Change mgmt april-2011
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webinar presented with ITMPI on change management strategies and theory. Change at the indiividual, team and organizational level

webinar presented with ITMPI on change management strategies and theory. Change at the indiividual, team and organizational level

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Change mgmt april-2011 Document Transcript

  • 1. 7/7/2011 Webinar: If You Build It, Will They Come? April 28th, 2011 12:30 PM EST 1ITMPI005 Jorge Luis Boria VP Liveware Inc. jorge.boria@liveware.com Michael Milutis Director of Marketing Computer Aid, Inc. (CAI) Michael_milutis@compaid.com 2 1
  • 2. 7/7/2011 About Presenter’s FirmLiveware is a leader among SEI partners, trusted by small,medium and large organizations around the world toincrease effectiveness and efficiency through improvingtheir quality. With its immense collective experience insoftware process improvement they can help theircustomers succeed. They partner with clients by focusingon their bottom line and short and long term businessgoals. With over 70 Introduction to CMMI classes deliveredand 40 SCAMPI appraisals performed, you will not findbetter consultants for your process improvement needs. 3 CAI Achieves IT Operational Excellence 4 2
  • 3. 7/7/2011 PDU CREDITS FOR THIS WEBINAR The Project Management Institute has accredited this webinar with PDUs 5 NOW AVAILABLE!ONLINE WEBINAR RECORDINGS ANYTIME ACCESS!WWW. ITMPI.ORG / LIBRARY 7 Day Free Access For All Recordings www.twitter.com/ ITMPI 6 3
  • 4. 7/7/2011 “It’s not the strongest species that survive, or the most intelligent, but the most responsive to change” Charles M. DarwinAgenda• Performance Improvement, ProcessImprovement, Change and Transitions:Concepts and Steps• Readiness for Change and AuthorizingSponsorship• Change Nature: Capability or Culture?• Getting There• Questions and (Hopefully) Answers 4
  • 5. 7/7/2011 Process Improvement? Process Improvement Process Improvement is not about writing new processes.It’s about making people change behavior! Ok, that’s easy! 5
  • 6. 7/7/2011Why Is Change Hard? Change is disruptive whether you see it as GOOD OR BAD Where does transition hurt?Change is Pervasive• Change is what happens when we are trying to keep things stable.• If we do not plan the direction of change, it will take its own direction.• Hoping for all people to understand the positives and negatives, make the decision to change and adopt the change in the right direction is delusional. 12 6
  • 7. 7/7/2011Goals are Difficult •70% of the efforts to perform “business reengineering” have failed1 •57% of the efforts to introduce CASE tools have failed2 •Common cause: they failed to consider the human factor 1 Hammer, M. The Wall Street Journal, November 26, 1996 2 Fichman, R. and Kemerer, C. F., “The Illusory Diffusion of Innovation: An Examination of Assimilation Gaps”, Information Systems Research, v. 10, n. 3, pp. 255-275, September 1999.Cast of Characters •Authorizing Sponsor –legitimizes change initiative, holds reinforcing sponsors accountable for change •Reinforcing Sponsor(s) –allocate resources, remove barriers, express, model and reinforce change •Champions –believe things can be different and act as advocates for the change •Change Agents –implement the change, keep everyone informed, surface and handle resistance •Participants (Process Users) –change their behavior, habits, emotions, way of doing things 7
  • 8. 7/7/2011 Idealized Change Model Capability Desired Improvement Goal PresentProductivity State Transition State Time Steps in Organizational Change 8 - Measure Business Value of the Improvement – Model applies for 7 - Implement the Capability many different types Improvement of change 6 - Equip Team with Skills and Plan the Improvement – Elements often 5 - Develop Enduring overlap in time, Sponsorship though shown here 4 - Define Desired State and Determine Strategy as sequential 3 – Assess Present – Work might start Capability and Culture mid-stream in the model, depending on 2 – Establish Sponsorship circumstances 1 - Assess Organizational Readiness 8
  • 9. 7/7/2011 Realistic Change Model Capability Desired Improvement Goal managed transition PresentProductivity State Transition unmanaged transition State Change Strategy Time 2 Establish Sponsorship 5 Develop Enduring Sponsorship 4 Define Desired 1 Assess State and Organizational Determine Strategy Readiness 8 Measure 6 Equip Team Business and Plan the Value of 3 Assess Improvement the Improvement Present Capability 7 Implement the and Culture Capability Improvement Desired State Present State Transition State Managing The Transition 9
  • 10. 7/7/2011Agenda• Performance Improvement, ProcessImprovement, Change and Transitions:Concepts and Steps• Readiness for Change and AuthorizingSponsorship• Change Nature: Capability or Culture?• Getting There• Questions and (Hopefully) AnswersThe 4 Variables1. Scope (what to change) – skills, processes, culture2. Culture (how to change) – do not sell opera tickets at NASCAR (and vice versa)3. Resistance (who to change) – identify and deal with change opponents4. Timing (when to change) – understand the different constituencies 20 10
