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Cloud/Green/Smart Computing  Campus Party
 

Cloud/Green/Smart Computing Campus Party

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Energy concerns have been developing now for several years, and the ICT domain cannot escape from this trend. In this presentation we will review two aspects of the links between energy and ICT.On the ...

Energy concerns have been developing now for several years, and the ICT domain cannot escape from this trend. In this presentation we will review two aspects of the links between energy and ICT.On the one hand, ICT itself uses a lot of electricity, and work has begun on reducing the consequent economic and ecological costs. On the other hand, ICT plays an important part in improving energy efficiency and reducing costs in the broad area.

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    Cloud/Green/Smart Computing  Campus Party Cloud/Green/Smart Computing Campus Party Presentation Transcript

    • Green ICT? Energy saving in ICT & ICT for Energy saving Jordi Torres – UPC / BSC www.JordiTorres.eu 1
    • we records our life … and posts it Campus Party Valencia 2008 Courtesy Campus-Party (http://www.flickr.com/photos/campusparty) 2
    • Capturing every step p g y p 3
    • We are posting everyting … p g y g … on the Internet Internet, 4
    • How much of your life is in the Internet (in to digital format)? 5
    • Digital Life g Gordon Bell is trying to put everything in his life into digital format MyLifeBits • consists of a "Sense Cam” • developed by Microsoft • takes pictures when it senses that the user may want a photo, sound recording equipment • and software that can help the user recall information using simple keywords. 6
    • Can we store all of our lives? How many bits are needed to store your life? average amount Mbytes 100 years size per day per day lifetime (TB) Email 50 KB 200 10 0,37 Office docs 100 KB 5 0,5 05 0,02 0 02 PDF & Tiff 2 MB 5 10 0,37 Web pag/Post 100 kB 200 20 0,73 Songs 4 MB 3 12 0,44 Photo 1MB 10 10 0,37 Video 200KB/sec 300 120 4,38 Phone capture 8KB/sec 1800 14,4 0,53 7 TB 7
    • Can we store all of our lives? How many bits are needed to store your life? average amount Mbytes 100 years size per day per day lifetime (TB) Email 50 KB 200 10 0,37 Office docs 100 KB 5 0,5 05 0,02 0 02 PDF & Tiff 2 MB 5 10 0,37 Web pag/Post 100 kB 200 20 0,73 Songs 4 MB 3 12 0,44 Photo 1MB 10 10 0,37 Video 200KB/sec 300 120 4,38 Phone capture 8KB/sec 1800 14,4 0,53 7 TB 8
    • Can we store all of our lives? How many bits are needed to store your life? average amount Mbytes 100 years size per day per day lifetime (TB) Email 50 KB 200 10 0,37 Office docs 100 KB 5 0,5 05 0,02 0 02 PDF & Tiff 2 MB 5 10 0,37 Web pag/Post 100 kB 200 20 0,73 Songs 4 MB 3 12 0,44 Photo 1MB 10 10 0,37 Video 200KB/sec 300 120 4,38 Phone capture 8KB/sec 1800 14,4 0,53 7 TB 9
    • Internet facts: Internet users: There are an estimated 1.8 billion Exabytes, Zettabytes? E ab tes Zettab tes? Activity? E.g: More than 20 hours of YouTube videos are uploaded every minute, 10
    • Where does all this information live? 11
    • Where does all this information live? Servers Servers 12
    • Where does all this information live? Microsoft+Amazon are Mi ft A estimated to operate over 50,000 servers 50 000 Google operates over 1,000,000 servers approximately 2% of the world’s servers. 13
    • Cloud Computing is here! p g Image courtesy of UPC Barcelona Tech 14
    • Cloud Computing: next generation of technology History repeats itself – The easiest analogy to explain “the cloud” it that of electricity Pay as you go model 15
    • What is behind the Cloud? Big Data Centers (CPDs) “… with more than 43 600 square meters of space, … consumes 48 megawatts …“ p , g Source: Tech Titans Building Boom By Randy H. Katz. IEEE Spectrum, February 2009 16
    • Does anyone know what this means? foto: Google 17
