WHAT IS POLLUTION?
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a
natural environment that causes
instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the
ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.
CAUSES OF THE POLLUTION
i) Deforestation - For the establishment of factories, industries and due
to urbanization in various parts of the world, trees are cut on a large
scale without any adequate efforts to plant new trees. This leads to
deforestation, which has caused a rise in the pollution levels and
distortion of natural order.
ii) Polluted rivers - The wastewater and liquids from plants and factories
are linked with nearby river water, which are polluted when they release
disposal from these units. People in Developing/Undeveloped countries
also pollute rivers by using the water in these rivers for washing
clothes, utensils, bathing and other activities.
Oil spilled from ships pollute oceans around the world.
iii) Sound pollution - The machines used in factories make noise
throughout the day, and this disturbs the peaceful atmosphere in the
vicinity, as machines used without proper covering lead to sound
pollution. This puts heavy mental strain on the people staying in the
nearby areas. Noise is the most pervasive pollution in America.
iv) Air Pollution - Each year industrially developed countries generate billions of
tons of pollutants. Many pollutants come from directly identifiable sources;
sulphur dioxide, for example, comes from electric power plants burning coal or
oil. Others are formed through the action of sunlight on previously emitted
reactive materials (called precursors). For example, ozone, a dangerous
pollutant in smog, is produced by the interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen
oxides under the influence of sunlight. Ozone has also caused serious crop
damage. The increasing number of vehicles have also lead to an increase in Air
Pollution, due to the harmful gases like Carbon Monoxide emitted from these
vehicles. Gases generated in the Chemical plants also cause air pollution.
People suffer because of smoke and bad smell from the industrial units
particularly from chemical plants.
v) Soil pollution - Dumping of wastes in many areas is a major cause of Soil
Pollution. Also, when soil in and near production areas becomes dirty due to
disposal of waste material, such land cannot be used for agricultural operations.
Pollution is also caused by iron and steel mills; zinc, lead, and copper smelters;
municipal incinerators; oil refineries; cement plants; and nitric and sulphuric acid
TYPES OF POLLUTION
Air pollution is the introduction of
chemicals, particulate matter, or biological
materials that cause harm or discomfort to
humans or other living organisms, or cause
damage to the natural environment or built
environment, into the atmosphere.
Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing
human, animal or machine-created
environmental noise that disrupts the activity
or balance of human or animal life. The word
noise comes from the Latin word
nauseas, meaning seasickness.
Land pollution is the degradation of Earth's
land surfaces often caused by human
activities and their misuse of land resources.
Water pollution is the contamination of
water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and
groundwater). Water pollution occurs when
pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly
into water bodies without adequate treatment
to remove harmful compounds.