • Presence identification – The display detects the presence of nearby people and is able to identify them (i.e., relate the presence of the same person on different ocasions)
          • Can be achieved with
          • RFID, Bluetooth, Magnetic cards, “manual logins”
          • Can be used by the display to
          • prevent repetition of content
          • combine other information and provide personalized content
    • 16. Presence identification - example Sharifi, M.; Payne, T. & David, E. Public Display Advertising Based on Bluetooth Device Presence Mobile Interaction with the Real World (MIRW 2006) in conjunction with the 8 th Intl Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, 2006 BluScreen Detects Bluetooth devices Selects an advert that most people have not yet seen
    • 17. Presence identification - example McCarthy, J. F.; Farnham, S. D.; Patel, Y.; Ahuja, S.; Norman, D.; Hazlewood, W. R. & Lind, J. Supporting community in third places with situated social software C&T '09: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on Communities and technologies, ACM, 2009 , 225-234 CoCollage Loyalty card or web page login to indicate presence Shows content items submitted from users and prefers items from present users
    • 18. Self-exposure
      • Self-exposure − User tells something about himself
          • Can be achieved with
          • web profiles
          • custom mobile applications
          • bluetooth naming
          • Can be used by the display to
          • adjust to individual preferences
    • 19. Self-exposure - example McDonald, D. W.; McCarthy, J. F.; Soroczak, S.; Nguyen, D. H. & Rashid, A. M. Proactive displays: Supporting awareness in fluid social environments ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., ACM, 2008 , 14 , 1-31
      • Proactive Displays
      • Combined with identification (RFID)
      • Users fill in a web profile
      • The displays react to user’s presence in different ways:
      • AutoSpeakerID: shows name and affiliation of person asking a question during the Q&A time
      • Ticket2talk: shows personal interests of people near the display in the “coffee break” area
      • NeighborhoodWindow: shows common keywords to the group near the display
    • 20. Self-exposure - example José, R.; Otero, N.; Izadi, S. & Harper, R. Instant Places: Using Bluetooth for Situated Interaction in Public Displays Pervasive Computing, IEEE, 2008 , 7 , 52-57 Instant Places Combined with identification (Bluetooth) Users use custom profile commands in Bluetooth device name
    • 21. Content suggestion
      • Content suggestion – User sugests content to display
          • Can be achieved with
          • email
          • OBEX
          • web
          • Can be used by the display to
          • display similar content
          • infer user interests
    • 22. Content suggestion - example Churchill, E. F.; Nelson, L.; Denoue, L.; Helfman, J. & Murphy, P. Sharing multimedia content with interactive public displays: a case study DIS '04: Proceedings of the 5th conference on Designing interactive systems, ACM, 2004 , 7-16 Plasma Poster Network
    • 23. Actionables
      • Actionables – User acts in response to display
        • Download – Dowloads an item
        • Control Content – Exerts control over the display of items (stop, display next, etc)
        • Rate – Rates an item
        • Vote – Votes on a poll
      • Can be used by the display to
      • indirectly determine user preferences
    • 24. Actionables - example Grasso, A.; Muehlenbrock, M.; Roulland, F. & Snowdon, D. O'Hara, K.; Perry, E.; Churchill, E. & Russel, D. M. (ed.) Supporting communities of practice with large screen displays Public and Situated Displays - Social and Interactional Aspects of Shared Display Technologies, Kluwer, 2003 , 261-282 Community Wall Users can rate items Rating is used in scheduling algorithm to determine which items to show
    • 25. Conclusion
        • So what?
        • The digital footprints set the (social) context for public display systems.
    • 26. Conclusion
        • This set of digital footprints can serve as a framework developing adaptable public display systems.
        • Provide a mapping between interactive features, relevant information for the display and adaptation strategies
        • Digital footprints provide a way for the display to infer and characterise its social environment
    • 27. Thank you! This presentation is also on (tag: cams09) A Framework for Context-Aware Adaptation in Public Displays Jorge C. S. Cardoso [email_address] Rui José [email_address]