The Principles of Adult Education Dr. Jorge E. Valdez Dean School of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Topics• Introduction • Adult learning characteristics.• Teaching Methods • The context of adult learning.• The basis of learning – Negotiated Education – Experiential learning• The nature of change in – Expertise development medicine – Expert Knowledge• The Teacher /Learner • Conclusions. interaction in Medicine • Putting principles into• The learning cycle practice.• The level of competence • Suggested readings.
What are the implications of adult learning for Ophthalmic Education?• All the ophthalmic education occurs in adult population.• Two major areas: – Ophthalmology Residency (short period) – Continues Medical Education (all professional life). – Other areas like medical students, nurses and ophthalmic personal.
Introduction• While most doctors regard teaching as an intrinsic part of their occupation, few have had the opportunity to study teaching techniques, much less the chance to reflect on such a ting as their teaching practice.
Teaching Methods• Historically, medicine has been taught rather didactically with prolongation of the teacher-centered learning process, common in primary and secondary levels of education throughout university and into the years of clinical practice.
The basis of learning• Such modes of teaching tend to be handed down from one generation to another.• Unfortunately in the long term, authoritarian teaching tends to lead to a state of dependency on the learner´s part and is not good model for professional development.
The nature of change in medicineNew-Innovative Traditional Curricula Continuum Medical Curricula Student-centered Teacher-centered Problem-based Information gathering Integrated Discipline-based Community-based Hospital based Elective Standard Systematic Apprenticeship-based
The learning cycle1. Unconscious Incompetence:The learner does not actuallyknow all the steps that have to becarried out, but paradoxically theymay feel quite capable of carryingout the procedure.
The learning cycle 2. Conscious Incompetence: trying to carry out the procedure of the specific technique themselves and realize it is perhaps not as easy as it appeared, they become consciously incompetent and, providing the motivation is high enough, try to learn all the steps involved.
The learning cycle 3. Conscious Competence: Once the learners understand and can carry out the various steps of a skill, they still have to think about the procedure, but given time, can carry it out satisfactory. With practice, they then enter the fourth stage.
The learning cycle 4. Unconscious Competence: after the third step is accomplished then with practice the learner enters this step wherein, having mastery of the technique, implying that they can carry out the procedure or the knowledge without consciously having to think about it (it becomes routine).
The level of competenceThere can be a considerablegap between doing somethingquickly and efficiently as amaster and the more laboriouspace the student has tomaintain during the learningprocess in order to get anywhere near an understandingor achievement of the samegoal.The state of knowledge is represented by point A. If no new learning occurs, there may besome increase in competence over time due to experience as suggested by the line A-B. Theprocess is routine, the learner is unconsciously competent. At point C, a new methodology orknowledge is introduced. A decision is made either to learn or to reject; in the latter case theline continues as before to point B.
Adult learning characteristics• The professionalization of medical teaching requires utilization of the basic principles of adult education in the particular context of medical practice.
Adult learning characteristics• Adult learning is purposeful.• Adults are voluntary participants in learning.• Adults need clear goals and objectives to be set.• Adults need feedback.• Adults need to be reflective.
The context of adult learning Negotiated Education• Once we begin to take the individual learner’s purpose seriously, and we begin to use experiential knowledge as a learning resource, the notion of providing a standard course for a homogeneous audience becomes problematic.• As individuals and as a group, learners will want to negotiate over the form and content of their educational experience in order to ensure the closets fit to their knowledge.
Experiential Learning Two ways of understanding orTwo ways of knowing transforming knowledge Tell me, and I will forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I will understand. - Confucius, 450 B.C.
Final Notes• Socialization. Adult learners often retain traditional views of teaching and learning derived from their experience as pupils and students.• Deference and dependency. Learner tend to be deferential towards and dependant upon “the expert” teacher. This may inhibit their learning.• Experiential learning. Whilst recognizing the relevance of their day to day experiences for themselves, learners may be reluctant to see this as part of real learning.
Final Notes• Individualized Learning. – Because of their professional, domestic and other commitments the effort which adults can expend on learning is variable and unpredictable.• Provision of feedback. - Adults require feedback on their effort so that they can maintain the process of reflection and self improvement.• The teacher role. A shift to the principles of adult learning may require just as much re-thinking on the part of the teacher as it does for the teacher.