Chapter 5Learning A Report By: Group 1Jorene LeiMariane ChiongMark BalladaHamla Buencibello
Overview: Topics in this Report Definitions Classical What do we mean by conditioning “learning”? Operant Learning is the process of conditioning acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors. Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
The acquisition ofknowledgeor skills throughexperience, earningpractice, or study,or by being taught. RelativelyKnowledge permanentacquired in changethis way. in behavior due to experience
How does learning happen? We learn from We learn by experience: association:1. when we learn to 1. when two stimuli predict events we (events or sensations) already like or don’t tend to occur together like by noticing other or in sequence. events or sensations 2. when actions become that happen first. associated with2. when our actions have pleasant or aversive consequences. results.3. when we watch what 3. when two pieces of other people do. information are linked.
What is learning?• Behaviorist Perspective- A relatively permanent changein behavior that arises frompractice or experience• Cognitive Perspective- Mental change that mayor may not be associatedwith changes in behavior
Types of Learning Classical conditioning: Operantlearning to link two conditioning:stimuli in a way that changing behavior helps us anticipate choices in response an event to which to consequences we have a reaction
Associative Learning: Dr. Ivan Pavlov. A RussianClassicalanConditioningLearning to make involuntary (reflex) physiologist, was the first to study and writeresponse to a stimulus other than the original, about the basicnatural stimulus that normally produces the principles of classicalreflex. Example: Lightning conditioning. Stimulus: See lightning Response: Cover ears to avoid sound
Studying the digestive system in his dogs, Pavlov had built adevice that would accurately measure the amount of saliva produced by the dogs when they were fed• 1849-1936 a measured amount of food. Normally,• Russian physiologist when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands automatically• Discovered classical start releasing saliva. This is a normalconditioning REFLEX.• Reflexes, stimuli & responses A STIMULUS can be defined A Reflex is an The food as any object, event or unlearned, involuntary causes a experience that causes a response that bis nit particular response, the reaction of an under personal control reaction, the organism. or choice SALIVATION.
Pavlov and the Salivating DogsPavlov soon discovered that his dogs begansalivating when they werent supposed to besalivating. Switching his focus, Pavlov spent therest of his career studying on what he termedClassical Conditioning, learning to elicit aninvoluntary reflex response to a stimulus otherthan the original stimulus that produces reflex. Elements of Classical Conditioning: Unconditione Unconditioned d Response Stimulus (UCS). (UCR) Conditioned Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Response (CR)
The original naturally occurring stimulus. This is the stimulus that ordinarily leads toUNCONDITIONED the reflex response. In the case of Pavlov STIMULUS dogs, the food is the unconditioned stimulus. The reflex response to the unconditioned stimulus. It is unlearned and occursUNCONDITIONED because of genetic ‘wiring’ in the nervous RESPONSE system. In Pavlov’s experiment, the salivation to the food is the UCR. kind of Pavlov determined that almost any stimulus could become associated with CONDITIONED UCS. The sight of the food dish itself became a stimulus for salivation before the STIMULUS food was given. At this point, the dish was called NEUTRAL STIMULUS. CONDITIONED Comes as a response to the conditioned RESPONSE stimulus.
Putting it together: Pavlov’s canineClassic or tick tock tick tock Before conditioning takes place, the sound of the metronome does not cause salivation and is a neutral stimulus or NS. During conditioning, the sound of the metronome occurs just before the presentation of the food, the UCS. The food causes Salivation, the UCR. When conditioning has occurred after several pairings of the metronome with the food, the metronome will begin to elicit a salivation response from the dog without any food. This is learning, and the sound of the metronome is now a CS and the salivation to the bell is the CR.
Putting It Together NeutralConditioned Unconditioned Unconditioned Conditioned No StimulusStimulus Stimulus Response Response Response
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimation • Stimulus Discrimination• Stimulus Generalization The tendency to respond to stop making aThe tendency to respond to a generalized response to a stimulus that isstimulus that is only similar to the similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus isoriginal conditioned stimulus with never paired with the unconditionedthe condition response. stimulus.• For example: a person who reacts with anxiety to the sound of a dentist’s drill might react with some slight anxiety to a similar sounding machine such as an electric coffee grinder
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery • Spontaneous Recovery• Extinction The appearance of a learned response afterThe disappearance or weakening of a extinction has occurred. In Spontaneouslearned response following removal or Recovery the conditioned response canabsence of the unconditioned stimulus briefly appear when original CS returns(in classical conditioning) or the removal although the response is usually weak andof a reinforcer (in operant conditioning short lived.Example:People experience classicalconditioning in many ways.People who are allergic to catssometimes sneeze when theysee a picture of a cat. This graph shows the Acquisition, Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery of a conditioned salivary response.
Higher-Order Conditioning Higher order conditioning: Occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus. Conditioned Neutral Conditioned Conditioned No Stimulus Stimulus Response
Conditioned Emotional Responses:RATS! In 1920, 9-month-old Little Albert was not afraid of rats. John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner then clanged a steel bar every time a rat was presented to Albert. Albert acquired a fear of rats, and generalized this fear to other soft and furry things.
Before Little Albert ExperimentConditioning No fear NS: rat UCS: steel bar hit with hammer Natural reflex: fear
Little Albert Experiment UCS: steel bar hit NS: rat with hammer Natural reflex: fearDuringConditioning
Learning:Operant ConditioningThe kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant andunpleasant consequences responses.Example: Child associates his “response” (behavior) with consequences. Child learns to repeat behaviors (saying “please”) which were followed by desirable results (cookie). Child learns to avoid behaviors (yelling “gimme!”) which were followed by undesirable results (scolding or loss of dessert).
What’s in It for Me? Operant Conditioning • Operant conditioning – voluntary behavior learned through consequences • Thorndike’s Law of Effect – responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated – Thorndike’s puzzle boxIF a stimulus followed by Law of Effect Law of Effect Law stating that if an actiona behavior results in a Law stating that if an action is is followed by a pleasurablereward… followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend toTHEN the stimulus is more consequence, it will tend to be be repeated, and if followedlikely to give rise to the repeated, and if followed by an by an unpleasant unpleasant consequence, it willbehavior in the future. consequence, it will not be not be repeated. repeated.
B.F. Skinner: The Behaviorist’s Behaviorist • 1904-1990 Skinner box Studied observable, measurable behavior •The rat is learning to • operant – voluntary press the bar in the wall behavior of the cage in order to get • learning depends on consequences food . Recording Bar or lever device that an animal presses, randomly at first, later for rewardFood/water dispenserto provide the reward
Any event or stimulus thatwhen following a response, increases the einforcement probability that the response will occur again.
Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive: The reinforcement of response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus. Negative: The reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.