  • 11. 7/7/2011 Is The Organization Ready? • The adrenaline must be perceptible. • Champions can be identified. • Upper management is either worried sick or licking its jaws. • If not: – Light many fires – Seek another customer 21 AlignmentUnifiedChaosTug of warFull-scale war Visions, values and behaviors of the organization need to be aligned with the change 11
  • 12. 7/7/2011 Change Roles in the Hierarchy CEO AS Authorizing Sponsor (AS) Champions (CH) Reinforcing Sponsor (RS) VP RS VP CH VP RSChange Agents (AS) Mgr RS Mgr CA Mgr RS Mgr CHParticipants (P) Spvr CA Spvr P CA P P P Unsuccessful Cascading Sponsorship CEO AS VP BLACK VP HOLE Mgr Mgr Mgr Mgr Spvr P Spvr P P P P P P P 12
  • 13. 7/7/2011Getting Started •Make sure the organization is aligned and the change is feasible •Think of the learning process for individuals, groups, and the organization as a whole – can the reward system be changed? •Identify the correct sponsor •Communicate, communicate, communicate •Respect mourning in individualsAgenda• Performance Improvement, ProcessImprovement, Change and Transitions:Concepts and Steps• Readiness for Change and AuthorizingSponsorship• Change Nature: Capability or Culture?• Getting There• Questions and (Hopefully) Answers 13
  • 14. 7/7/2011 Why CareCHANGE THE CULTURE steepestADD MANY CAPABILITIESADD A CAPABILITY steeper organization steep 27 and customers individuals teams What is Culture, Anyway? • culture is an attribute of the community of an organization • culture is conformed of collective values, believes, expectations and commitments • culture actually affects individual behavior at all levels • it is what makes people do what they do. 28 14
  • 15. 7/7/2011OCAI http://www.ocai-online.com/• Organizational culture assessment instrument – simple tool for diagnosing organizational culture – developed by professors Robert Quinn and Kim Cameron – statistically validated instrument – based on the Competing Values Framework 29Cultural Paradigms to decide flexibility CLAN ADHOCRACY adaptive innovative collaboration independence internal focus, external focus, integration differentiation HIERARCHY MARKET traditional competition hierarchy and productivity and control stability Cameron and Quinn 30 15
  • 16. 7/7/2011 Defining CharacteristicsParadigm Coordinat- System Priorities Decision ion regulation makinghierarchy traditional negative stability, formal, top- authority feedback, group; down by hierarchy deviation secured position attenuating continuityadhocracy innovative positive feedback, innovation, informal, independence deviation quickness; bottom-up, by initiative amplifying creativity individualclan adaptive combined achievement, negotiated, collaboration feedback, flexible growth, group consensual, by process responsiveness and individual group processmarket efficient shared vision, market share, unnegotiated competition best value profitability, predefined, reward proposition goal implied by achievement vision Changing the Culture • Leadership required (MUST HAVE!) John Kotter, What Leaders Really Do, 32 16
  • 17. 7/7/2011 Burman & Evans (2008) Target Zero: A Culture of safetyAre youa Leader? 33 Change Alignment with Corporate Culture Very Low Probability of Success Values Behaviors High Probability “Unwritten Rules” of Success Corporate CultureIn any organization the majority of thepeople are in the majoritythe majority of the time 17
  • 18. 7/7/2011 Agenda • Performance Improvement, Process Improvement, Change and Transitions: Concepts and Steps • Readiness for Change and Authorizing Sponsorship • Change Nature: Capability or Culture? • Getting There • Questions and (Hopefully) Answers Some Will Come The Chasm Early Early Late Innovators Adopters Majority Majority Laggards 2.5% 13.5% 34% 34% 16% TimeDeployment is accelerated by managing change 18
  • 19. 7/7/2011 Steps in Building 8) Internalization Commitment 7) Institutionalization Commitment 6) Adoption Phase 5) Installation commitment threshold Acceptance 4) Decision Phase 3) Understanding disposition threshold 2) Awareness Preparation Phase 1) Contact ignorance disbelief disappointmentSource: Conner & Patterson, 1982 confusion delay disuse Classifying Participants • Backers – Agree with the change, share the vision move quickly to adopt • Skeptics – Agree with the vision, do not trust the change, are reluctant to adopt • Opponents – Disagree with the notion of having to change at all 38 19
  • 20. 7/7/2011 How Backers Transition Checking Out! P E Hopeful S Informed Realism S Pessimism Informed I Optimism M I Uninformed Completion S Optimism M TIME Source: Adapted from Daryl Conner, Managing at the Speed of Change How Opponents Transition Anger and Rage Status Acceptance Quo Bargaining Denial Testing Stunned Paralysis DepressionSource: Adapted from Elizabeth Kubler Ross, On Death and Dyingand Daryl Conner in Managing at the Speed of Change 20