    • Does anyone know what this means? Districts of Barcelona, Les Corts coloured yellow. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Les_Corts,_Barcelona Source:http://www.bcn.es/bcnbarris/ca/barrixbarri_districte4.html 18
    • We use Facebook to keep up with friends 19
    • Facebook: April 2009 p Source: www.datacenterknowledge.com 20
    • Facebook: July 2010 y Now with more than 500 millions people Worldwide 21
    • World data centers electricity use y Source: Koomey, Jonathan. 2008. "Worldwide l t i it "W ld id electricity used i d t centers.“ d in data t “ Environmental Research Letters. vol. 3, no. 034008. 22
    • How much is 152B kWh? Source for country data in 2005: International Energy Agency, World Energy. Agency Energy Balances (2007 edition) (Koomey, Jonathan) 23
    • Energy collapse? gy p The risk of availability is becoming an increasing concern. concern Source:U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report to Congress 2007 24
    • Impact of the computing on to the environment: Foto: J.T. ICT industry, which includes the Internet, produces i d t hi h i l d th I t t d roughly 2 to 3 percent of global GHG emissions. Source: Climate Group’s Smart2020 report (www.smart2020.org)” 25
    • Solution: Green Computing p g use of computing resources efficiently use of e-documents, reducing travel and teleworking, … tools that others areas may use to reduce energy consumption minimizing environmental impact (eWaste) Etc…. 26
    • Green ICT? Energy saving in ICT & ICT for Energy saving Jordi Torres – UPC / BSC www.JordiTorres.eu 27
    • Reduce DC energy use is possible In spite of our historical progress, there’s still great potential for improving the energy efficiency of data centers Source: EPA report to Congress 2007 28
    • Energy spent in a DC gy p How is the energy spent in a Data Center? Data Center IT Resources Utilisation IT Load Processor 70% 30% 80% 20% 55% 55% 45% 45% 70% 30% 80% 20% 40% 40% 60% 60% Idle Used Power distribution and Power supply, memory, Workload Cooling fans, drives . . . 27 W data center x1.7 16 W equiv x3 5 W equiv x5 1 W equiv. used resource Idea: IBM and Dynamic Infrastructure, Doug Neilson, IBM Systems Group, 2009 29
    • Solution to the Challenge at the different levels Data Center IT Resources Utilisation 70% 30% 80% 20% 55% 55% 45% 45% 70% 30% 80% 20% 40% 40% 60% 60% Idle Used Power distribution and Power supply, memory, Workload Cooling fans, drives . . . Example: Consolidation 30
    • Consolidation Servers are underused: around 10 to 20 percent Consolidate into a single machine – Resource multiplexing if different p p g peak times C1 ement ement C2 rce rce Require Require Resour Resour Time Time C1 quirement C2 source Req Res Time 31
    • Virtualization Virtualization divides a physical server into isolated virtual environments, enabling organizations to run environments multiple applications or OS on a single server. App 1 App 2 App 3 Operating System Operating System Virtual Machine Virtual Machine App 1 App 2 App 3 ...... CPU Mem M CPU Mem M Operating System Physical Physical Machine CPU CPU CPU CPU Mem Machine CPU CPU CPU CPU Mem 32
    • Solution to the Challenge at the different levels Data Center IT Resources Utilisation 70% 30% 80% 20% 55% 55% 45% 45% 70% 30% 80% 20% 40% 40% 60% 60% Idle Used Power distribution and Power supply, memory, Workload Cooling fans, drives . . . Example: Hybrid Platforms 33
    • Use low-power p p processors … Atom vs Xeon? 34
    • Use low-power p p processors … Good approach for transactional workloads (webs) – E Experiments at BSC [1]: i t t [1] 35
    • Use low-power p p processors? However the numerical applications are not like that – Experiments at BSC with 4 HPC tasks[1]: • 1 Xeon * 1 hour 317 Watts • 2 Atom * 5 hours 398 Watts – The most energy-efficient approach in energy efficient this environment is running jobs very fast and then power the system off. 36
