Artificial insemination in alpacas Jorge Reyna Alpaca Breeding Technologies
Why alpacas are becoming so popular worldwide? <ul><li>Fibre production </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to tolerate harsh climat...
Genetic improvement <ul><li>data collection  </li></ul><ul><li>statistical and prediction models  </li></ul><ul><li>select...
Why the genetic improvement is slow in alpacas? <ul><li>Males reach puberty from 1-3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Long gestatio...
Advantages of AI in alpacas I <ul><li>Widespread use of elite sires </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates progeny testing </li></u...
Advantages of AI in alpacas II <ul><li>Reduces risk of spreading sexually transmitted and other (lice, JD) diseases </li><...
Current limitations of the AI in alpacas   <ul><li>Need reliable technique to collect sperm. </li></ul><ul><li>Length of c...
Ejaculatory process in alpacas <ul><li>Copula takes up to 40 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Urethral contractions are distribu...
Semen collection techniques in alpacas <ul><li>Intravaginal condom (1952) </li></ul><ul><li>Electroejaculation (1968) </li...
Collection by Artificial Reproductive Tract (ART) 1. Prep. artificial vaginal 2. Fit into a mannequin   3. Mating process ...
Parameters of alpaca semen (5 males, 3 locations, 15 collections) <ul><li>Macroscopic evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>Volume...
Alpaca sperm appearance White creamy appearance with foam on top
Alpaca sperm viscosity Alpaca sperm is highly viscous, which makes it difficult to obtain a homogenous sample when it is m...
Alpaca sperm under the microscope
Concentration of sperm from farm animals (million/ml) <ul><li>Rooster 3000 - 7000 </li></ul><ul><li>Ram 2000 - 3000 </li><...
Sperm processing <ul><li>Extenders are required to protect semen against cold shock during freezing procedures. </li></ul>...
Cryopreservation <ul><li>An excellent extender has the following functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides nutrients as a sour...
Ovulation in alpacas
Lifespan of the dominant follicle
Preparation of the females for AI <ul><li>Induction of ovulation is required using a vasectomised males or with hormones l...
Artificial Insemination <ul><li>Intrauterine insemination:  Cervix is stabilised per rectum with the left hand and pipette...
Contact us <ul><li>Jorge Reyna </li></ul><ul><li>BSc (Hons), MScVetSc (Sydney Univ.) </li></ul><ul><li>2/122 Newington Rd,...
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Artificial Insemination in Alpacas

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Technical information about AI in alpacas

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Artificial Insemination in Alpacas