  • 21. 7/7/2011Resistance Happens 1 •Characteristics of participant resistance – can be passive • disinterested - it’ll pass, there will be another change along • stalling tactics, excuses - too much real work to do – can be active • confrontational • subversiveResistance Happens 2 Resistance cannot be ignored – you must manage it – understand concerns and issues – explain the change from participant point of view 21
  • 22. 7/7/2011Managing Opposition• Does not work • Works – cooperate – distract them • you lose time • throw them a bone – compromise – fire them • you lose goals • unless they break – ignore down • you lose allies – bring social pressure to quiet them down • only after you won• YOU LOSE! over the early majority 43Agenda• Performance Improvement, ProcessImprovement, Change and Transitions:Concepts and Steps• Readiness for Change and AuthorizingSponsorship• Change Nature: Capability or Culture?• Getting There• Questions and (Hopefully) Answers 22
  • 23. 7/7/2011 Managing the Transition •Changing behavior – providing skills – providing resources – aligning the reward system 8) InternalizationCommitment Phase 7) Institutionalization 6) Adoption Building Skills 5) Installation commitment threshold 4) DecisionAcceptance Phase 3) Understanding ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL disposition 2) Awareness threshold •Individual learningPreparation Phase 1) Contact •Presentation ignorance disbelief disappointment confusion delay disuse •Full scale stand-up training •On the job training (mentoring and Visionaries Pragmatists pilots) The Chasm How much is enough? Early Early Majority Late Laggards When? Innovators Adopters Majority 2.5% 13.5% 34% 34% 16% Time 23
  • 24. 7/7/2011 Dealing with Visionaries •Sell the vision •Raise awareness •Deal with resistance Early Innovators Adopters – listen to grievances 2.5% 13.5% – be prepared to adjust the vision – be prepared to learn from their experience •Plan a pilot •Train in skills •Procure resources to make the pilot successful Success does not cross the chasm, but failure does!Moore’s Crossing the Chasm MOORE’s CROSSING THE CHASM APPLICATION TO SOFTWARE PROCESS IMPROVEMENT choosing a target market identify potential teams for the pilots understanding the whole product understand both the good and bad concept parts of the change positioning the product sell the problem and structure support for the adoption building a marketing strategy plan the pilot for success choosing the most appropriate use classes, coaching, mentoring distribution channel and champions pricing lower the cost of adoption 24
  • 25. 7/7/2011 Wrong Ways to Attempt the Crossing •3-day training in the CMMI •Half a day training in the CMMI •Decreeing the processes a standard •Placing all your hopes on the reward system •“Selling” the benefits to the people •Trusting that the benefits will become evident with time and people will embrace change •Making the change mandatory under punishment of losing the job, on day one.Conquering the Early MajorityPerform training •just in time The Chasm •on the job •just enoughUntil Early Majority changes Early Early Late Innovators Adopters Majority Majority Laggards 2.5% 13.5% 34% 34% 16% Time 25
  • 26. 7/7/2011Summary• Change is not about the destination, is all about the trip• If you fail to plan, plan to fail• Consider at least three levels of transition management• Professional drivers in a closed circuit, do not attempt 51The 4 Variables1. Scope – skills, processes, culture2. Culture – do not sell opera tickets at NASCAR (and vice versa)3. Resistance – identify and deal with change opponents4. Timing – understand the different constituencies 52 26
  • 27. 7/7/2011Agenda• Performance Improvement, ProcessImprovement, Change and Transitions:Concepts and Steps• Readiness for Change and AuthorizingSponsorship• Change Nature: Capability or Culture?• Getting There• Questions and (Hopefully) Answers Questions? 54 27
  • 28. 7/7/2011CAI SponsorsThe IT Metrics & Productivity Institute: • Clearinghouse repository of best practices: WWW.ITMPI.ORG • Weekly educational newsletter: WWW.ITMPI.ORG / SUBSCRIBE • Weekly webinars hosted by industry leaders: WWW.ITMPI.ORG / WEBINARS • ACCESS WEBINAR RECORDINGS ANYTIME AT WWW.ITMPI.ORG / LIBRARY • Online Expert Training Through CAI University (CAIU): WWW.CAIU.COMPAID.COM • Follow us on TWITTER at WWW.TWITTER.COM / ITMPI 55 Software Best Practices Conferences Around the World Spring 2011 Fall 2011 Feb. 24 Ft. Lauderdale, FL Sept. 15 Austin, TX Mar. 3 Montgomery, AL Sept. 28 Newark, DE Mar. 9 Baltimore, MD Oct. 6 Chicago, IL Mar. 23 San Antonio, TX Oct. 11 Ft. Lauderdale, FL Apr. 6 Detroit, MI Oct. 19 Detroit, MI Apr. 14 Tampa, FL Oct. 27 Rochester, NY May 4 Albany, NY May 11 Toronto, ON Nov. 2 Toronto, ON May 18 Valley Forge, PA Nov. 16 Philadelphia, PA WWW.ITMPI.ORG / EVENTS 56 28
  • 29. 7/7/2011Jorge Luis Boria VP Liveware Inc. jorge.boria@liveware.com Michael Milutis Director of Marketing Computer Aid, Inc. (CAI)Michael_milutis@compaid.com 57 29