IntroductionFor at least ten thousand years, the Nile Valley has been the site of one of themost influential civilizations in the world which developed as vast array ofdiverse structures which we refer to as Ancient Egyptian Architecture. Thearchitectural monuments, which include the Great Pyramid of Giza and theGreat Sphinx of Giza, are among the largest and famous.
Characteristics of EGYPTIAN Architecture:• Architecture - The style developed during the Pre- dynastic period remained unchanged for 2000 years• Crafts & Sculpture - Symbolic elements were widely used and strict laws were applied• Paintings - The pictures found in Egyptian tombs were connected with the idea of afterlife.Due to the scarcity of wood. the two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sun- baked mud brick and stone, mainly limestone, but also sandstone and granite in considerable quantities.
Characteristics of EGYPTIAN Architecture:From the Old Kingdom onward, stone was generally reserved fortombs and temples, while bricks were used even for royal palaces,fortresses, the walls of temple precincts and towns, and forsubsidiary buildings in temple complexes.
Climate ReligionEgypt has two seasons, Over many centuries, the ancientspring and summer. Theconditions of having no Egyptians developed a method ofsnow or frost, or even preserving bodies so they wouldrain had contributed tothe preservation of the remain lifelike. The processbuildings. included EMBALMING the bodies and wrapping them in strips of linen. Today we call this process mummification.
The Goddesses and Gods of Ancient EgyptThe ancient Egyptians believed in many different gods and goddesses.Each one with their own role to play in maintaining peace andharmony across the land.
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. It was built with such precision that our current technology cannot replicate it.• Ancient Egyptians believed in life after death , that is why preserving the body of the dead was important to keep their soul alive, enabling them to transcend into the heavens.• They make tombs to protect these preserved bodies.• Pyramids for Pharaohs represent a gigantic stairway for the Pharaoh to climb to join the sun god in the sky
Description: Pyr amid of Khufu Pyr amid of Khafr e Pyr amidof Menkaur e•This Ancient Egyptian necropolis consists of Pyramid of Khufu, the somewhatsmaller Pyramid of Khafre , and the relatively modest-sized Pyramid ofMenkaure, along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as “queens”pyramid, and the Great Sphinx.•The Great Pyramid, which was probably completed c. 2580 BC, is the oldest andlargest of the pyramids, and is the only surviving monument of the Seven Wonders ofthe World.•With few openings, the pyramids had complex mazes of tunnels and rooms all hiddenby the massive hunks of stone.
Inside the PyramidFrom an entrance just abovethe base of the Great Pyramid,a cramped Ascending Passageclimbs for 36 meters upthrough the solid stone core toa towering Grand Gallery. This climbs another 46 metersto reach the Kings Chamberand an empty sarcophagus inthe heart of this colossalpyramid.
Did you know that?A planetary alignment between theOrion belt and the pyramids of Gizatook place at December 3, 2012.
Did you know that?• The relationship between Pi (p) and Phi (F) is expressed in the fundamental proportions of the Great Pyramid. The key to this relationship is knowledge of the value of Pi and designing the angle of the pyramid to be exactly 51 degrees, 51 minutes, and 14.3 seconds.• The pyramid is estimated to have about 2,300,000 stone blocks weighing from 2-30 Tons each with some weighing as much as 70 tons• The Great Pyramid is located at the center of the land mass of the earth. The east/west parallel that crosses the most land and the north/south meridian that crosses the most land intersect in two places on the earth, one in the ocean and the other at the Great Pyramid.
Step Pyramid• Built during the 3rd dynasty, Zoser’s architect, Imhotep, added steps above Zoser’s mastaba to create a step pyramid -- a stairway to the heavens.• On either side of chamber are store rooms for king’s treasures.• All treasures buried w/ Zoser have been stolen.
The Sphinx of GizaCommonly referred to as the Sphinx, is a limestone statue ofa reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with alions body and a human head) that stands on the GizaPlateau. The original purpose of the Sphinx is unknown. Itmay have been built to symbolically guard over the Gizaplateau, and it may have been a portrait of Pharaoh Khafre.Its face seems to bear a resemblance to Khafres, and theroyal headdress that it wears is particular to pharaohs.
Egyptian Temples• Temples were found everywhere in ancient Egypt as a place to worship their endless pantheon of major and minor gods, and to worship their pharaoh as their god. Each city had a temple built for the god of that city, which acted as a cosmic center by which men had communication with the gods.• Not for public worshiping.• Only the Pharaohs as the priest, and the one he appointed as substitute, are allowed into the innermost chamber and perform the rituals inside.
Luxor TempleLuxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complexlocated on the east bank of the River Nile in the city todayknown as Luxor (ancient Thebes).The Temple of Luxor was built largely by Amenhotep III andRamesses II around 1400BC. Many rulers built on to thetemple yet it always remained a place of worship forChristians and later Muslims.
Temple of HorusThe well preserved Ptolemaic Temple of Horus is the second biggest temple in Egypt. Secondonly to the Temple of Karnak in sheer size, the temple was one of the last attempts by the Ptolemaic dynasty at building in the style andgrandeur of their predecessors. Construction on the site took about 200 years.
Other examples ofEgyptian TemplesKarnak Temple Temple of Hatshepsut
Hypostyle hallThe Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, locatedwithin the Karnak temple complex, in thePrecinct of Amon-Re, is one of the most visitedmonuments of Ancient Egypt.
SarcophagusIn Ancient Egypt, a sarcophagus formed theexternal layer of protection for a royal mummy,with several layers of coffins nested within, andwas often carved out of alabaster. All wereusually decorated with painted or carvedrepresentations of the deceased.This incredible solid gold coffin belongs to kingTutankhamen.
Other Architectural Character: Obelisk Reliefs Hieroglyphics
Did you know that?• Egyptians invented the 365 days calendar.• The Great Pyramid has always been a mysterious symbol. It has attracted the attention of a virtual directory of the orthodox as well as unconventional disciplines.• Ancient Egyptian writings often talk of beings from the sky, the sky opening and bright lights coming down to teach them technology and give them wisdom. Many pictures and symbols resemble UFOs and aliens.
Architecture of MesopotamiaThe architecture of Mesopotamia is the ancient architecture ofthe region of the Tigris–Euphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia), encompassing several distinct cultures and spanning a period from the 10th millennium BC, when the first permanent structures were built, to the 6th century BC.
Ziggurat of UrThe ziggurat was built by King Ur-Nammu who dedicated the great ziggurat of Ur in honour of Nanna/Sîn, in approximately the 21st century BC (short chronology) during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Like many ancient people, the ancient Sumerians believed that powerful gods lived in the sky. They built huge structures, called ziggurats, with steps climbing up to the top. .
Tower of Babel• Tower of Babel - (Genesis 11:1-11) a tower built by Noahs descendants (probably in Babylon) who intended it to reach up to heaven; God foiled them by confusing their language so they could no longer understand one another
Hanging Gardens of Babylon• legendary terraced gardens at Babylon, watered by pumps from the Euphrates, whose construction was ascribed to Nebuchadnezzar (circa 600 bc). They were one of the Seven Wonders of the World.• King Nebuchadnezzar II dedicated hanging gardens of Babylon to his precious and marvelous wife Amytis, of Media.
Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code, dating back to about 1772 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings ofsignificant length in the world. It is the most complete and perfect extant collection of Babylonian laws, developed during the reign of Hammurabi (1792–1750 BC). Itconsists of his legal decisions that were collected toward the end of his reign and inscribed on a diorite stela set up in Babylon’s temple of Marduk, the national god of Babylonia.