  1. 1. Artificial insemination in alpacas Jorge Reyna Alpaca Breeding Technologies
  2. 2. Why alpacas are becoming so popular worldwide? <ul><li>Fibre production </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to tolerate harsh climatic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Less erosive effect (fibro elastic pads) </li></ul><ul><li>Meat production </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Companion animals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Genetic improvement <ul><li>data collection </li></ul><ul><li>statistical and prediction models </li></ul><ul><li>selection </li></ul><ul><li>reproductive technologies (AI, ET, IVP) as a tool to disseminate the best genes in the population. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why the genetic improvement is slow in alpacas? <ul><li>Males reach puberty from 1-3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Long gestation length (11.5 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited number of offspring in females in the whole reproductive life (3-4 in Peru). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Advantages of AI in alpacas I <ul><li>Widespread use of elite sires </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates progeny testing </li></ul><ul><li>Improved performance of the national herd </li></ul><ul><li>Permits crossbreeding to change a production trait </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerates introduction of new genetics </li></ul>
  6. 6. Advantages of AI in alpacas II <ul><li>Reduces risk of spreading sexually transmitted and other (lice, JD) diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates the need of transport of animals, reducing the need for “mobile matings” </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a useful tool for investigating reproductive physiology </li></ul>
  7. 7. Current limitations of the AI in alpacas <ul><li>Need reliable technique to collect sperm. </li></ul><ul><li>Length of copulation 25.65 minutes (17 to 43) </li></ul><ul><li>The unique mucoid character of the sperm. </li></ul><ul><li>Low spermatozoa concentration and low motility in the ejaculate. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of use of the male. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of techniques to store sperm in chilled or frozen form. </li></ul><ul><li>The characteristic of induced ovulation in the female – timing of AI? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ejaculatory process in alpacas <ul><li>Copula takes up to 40 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Urethral contractions are distributed evenly during the ejaculatory process. </li></ul><ul><li>Ejaculation process is constantly (dribbling) </li></ul><ul><li>Seminal plasma is gelatinous and holds sperm until ovulation takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>> time of copulation > chance to find sperm on the ejaculate. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Semen collection techniques in alpacas <ul><li>Intravaginal condom (1952) </li></ul><ul><li>Electroejaculation (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Intravaginal sponge (1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial vagina (1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal aspiration (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial reproductive tract (2005) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Collection by Artificial Reproductive Tract (ART) 1. Prep. artificial vaginal 2. Fit into a mannequin 3. Mating process 4.Collection of ejaculate 5 . Assessments
  11. 11. Parameters of alpaca semen (5 males, 3 locations, 15 collections) <ul><li>Macroscopic evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>Volume 2.57 ml (1 to 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Colour (Milky white) </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency (Viscous, gelatinous) </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>Motility 56.67 % (10 to 70%) </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration 87.43 x 10 6 sperm/ml (4.8 - 220) </li></ul><ul><li>Live sperm (58 – 83 %) </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormalities (heads 3-13%, tails 9-15%) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Alpaca sperm appearance White creamy appearance with foam on top
  13. 13. Alpaca sperm viscosity Alpaca sperm is highly viscous, which makes it difficult to obtain a homogenous sample when it is mixed with extender for artificial insemination and/or freezing procedures
  14. 14. Alpaca sperm under the microscope
  15. 15. Concentration of sperm from farm animals (million/ml) <ul><li>Rooster 3000 - 7000 </li></ul><ul><li>Ram 2000 - 3000 </li></ul><ul><li>Bull 800 - 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Boar 200 - 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Stallion 150 - 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Cat 168 - 361 </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit 150 - 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Alpaca 48 - 124 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sperm processing <ul><li>Extenders are required to protect semen against cold shock during freezing procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>The first step is liquefaction of the semen to mix the extender with the sperm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation at 37C for 8 h. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolytic enzymes (Trypsin, Collagenase, Fibrinolysin, Hyaluronidase ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mechanical stirring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Cryopreservation <ul><li>An excellent extender has the following functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides nutrients as a source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Protects against the harmful effect of rapid cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures the pH will be maintained (buffer) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains osmotic pressure and electrolyte balance </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits bacterial growth </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the volume of semen </li></ul><ul><li>Protects sperm cells during freezing </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ovulation in alpacas
  19. 19. Lifespan of the dominant follicle
  20. 20. Preparation of the females for AI <ul><li>Induction of ovulation is required using a vasectomised males or with hormones like GnRH or hCG and inseminate at ????? hours later. </li></ul><ul><li>Another technique that is being used in Peru is seminal plasma (0.8 -1.0 ml) i.m achieving 60 % of pregnancies. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Artificial Insemination <ul><li>Intrauterine insemination: Cervix is stabilised per rectum with the left hand and pipette is introduced and semen deposited in both uterine horns. </li></ul><ul><li>Laparoscopic insemination: abdominal incisions are required and sedation. Semen is deposited in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the ovary containing an ovulatory-size follicle. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Contact us <ul><li>Jorge Reyna </li></ul><ul><li>BSc (Hons), MScVetSc (Sydney Univ.) </li></ul><ul><li>2/122 Newington Rd, Petersham, NSW 2049 Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: +61 2 9568 1370 </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile: +61 428 ALPACA </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail: [email_address] </li></ul>

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