    • But in general the workload in data centers is heterogeneous If for HPC Xeons works more efficiently than Atoms And for Transactional Atoms works more efficiently than Xeons 37
    • Hybrid p y platforms Why not build the two together? " Courtesy of Prosciutto (Mataró-Sicilia)" 38
    • Better tradeoff in terms of energy and revenue Experiments at BSC with heterogeneous workload [1]: 39
    • Solution to the Challenge at the different levels Data Center IT Resources Utilisation 70% 30% 80% 20% 55% 55% 45% 45% 70% 30% 80% 20% 40% 40% 60% 60% Idle Used Power distribution and Power supply, memory, Workload Cooling fans, drives . . . Example: Marenostrum 40
    • Example: Best Practices to save energy at Marenostrum Foto: BSC Source: El reto operacional de dirigir el tercer supercomputador más grande de Europa. Sergi Girona, Director Operaciones BSC-CNS, 2009. 41
    • Marenostrum facts Peak Perf: 94.21 Teraflops 10,240 10 240 Power PC 970MP at 2 3 2.3 GHz (2560 JS21 blades) 20 TB of main memory 280 + 90 TB of disk storage Interconnection networks: – Myrinet and Gigabit Ethernet Linux: SuSe Distribution Space 160 square meters (524 square feet) About 26 tons of steel (19 glass). Power aprox. 1.071 kW 42
    • Improving Air Flow Management p g g Usual scenario: Isolate Hot and Cold Font: Luiz Andre Barroso, Urs Hoelzle, "The Datacenter as a Computer: An Introduction to the Design of Warehouse-Scale Machines", 2009. (Image courtesy of DLB associates , ref [23] of the book ) 43
    • Under-floor pressure p Problem measured: to much under floor under-floor pressure Test: Move some floor tiles Benefits observed: – Improvement of AC equipment performance – Improved the rack- bottom temperature Foto: BSC 44
    • Substituting Floor Tiles g Composite – 20% opening Metallic tile – 40% opening Benefits observed: – Less working pressure for the Cooling components – All bladecenters reduced 2º C – Cold barrier that prevent pre ent the refl of reflux hot air Foto: BSC 45
    • Temperature map p p Problem measured: not all the Racks t ll th R k have the same temperature Test: Force the air flow 46
    • Temperature map ( p p (cont.) ) Proposal: Methacrylate screens designed and installed in front of each rack of machines to guide the cold air flow directly to the computer, instead of each rack having to take cooling air from the general environment Benefits observed: – All BladeCenters Rack equal temperature +/- 1ºC – BladeCenter fan speed reduced Foto: BSC 47
    • Results (including other improvements): Power consumption: aprox. 1.2 Mwats aprox 1 100 000 €/ 1.100.000 €/year reduction of 10% of power consumption Images courtesy of UPC 48
    • Time for containers Provides excellent energy efficiency by offering more precise control of airflow within the container Examples: Microsoft and Google Source: Henry Daunert, ast-global 49
    • Next generation Data Centers? g Source: Tech Titans Building Boom , Randy H. Katz. IEEE Spectrum, February 2009 http://spectrum.ieee.org/green-tech/buildings/tech-titans-building-boom http://spectrum ieee org/green tech/buildings/tech titans building boom 50
    • 51
    • Energy: Location matters! gy 52
    • Be ready for new ways to power your DC Some hosting companies already power their facilities with wind power from an on site turbine on-site 53
    • new ways to power y y p your DC And Google!!! 54
    • ICTs are not all bad! ICT reduces emissions of other activites 2-3% 55
    • Green ICT? Energy saving in ICT & ICT for Energy saving Jordi Torres – UPC / BSC www.JordiTorres.eu 56
    • ICT reduces emissions of other activites ICT can significantly contribute to control and reduce the 98% of emissions caused by 2-3% other activities and industries. 57
    • ICT has already achieved the increase in business efficiency Source: (1) http://www.archives.gov/research/american-cities/images/american-cities-040.jpg (2) http://www.noticiasdealava.com/ediciones/2007/01/16/economia/alava/fotos/3014023.jpg ( )h // d l / d / / / / / l /f / 58
    • Do you have these at home? y 59
    • Or … Do you read newspapers from the newsagents? 60
    • ICT reduces waste of resources – Enable dematerialization –… 61
    • ICT reduces waste of resources 62
    • ICT reduces waste of resources Reduce the need to travel Courtesy: Dani Urgell – CISCO y g 63
    • Sustainable EU Growth ICT will play a key role in the sustainable grown “ICT offers a significant toolset to build a sustainable future for the next generation of Europeans. To meet its ambitious climate change goals, the EU strongly endorses new technologies capable of improving energy efficiency and making transport systems, buildings, buildings and cities in general smarter ” smarter. Viviane Reding, European Commission, 2010. E C i i 2010 64
    • Green and Sustainable EU Growth Traffic jams cost Europe €135 billion a year, and drivers lose five days per year while sitting in traffic. 65
    • Green and Sustainable EU Growth Solution? 66
    • Green and Sustainable EU Growth Smart Transport Systems – M ki roads and cars “ Making d d “smarter” t ” with intelligent transport systems (ITS) such as • sensor networks, • RF tags, • positioning systems • … – The Internet can interconnect diverse technologies and make mobility more efficient through the real-time management of public g and private transport resources. Foto: David Carrera 67
    • Green and Sustainable EU Growth Smart Energy Grids – T d Today, up t 40 percent of to t f the energy produced might be lost on its way to the consumer, – but Internet connectivity, connectivity Foto: J T J.T. computing power, digital sensors, and remote control of the transmission t l f th t i i and distribution system will help make grids smarter, greener, and more efficient. Foto: SMART 2020 Report 68
    • Future sustainability thanks to smart ICTs smart ICTs? 69
    • The future is digital g world is becoming instrumented Sensors are being embedded across entire ecosystems Mobile h M bil phones, cameras, cars, shipping containers, intelligent appliances, RFID tags by the hundreds of millions All becoming interconnected. 70
    • The role of ICTs The resulting volume of ICTs traditional role data promises insight and intelligence to solve some of our biggest problems New role of ICTs but l b t only if we can process and make sense of it in real time. 71
    • Sustainable planet p A more sustainable planet starts with smarter ICT 72
    • Pero … ¡faltan ingenieros e ingenieras! 73
    • Green and Sustainable EU Growth This f t Thi future will be achieved ill b hi d by the work of dozens of competent engineers! Like you! Europe needs you! EUROPE 74
    • About the author Jordi Torres has a Master degree in Computer Science from the UPC. Technical University of Catalonia (UPC, 1988) and also holds a Ph. D. from the same institution ) (Best UPC Computer Science Thesis Award, 1993). Currently he is a full professor in the Computer Architecture Department at UPC and is a manager for the Autonomic Systems and eBusiness Platforms research line in Barcelona S li i B l Supercomputing C t (BSC) ti Center (BSC). His current principal interest as a researcher is making IT resources more efficient to obtain more sustainable IT Campus Nord UPC Barcelona Tech (Green Computing), and focuses on the resource management needs of modern distributed and parallel g p cloud computing environments. He has worked in a number of EU and industrial research and development projects. He has more than a hundred publications in the area and was involved in several conferences in the field. Currently h i a member of th M C tl he is b f the Management C t Committee itt of the EU COST action in Green Computing and a member of the Steering Committee IEEE -TCSC Technical Area of Green Computing. . He has been Vice-dean of Institutional Relations at the Vice dean Computer Science School, and currently he is a member of the University Senate and member of the Board of Governors. He can be reached at www.JordiTorres.org e ca eac ed Jo d o es o g 75